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Prof Dato’ Abd Radzak Abd Malek FCILT
President of The Chartered Institute of Logistics an...
apply universally to all ships (UN, 2013). Statement from Euro bank and United Nation show that the
crucial elementof disc...
maritimefinance,brokerage,law,insurance, salvage,policyetc.onthe otherhand,MET’sconceptexpand
bigger in developing compete...
Administration,PortManagement,ShippingAgency, Maritime Security, Freight-forwarding, Insurance,
etc.Figure 1 depictsrole o...
Table 2: World Fleet by Number and Types
(Source:Equasis, 2013) (1) GT <500 , (2) 500≤GT<25000, (3) 25000≤GT<60000, (4) GT...
2.1 ClassificationofOffshore Education and Training
The offshore programme,inwhichinvolve technical skill andtheoretical n...
Diploma/Degree Program should be designed to provide a broad range of knowledge and skills in the
area of Information Tech...
Table 4: Career in Maritime Industry
Career in Maritime Industry
1. . Maritime Lecturers
2. . FreightForwarders
3. . Shipp...
1. .Maritime Securityand
2. .Maritime Law
3. .Maritime Insurance
4. .Maritime Management
5. .FreightForwarding
6. ....
3. The issuesand challengesinMaritime Education and Training
Maritime industry well known is a big industry and is facing ...
4. Conclusions
Maritime education and training is an important agent in ensuring the growth and sustainability of
Smith K., Clegg S., Lawrence E., Todd M.J. (2007). The challenges of reflection: students learning from
work placements, I...
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Maritime Education and Training

  1. 1. MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING Prof Dato’ Abd Radzak Abd Malek FCILT President of The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport Malaysia radzakmalek@gmail.com Dr Kasypi Mokhtar CMILT Assistant Treasure of Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport Malaysia School of Maritime Business and Transport Universiti Malaysia Terengganu kasypi@umt.edu.my Abstract Maritime relatedisa unique industry, complement and catalyst to all sectors for nation development. Maritime education is a specific yet critical in providing skill and competence human resources to the related industry. In addition, lifelong learning skill through training is a must in this industry as the adaption of technology is robust even the cost is extremely high. Globally, most countries provide maritime education and training (MET) in ensuring dependency of skill human resources either from government or private institutions. This paper aims of critically discuss the importance and its significance of METfor a nation.Evenit iscritical yetsome nationsare in dilemma in providing skill and competence humanresourcesaslackof interest from its people. Therefore, it is an urgent attentionto attract young and dynamic people to embark in maritime education to become pillar of career. In one hand,there is new approach in attracting new people into this field. In another hand, industry players should come to the ground in providing hands on and latest information about this industry. Keywords: Maritime, education, training, skill, competence, human resource 1. Introduction Globally, maritimeindustry providessignificantimpact forthe global economic activity as 80% of global merchandise trade by volume is transported by sea (Prandeka and Zarkos, 2014).In addition, international shipping plays a vital role in connecting global trade and facilitates world trade in most cost-effective and energy-efficient mode of transport. The impacts are both for developed and developingcountries ontrade anddevelopment.The trade merchandisesare relativelysignificanttothe developing countries to prosper and ensure a sustainable future for their people. Further interest, international shipping offers significant employment opportunities in the industry itself, but also in ancillaryservice industries such as ship building and ports services. Shipping is probably also the most international of all the world’smajorindustriesandits global character requires global regulations that
  2. 2. apply universally to all ships (UN, 2013). Statement from Euro bank and United Nation show that the crucial elementof discussingmaritimeindustryaspillarof economicdevelopmentof a nation cannot be denied. In 2013, IMO Secretary-General Mr. Koji Sekimizu highlighted eight pillars around which sustainable maritime development goals can be set; safety culture and environmental stewardship; energy efficiency; new technology and innovation; maritime education and training; maritime security and anti-piracy actions; maritime traffic management; maritime infrastructure development; and global standards. As one of the pillar, the backbone of maritime industry is Maritime Education and Training (MET) as its supplycompetent and knowledgeable manpower to the industry.Maritime Education and Training (MET) is a unique subject to discuss from both academically and practically. There are two perspective of METnormallybeingdiscussed, METfocusesonoffshore oronshore.The dilemma of MET isboth requiredcostandexpertise in handling the subject. The paper aims focus on the importance of MET to maritime industry in ensuring its growth and sustainability. 2. MET Definition Conventionally, Maritime Education and Training (MET) is defined as an educational system which aimed to provide seafarers for merchant vessels.Latest perspective, when the development of shippingindustry significantlycontributesglobally,anew outlook toredefine the conceptof MET from a broader perspective is needed. Modern scenario, the scope of MET are broader such as maritime finance,maritime security,andrare maritime disciplines in shipping marketslike maritime archaeology (Dong, 2014). The first formal school of MET was established by Infante Henry in 1419 for seafarers. From that, MET were gradually developed and provided enormous talents for shipping industry (Wikipedia,2015). Dong (2005) highlighted in the beginning, the function of MET is to train ratings and officersfornaval andmerchantships.Moreover,increasingdemandfromshippingindustryhas required the development of high quality of maritime manpower at all levels. To achieve this, theoretical and practical rolesare neededin maritimerelatedindustry.Therefore,MET hasto provide notonlyqualified seafarersaswell asgood theoretical foundationsuchasmaritime research, engineering, management, operation, policy and law etc. On the one hand, as demand in shipping market increase to become huge industry, the concepts are nolonger limited to logistics, transportation and management, butcovers broader scopes including
  3. 3. maritimefinance,brokerage,law,insurance, salvage,policyetc.onthe otherhand,MET’sconceptexpand bigger in developing competent manpower and soft skill to ship building and maintaining, ship operation, maritime management and services (includingmaritime finance, maritime brokerage, maritime law, maritime insurance, etc), as well asmaritime teachingandresearching, etc. In reality, demandinMET superseded supply (especiallyforoffshore), table 1 depicts globally supply demand (in thiscase forseafarer).It’sportrayedthatimbalance inthissectorquite critical whentalkingintoaccount shipping fleet assets. Table 1: Global Supply-Demand Estimates Seafarers 2005 2010 Officers Ratings Officers Ratings Supply 466,000 721,000 624,000 747,000 Demand 476,000 586,000 637,000 747,000 Balance -10,000 +135,000 -13,000 0 Source: BIMCO in 2005 and 2010 (Baylon and Santos, 2011) 2. The Importance of Maritime Education and Training Nowadays, educationisanecessityagenda eitherformal orinformal.Government are really concerned on formal education by providing adequate infrastructures, facilities, manpower, etc. Thosein professionalsneedtokeepthemselvesupdated forlatestinformation. In shipping related industry, the scenarioiscriticallyneededasitinvolvesbillionof assetsrequire tohandle. And,thismustbe handle by qualified andcompetentmanpower. SecretaryGeneral EthimiosEMitropoulos,atthe General Assembly of the International Association of Maritime Universities (IAMU), the International Maritime Organization(IMO),highlightsthe concerned, in October 15th, 2011.In his Keynote address he said “As human elementat sea is critical in ensuring safe,secure,clean and efficient operations, it is only feasible to secure, and to preserve, properly qualified human resources for the maritime industries through effective education and training – based on scientific and academic rigor; the development of a clear linkage between practical skills and management techniques; and an unerring focus on quality.”In this case,the opportunity in MET is vast as individuals to undertake additional academic and/or vocational studies, not only for those in Undergraduates programmes but also for those in Postgraduate and Doctorate programmes.Academic programs in Nautical Sciences provide continuous improvement, as well as in other maritime disciplines that are closely related to the Nautical Science such as Port
  4. 4. Administration,PortManagement,ShippingAgency, Maritime Security, Freight-forwarding, Insurance, etc.Figure 1 depictsrole of education in developing human resource to become competent in related industry. Figure 1: Role of education (Grewal and haugstetter, 2007) Generally, MET represent two broad education, which is offshore and onshore. Offshore education representsthose whoinvolveon-boardvessel.Theyhave toundergo formal and technical education to obtainthe neededskill.Secondis onshore education, represents those who will work onshore such as port managements,administrations,operations,engineering etc. Both are equally important to sustain in maritime industry. Relatively, offshore programme involves more cost compared to onshore programme.The demand in maritime industry is huge and required a lot of skill manpower. Table 2 depictsworldfleetbynumbers and types in 2013, and Table 3 depicts total of vessel by size and age. It shows that the demand in maritime industry increasing and require more skill people in handling this industry. The life span of vessel from 0-24 years is 62.9%, means 56621 vessels are still have long life span based on 2013 data.
  5. 5. Table 2: World Fleet by Number and Types (Source:Equasis, 2013) (1) GT <500 , (2) 500≤GT<25000, (3) 25000≤GT<60000, (4) GT ≥60000 Table 3: Total Number of Vessel by Size and Age (Source:Equasis,2013 ) (1) GT <500 , (2) 500≤GT<25000, (3) 25000 ≤GT<60000, (4) GT ≥60000 Smithetal (2007) conductedan employabilityframeworkwhichincludessix elements to be embedded inthe coursestopromote employability;progressivedevelopmentof autonomy;development of skills; personal development planning; inclusion of activities similar to those required 
 in the external environment;studentreflectiononskillsandknowledgeand 
 how these canbe transferredtodifferent contexts; and encouragement of career management. 
 It is important to understand the study is on general basicandunderMET criteria,pointnumber2,4 and 5 are adaptedin maritime industryforMET.
  6. 6. 2.1 ClassificationofOffshore Education and Training The offshore programme,inwhichinvolve technical skill andtheoretical need to follow rigid procedure underStandardsof Training,CertificationandWatchkeepingforseafarers (STCW78/10)convention. Wei (2002) mentioned progress of such evolvement like the requirement of further enhancement of seafarers’practical skillsand ability are really necessary. STCW’95 (2010) convention, the requirement of the introduction of new training items, such as Electronic Chart Displaying Information Systems (ECDIS) and Bridge Resource Management (BRM), multifunctional VTS, and other requirements and demands from maritime industry (Mindykowskiet al., 2013).Additional improvement under STCW 78/2010 for MET is to ensure facilities, infrastructures and competencies are at standard level. Mindykowski,etal (2013)discusses METlevel for institution has improved globally. Traditional lecture halls are organized in modern multimedia auditoria. Educational facilities include several specialised laboratories, such as full mission bridge simulator, satellite navigation systems (GPS/GNSS). International RegulationsforPreventingCollisionsatSea1972 (COLREGs),radiocommunicationsystems (GMDSS),a Planetarium,aship’spowerplantsimulator(ER-SIM),aradar simulator(ARPA), fire-fighting training ground and instrumental analysis workshop. Smith et al (2007) generally applicable for programme underMET, and continuousimprovementsare to ensure theoretical knowledge adaptable with industry requirement. The NavigationEngineeringorNautical Science Programme shouldbe designedtoprovide studentswith an in-depthknowledge andexpertise inmanagingand operating a vessel to which they are assigned as competent Deck Officers, and ultimate goal to become Master/Captain of a vessel. The emphasis throughoutremainsonthe learningof nautical topicsandsystemsandiscomplementedby appropriate practical training – on board ship and, for specific applications or scenarios, by the use of appropriate simulators. The knowledge acquired and aptitude strengthened or honed during the overall MET program enables the watch-keeping officer to safely navigating the ship.Equally important is the fact that the Navigation Engineering graduates should, apart from having the capability and the ability to manage a vessel,be able tocommunicate effectivelywithvesselsinthe vicinity, approaching territorial waterswithappropriate coastal governmental andnon-governmental agencies (pilotage, vessel traffic centres,customs,health,shipping agents,etc.) andportauthorities. At the same time, a graduate from a Nautical DiplomaorDegree Programme is expected to and should have the capability and the ability to address a broad range of ancillary technical matters necessary for the management, maintenance and, safe and profitable operation of a shipping company’s vessel or vessels. Besides, the
  7. 7. Diploma/Degree Program should be designed to provide a broad range of knowledge and skills in the area of Information Technology – a tool necessary today in the management and working of any shipping company/maritime industry (Demirel and Mehta 2009). Table 2: Classification of on-board vessel’s rank Captain/ Master Deck Department Chief officer/Chief mate Engineering Department . Chief engineer . Second engineer/first assistantengineer . Fourth engineer/third assistantengineer Electrical Department . Electrotechnical officer Steward’s Department . Chief steward Chief cook Ratings On topof that, Malaysiahasthe capacityand capabilityinhandlingresearchanddevelopment(R&D) for MET in both offshore and onshore. However, R&D in Malaysia is not comparable with Korea, Japan, China in Asia continent. Out MET institutions are keen in R&D to ensure continuality in maritime industry.The respectiveinstitutions the strength in capability building and rationalisation resources in handling R&D; Marine ship model testing lab (towing tank) in UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia; Ship handling simulator at Malaysian Maritime Academy; Training Ship Malaysian Maritime Academy; Researchvessel atUniversiti MalaysiaTerengganu;ShipdesignandanalysissoftwareinvariousInstitute of HigherLeanings;Marine PowerPlan Laboratory in Politeknik Ungku Omar; Coastal Engineering Tank at National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia. 2.2 ClassificationofOnshore Education Training Apart from offshore education and training, onshore also plays important role in maritime industry. Onshore maritime education isfocusonportmanagementandadministration, engineering, operation, insurance andlaw,logistics, finance, etc. In Malaysia scenario, undergraduate programme for onshore maritime education is classify such as marine technology and engineering, maritime businessand management, maritime law, maritime logistics. In order to support the MET for onshore, a lot of universitiesoffermaritime relatedprogramme suchasUniversiti MalaysiaTerengganu,UNIKL,RANACO, NMIT etc. The programmesofferedare able tocatercareer in maritime industry. Table 4 depicts career in maritime industry that graduate can embark.
  8. 8. Table 4: Career in Maritime Industry Career in Maritime Industry 1. . Maritime Lecturers 2. . FreightForwarders 3. . ShippingManagers 4. . Cargo Surveyors 5. . Marine Surveyors 6. . OperationManagers 7. . Maritime Lawyers 8. . Marine Insurance Practitioners 9. . ShipBrokers . Maritime Security and Safety Practitioners . Port Managers . ShipBroking . ShipManagement . FreightForwarder . Marine Insurance . Naval Architecture 10. Maritime Administrators 11. Marine Engineers 12. Maritime Business Managers 13. Crew Managers 14. Marine Incidentsand AccidentsInvestigators 15. Surveying 16. Transport andLogistics 17. Maritime Economist 18. Maritime Journalism 19. Lecturing 20. ShipManagers 21. Shipsuperintendent 22. Harbour Masters 23. Marine Environmental Managers 24. ShipBuildingEngineer Source:Compilationfromvarioussources The courses offered by Maritime Educational Institutions for postgraduate and undergraduate can be classified under Table 5 and 6.In addition, under postgraduate and Doctorate programme by research such as Master and PhD in Maritime Management. An example enrolment for undergraduate programme at Universiti Malaysia Terengganu: Bachelor of Maritime Management (140 students per intake), Nautical Studies (30 students) and Marine Technology (40 students). Table 7 represents postgraduate programme at various institute of higher learning around the world. Table 5: MBA (Maritime Logistics) MBA (Maritime Logistics) ModernPort Management Marin Insurance The Law Carriage of Good bySea SupplyChainandLogisticsManagement Maritime Logistics Customand AgentDelivery Source:Univertiti MalaysiaTerengganu Table 6: Course offeredbyUniversiti Courses Offered .ShippingManagement .Terminal Operation .The Law of Carriage of .Report,
  9. 9. 1. .Maritime Securityand Safety 2. .Maritime Law 3. .Maritime Insurance 4. .Maritime Management 5. .FreightForwarding 6. .ShipbrokingPractice 7. .Marine Survey 8. .PortOperations Management 9. .Containersystem .Carriage of Good by Sea .Marin Insurance .Portand Shipping Management . Logisticsand Distribution Management 10. .Marine Incidentand AccidentInvestigation .Chartering&Ship BrokingPractice .CrewManagement .International Trade .Marine Engineering .Marine Operations .ShipSuperintendency .Naval Architecture .Nautical Science .Marine Cargo Operations .Maritime English Goodsby Sea .Maritime Conventions .SafetyandSecurityin Marine Operations .PortDesignand Engineering .Marketingand BusinessDevelopment .Finance,Accounting and Budgeting .PortProject Management .Occupational Health and Safety Communicationand InformationTechnology .Marine Environmental Surveying .BusinessPlanning .CharteringandShip Broking .Maritime Trade and Transport .International Trade .ShippingandLogistics .Competencyand People Management .CustomerRelations Source:Compilationfromvariousprogramme. Table 7: Postgraduate level inMaritime EducationandTraining Institution School/ department Duration Annual fees inUSD Erasmus University(The Netherlands) Maritime Economicsand Logistics 1 year 31 000 Universityof Antwerp(Belgium) Transport andMaritime Management 1 year 17 800 WorldMaritime University(Sweden) - 1.5 year 35 300 LondonMetropolitanUniversity(UK) Economics,Finance and International Business 1 year 18 300 Hong KongPolytechnicUniversity(Hong Kong) LogisticsandMaritime Studies 1 year 11 200 UniversityMalaysiaTerengganu(Malaysia) MBA (Maritime Logistics) 2 years 3000 NanyangTechnological University (Singapore) Civil andEnvironmental Engineering 1 year 11000 Source:CompilationfromAdolfetal,2009
  10. 10. 3. The issuesand challengesinMaritime Education and Training Maritime industry well known is a big industry and is facing issues and challenges in supporting the industry. The economic and financial turmoil is one of the issue and challenge in this industry as its effect port development in general. Ansari and Dirgeyasa(2013) summerisedissues andchallengesMET especiallyforoffshore education in Indonesia;first,the seafarersfromPhilippinesandIndia have betterEnglish than Indonesian, therefore are lesscompetitivelycompetes withotherseafarersfromothercountries. This weakness in English has impeded job market to Indonesian. Advanced technology in maritime industry is another issue and challenge, as maritime education service provider is unable to provide the facilities to the graduates. This issue is a drawback to graduates as there are less competitive in terms of skill in technology. The last is quality of graduate; even Indonesia is number three in supplying seafarers and rating after PhilippinesandIndia in maritime industry, yet the quality of graduates is questionable. The graduates have to workhard to acquire skill and knowledge in the industry to standardised with other graduates fromothercountries.Finally, Governmenteffortis still lacking with less attention on MET, yet does not have strong will power in regulating and empower the MET from allocation of budget. On the other hand, (Mindykowski et al., 2013) discussed challenge at tertiary level when the full implementation of the STCW 1978/2010 Convention reflected in teaching and training programs is necessary.The maritime Universitiesshould be open for flexible adoption of programs and creation of the new specializations in the response to the needs of global or local labour market. Maritime education requires the compatibility with National and International Framework of Qualifications for easy recognition in case of continuation of education aboard or international job market activity. Anotherchallenge isthe presentandfuture researchprioritiesinmaritime universitiesare concentrated on,but not limitedto,the well definedareaslike informationandcommunication technologies, energy (resources,safetyandeffectiveness),environment(influence onourlife,changes,protection),transport (sea transport, marine technology), food, agriculture and fisheries, biotechnology (product quality aspect, new possibilities of implementation).
  11. 11. 4. Conclusions Maritime education and training is an important agent in ensuring the growth and sustainability of maritime industry. Current demand in maritime industry has led the business move ahead with the demandandcontract in handfor shipbuilding,seaportexpansion,deliveryof cargoesetc.However,this industrycannotbe sustainif the role of government,international association,and stake holder are not willingtocooperate forbetterbusinessprospect.Even though maritime industry is regulated industry, the room for improvementyetexpandthe industrycanbe seen moving forward. This may attract more potential investor to invest in this industry. On top of that, everyone from government, international association and industrial players must support the role of MET in providing competent and skill manpower.Lastly,the potentialof MET as a backbone of maritime industry canachieve its goal to serve for maritime industry. References Adolf K.Y. Ng, Anita C. Koo, and W.C. Jarrod Ho (2009) The motivations and added values of embarking on postgraduate professionaleducation:Evidencesfromthe maritime industry.TransportPolicy.Vol 16. pp.251-258. AngelicaMBaylon,VAdmEduardoMa R Santos (2011)The ChallengesinPhilippine Maritime Education and Training International Journal of Innovative Interdisciplinary Research Issue 1 pp 34-43 Demirel Ergun and MEHTA Romesh (2009) Developing and Effective Maritime Education and Training.www.marifuture.org/.../developing_an_effective_maritime_education_Sep 10, 2009 – Downloaded 1st Sept 2015 Dong W.H. (2014) Research on Maritime Education and Training in China: A Broader Perspective the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation. Vol 8, No. 1.pp 115-120 Dong, F. (2005) Some Observations on the Undergraduate Maritime Education in Chin. Maritime Education Research. (3).pp.1‐4. Grewal,D.S.,Haugstetter,H., (2007). Capturingand sharingknowledge in supplychains in the maritime transport sector: critical issues. Maritime Policy andManagement 34 (2), 169–183. Khairil Ansari,* I. Wy. Dirgeyasa (2013) Maritime Academy The Forgotten Education?2 nd International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE 2013) pp 522-527 J. Mindykowski,A.Charchalis,P.Przybyłowski& A. Weintrit (2013)Maritime Education and Research to Face the XXI-st Century Challenges in Gdynia Maritime University’s Experience
 Part I – Maritime Universities Facing Today and Tomorrow’s Challenges vol7 no 4 pp 575-579
  12. 12. Smith K., Clegg S., Lawrence E., Todd M.J. (2007). The challenges of reflection: students learning from work placements, Innovations in Education and Teaching International. Vol. 44, No 2, pp. 131‐141 United Nation (2013) Secretary-General’s report for the 2013 Annual Ministerial Review on “Science, technology and innovation, and the potential of culture, for promoting sustainable development and achieving the Millenium Development Goals”.International Maritime Organization (IMO). Download 3/9/2015 http://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/newfunct/pdf13/sti_imo.pdf www.equasis.orghttp://www.emsa.europa.eu/implementation-tasks/equasis-a- statistics/item/472.html. The World Merchant Fleet in 2013.Pdf Downloaded 4th September 2015. Wei R. (2002). Meeting the requirement and development of Maritime Education and Training, IAMU Journal (International Association of Maritime Universities), Vol 2, No 1, pp. 73‐78