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What is bibliometrics and how does it work?

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What is bibliometrics and how does it work?

  1. 1. What is Bibliometrics and how does it work? Ciaran Quinn, Research Support Librarian, Maynooth University 6th May 2015 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  2. 2. What is Bibliometrics?  Statistical analysis of bibliographic data by counting citations ◦ Measures patterns of authorship , publication and the use of the literature. ◦ Usually Citation analysis of research outputs & publications ◦ Assess Research impact of individuals, groups, institutions ◦ Measuring by Author (H Index), Article (Plos), or Publication (Journal Impact Factor) ◦ Measure of Output not Quality (Quantitative Not Qualitative !)  Other measures could include funding received, number of patents, awards granted, or qualitative measures such as peer review 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  3. 3. Why use Bibliometrics?  Measure of the Impact of your Research ◦ Your Publishing activity ! ◦ CV, Promotion, Tenure, Grants, Feedback to funding bodies/Industry/Public ◦ Showcase Individual/Group/Institutional Research  Identify Areas of Research Strengths/Weaknesses ◦ Inform Research Priorities  Identify highest impact or top performing Journals in a Subject Area ◦ Where to Publish, learning about a particular subject area, identify emerging areas of research  Identify the top researchers in a subject area ◦ Collaborations/Competitors ◦ Recruitment ◦ Learning about a subject area 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  4. 4. Examples of Metrics  Scholarly Output: How many articles by an individual, Research Group, University  Citation counts (to measure the impact of an article or author)  No one comprehensive source for all articles !  Field-weighted cited impact (SciVal)  Outputs in top percentiles (SciVal)  Journals in top 10%  Good for early career researchers to be in the top journals !  Collaboration & Potential Collaboration metrics (SciVal)  H-Index:  available from a number of sources  Journal Impact Factor (Web of Science)  Compare Journals: SJR, SNIP, IPP (Scopus)  ScImago Journal & Country Rank: SJR (uses Scopus Data)  Weighted by the Prestige of a Journal  Google Scholar Citations (Citations/H Index)  Publish or Perish (Author Impact, Journal Impact)  Good for unpublished material & books 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  5. 5. Citation Tracking Tools Key Tools  Web of Science/Incites: ◦ Arts & Humanities, Social Sciences & Science Citation Indexes (Thomson Reuters)  Scopus/SciVal: ◦ Citation Overview/ Tracker, Analyse Results, Author Evaluator (Elsevier) ◦ Also uses Mendeley Readership Stats !  SciMago: Journal & Country Rank (Elsevier)  Publish or Perish (Harzing)  Google Scholar Citations 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  6. 6. Other Tools (More Limited !)  PubMed (Cited in PubMed Central)  EBSCO: Find Citing Articles (Cited by EBSCO)  IEEE Xplore (Electrical Eng & Computer Science)Cited by IEEE  ACM Digital Library (Cited by)  JSTOR: (Items citing this item)  Anthro Source (Citation alerts)  SciFinder (Get References & Get Citing Options)  Cite Seer citation statistics ◦ Computer & Information Science  MathsSciNet: Author & Publications Citations  Altmetics tools: Look at non traditional metrics at article level ◦ Impact Story, Altmetrics.com, Mendeley (Elsevier) Plum Analytics (EBSCO) 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  7. 7. Other Journal Rankings listing  Washington & Lee University School of Law: Law Library Law Journals: Submissions and Ranking, 2006 - 2013 :Journal Citations  http://lawlib.wlu.edu/LJ/  Association of Business Schools http://www.bizschooljournals.com/  SciMago http://www.scimagojr.com/journalrank.ph p?area=1400  Journal Quality List (Harzing) http://www.harzing.com/jql.htm 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  8. 8. Issues & Limitations (1)  Sciences (quantitative) Vs Humanities (qualitative) :  Do Bibliometrics suit sciences better?  Citation rates in Humanities much lower (Social Sciences fare better)  Citation patterns can differ greatly between disciplines.  Need to compare like with like !  Some disciplines don’t publish as much in Journals  Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Arts, Humanities, Social Sciences  Only published Literature included  Policy papers, Professional Journals, Working papers, Monographs, Reports ,Dissertations  Citation does not have to be positive!  Citation tools don’t index all research areas or publications .  Different tools/different datasets = different results 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  9. 9. Issues & Limitations (2)  Manipulation of the system! ◦ Self citing, citing colleagues, splitting outputs into many articles, participation in multi authored publications  Editors can manipulate their journal’s ranking by asking authors to include more citations of other articles from that journal (Coercive citation!)  Some Publishers overly concerned with increased Impact Factor ◦ Rejecting quality articles !  Difficult for early career researchers to show their output, metrics take time ◦ Reflect poorly against more experienced researchers.  Measures Impact (number of citations) not the quality of the work ! ◦ Quantitative not qualitative  Academic freedom? Where you publish, What you publish, How often you publish ◦ Value of research vs getting cited ! ◦ Shorter research cycles ! ◦ Is curiosity driven research too narrow for journals to be interested? ◦ Increase in shorter articles to “Letters” Journals (Biology, Physics) 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  10. 10. Recent Articles  “Bibliometrics: The Leiden Manifesto for research metrics”: Diana Hicks et al,(2015) http://www.nature.com/news/bibliometrics-the- leiden-manifesto-for-research-metrics-1.17351  “The focus on bibliometrics makes papers less useful”  Forcing research to fit the mould of high-impact journals weakens it. Hiring decisions should be based on merit, not impact factor, says Reinhard Werner. (2015) http://www.nature.com/news/the-focus-on- bibliometrics-makes-papers-less-useful-1.16706 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  11. 11. Key points  Compare like with like ◦ Similar Research Areas ◦ Stage of academic career ◦ Similar Journals (Discipline) ◦ Similar size institutions  Don’t just use one tool ! ◦ Coverage varies in content, depth, discipline  Does your discipline publish in journals and are those journals included in the Datasets being used to generate metrics?  Data needs to be looked at in context ! Use a variety of metrics and other qualitative information where appropriate 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  12. 12. What Metrics Should I use?  What question am I trying to achieve/answer?  What am I evaluating/showcasing?  How will I recognise good performance?  Which metrics will help me? 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  13. 13. Practical Session: Creating a Researcher Profile; Researcher Impact; Citation Tracking; Journal Impact Ciaran Quinn, Research Support Librarian, Maynooth University. 6th May 2015 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  14. 14. Researcher Identity & Publication Profiles Why do it?  Avoid Author & Institutional Disambiguation ◦ Be consistent in the variation of your name (& Institutional name) that you use ◦ Makes sure your work is correctly attributed to you ◦ Groups your name variants and different institutions you may have published in together  Improves Visibility = Being Found & Read=More Citations ◦ Helps Researchers, Students, Funding Agencies, Potential Collaborators find your work  Helps you track and measure the impact of your research  Easier for you to create a list of your publications and sort them by impact  Monitor your Researcher Identity and keep it up to date ! 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  15. 15. What Tools are available?  Institutional ◦ RIS (Research Information System) Maynooth ◦ RPD (Researcher Profile Directory) http://apps.maynoothuniversity.ie/rpd/  Researcher ID (Thomson Reuters)  Scopus Author Identifier (Elsevier)  Open Researcher & Contributor ID (ORCID)  Google Scholar Citations  Peer Networks (Academia.edu, ResearchGate.net, Mendeley.com, Social Science Research Network (SSRN.com), LinkedIn.com  Utilise social bookmarking with Mendeley, Zotero or CiteULike.org 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
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  17. 17. 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  18. 18. Researcher ID 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  19. 19. 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  20. 20. Scopus: Author Identifier 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  21. 21. 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  22. 22. 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  23. 23. Google Scholar Citations 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  24. 24. 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  25. 25. Researcher Impact  Keeping track of your research ◦ Check your H Index ◦ Set up Citation Alerts: WOS, Scopus, Google Citations & others ◦ Research/Social Networking sites & Altmetrics to see who is view/downloading or discussing your work 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  26. 26. Improving your Research Impact  Increase your visibility ◦ Set up a Researcher ID (WOS), Check & update Your Scopus ID  Export them to Orcid ◦ Google Scholar Citations ◦ Social Media/Social Bookmarking/Blogging ◦ Institutional Repositories ◦ Make yourself findable by linking up you Research title, Article title and Keywords ◦ Posters/Presentations at Conferences ◦ Collaborate with other academics ◦ Submit articles to the highest ranking journals 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  27. 27. Citation Tracking using Alerts  Scopus  WOS: Citation Indexes ◦ (Humanities, Social Sciences, Sciences, Conferences, Books)  Google Scholar 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  28. 28. WOS Citation Indexes 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  29. 29. Scopus Alerts 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  30. 30. Other Citation Sources  ERIC (Cited by)  High Wire (Cited by High Wire article)  HeinOnline (Cited by)  JSTOR (Items citing this item)  ProQuest (Cited by other articles in the database)  Science Direct (Citing articles from Scopus)  Springer Link (Cited by)  SSRN (Citations tab)  Wiley (Cited by)  Ingenta Connect  Institute of Physics: IOP (All citing articles) 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  31. 31. Why are Journal Rankings Important?  Journals are ranked by how frequently recently published papers from a particular journal are cited  Prestige of publishing in a particular Journal ! ◦ Bur does it measure the academic value/research quality of an article!  However it does have an impact on the reputation of a researcher and therefore its important for careers ◦ Used by funding agencies and academic institutions ◦ 36% of top cited articles in top 5% of Journals  Gradually declining  Metrics can be gamed ◦ Journals may decide to publish on certain topics or certain article types (such as reviews) to maximise their JIF  San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment 2012  IF creates biases and inaccuracies when appraising scientific research. It also states that the impact factor is not to be used as a substitute "measure of the quality of individual research articles, or in hiring, promotion, or funding decisions” 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  32. 32. Journal Rankings/Metrics  Journal Citation Reports (includes Journal Impact Factor): Thomson Reuters (2 & 5 years)  Journal Compare/Analyzer: Scopus (Elsevier)(3years)  SciMago Journal & Country Ranking (Elsevier)(3 years)  Google Scholar Metrics (Top Publications, 5 years)  Publish Or Perish 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  33. 33. Journal Citation Reports Web of Science 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  34. 34. Compare Journals Scopus 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  35. 35. ScImago 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  36. 36. 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  37. 37. Other Journal Rankings  Created Citations e.g. Legal & Business  Washington & Lee University School of Law: Law Library Law Journals: Submissions and Ranking, 2006 - 2013 :Journal Citations  http://lawlib.wlu.edu/LJ/  Association of Business Schools http://www.bizschooljournals.com/  SciMago http://www.scimagojr.com/journalrank.php?ar ea=1400  Journal Quality List (Harzing) http://www.harzing.com/jql.htm 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  38. 38.  Eigenfactor.Org ◦ http://eigenfactor.org/index.php  Centre for advanced studies in Management and Economics (List of Journal Ranking Tools) ◦ http://www.cefage.uevora.pt/en/links/revist as_cientificas_rankings  Journal Metrics.com (SciMago) ◦ http://www.journalmetrics.com/about- journal-metrics.php 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  39. 39. Benchmarking individual/institutional Research  Tools ◦ Scival (Elsevier)  SciVal offers quick, easy access to the research performance of 4,600 research institutions and 220 countries worldwide.  Overviews, Benchmarking, Collaborations ◦ Incites (Thomson Reuters)  Incites is a tool that allows you to analyze institutional productivity and benchmark your output against peers worldwide. 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  40. 40. 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  41. 41. 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  42. 42. 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  43. 43. Time to give it a go ! Practical Session ! 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  44. 44. Author Name  Look up your own author name (or someone you know) on Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar ◦ Are they there? Does the data adequately represent them? ◦ Are there many differences between the data sources?  Number of documents, H Index ◦ How many name variants are there? ◦ Are there many errors?  Set up a profile on Researcher ID (Wos) and Google Citations. Check your profile on Scopus. Export your profile to Orcid.  Are there corrections that will need to be made? ◦ Name variants/Correct Documents assigned 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  45. 45. Citation Alerts  Search for your articles and set up a citation alert ◦ Do this in WOS, Scopus and Google Scholar 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  46. 46. Journal Impact  Look at the impact of an important journal in you field (use WOS & Scopus) ◦ Is it included in the datasets? ◦ If not does that surprise you?  Identify the top Journal in your research area 17/04/2015 Maynooth University
  47. 47. The End  Questions?  Contact: ciaran.quinn@nuim.ie  Research Support Blog: http://ciarnthelibrarian.blogspot.ie/ 17/04/2015 Maynooth University

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Plos is the Public Library of Science. Article Level Metrics (ALM) http://www.plos.org/innovation/article-level-metrics/

    Patterns of authorship = Writing, Publication format, Use of Literature = Citing

  • H Index aims to quantify the scientific output of an individual researcher. It is defined as the number of papers with citation number ≤ h so a H Index of 5 implies you have five articles that have been cited at least 5 times.
    A researcher's h-index can be calculated manually by locating citation counts for all published papers and ranking them numerically by the number of times cited. However, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar can also be used to calculate an h-index.
    Measures productivity and Citation impact but not so good for new Researchers. G Index emphasises most highly cited exceptional papers. M Index looks at per year of publishing so it levels things out over a career (not so good if you have gaps I your career!)
    Collaboration metrics only need the affiliation information that authors have included on their publications. They do not need any citations.

    They are very useful e.g. at the start of new strategy, or early in a researcher’s career, when publications exist but too little time has passed for citation-based metrics to be reliable.

    SNIP: Source Normalized Impact per Paper i.e. gives a Subject context (Scopus)
    SJR: SciMago Journal & Country Rank (Scopus)
    IPP :Impact per Publication (Scopus) (Scopus)
  • CiteSeerx is an evolving scientific literature digital library and search engine that has focused primarily on the literature in computer and information science.

    Citation statistics - CiteSeer computes citation statistics and related documents for all articles cited in the database, not just the indexed articles.
  • http://lawlib.wlu.edu/LJ/
  • Humanities not as well represented as the Sciences http://www.researchtrends.com/issue-32-march-2013/evaluating-the-humanities-vitalizing-the-forgotten-sciences/ though this is changing especially in Scopus. Adding more humanities material plus books.

  • Bibliometrics: The Leiden Manifesto for research metrics: Ten principles to guide research evaluation

  • Scopus 1996 onwards but broader than Web of Science
    Web of Science goes back further but not as broad
    Publish or Perish uses the Google Scholar Dataset which includes Google Books. Not as selective as WOS or Scopus.
  • Go Live on each of these and explain them !

    ResearcherID provides a solution to the author ambiguity problem within the scholarly research community. Each member is assigned a unique identifier to enable researchers to manage their publication lists, track their times cited counts and h-index, identify potential collaborators and avoid author misidentification. In addition, your ResearcherID information integrates with the Web of Science and is ORCID compliant, allowing you to claim and showcase your publications from a single one account. Search the registry to find collaborators, review publication lists and explore how research is used around the world! http://www.researcherid.com/Home.action?SID=S2D5hKfMldhSdfReN6o&returnCode=ROUTER.Success&SrcApp=CR&Init=Yes

    Scopus Author Identifier
    Many authors have similar names. The Scopus Author Identifier distinguishes between these names by assigning each author in Scopus a unique number and grouping together all of the documents written by that author. This feature is especially useful for distinguishing between authors who share very common names like Smith or Wang or Lee. Details can be exported to Orcid, using the Add to Orcid function after you do an Author search. You do not need to register for a Scopus Author ID; if you have a paper indexed in their database, you are automatically assigned a Scopus Author ID. Use the free lookup tool to find your Scopus Author ID.

    ORCID provides a persistent digital identifier that distinguishes you from every other researcher and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between you and your professional activities ensuring that your work is recognized.

    Google Scholar Citations provide a simple way for authors to keep track of citations to their articles. You can check who is citing your publications, graph citations over time, and compute several citation metrics. You can also make your profile public, so that it may appear in Google Scholar results when people search for your name, e.g., richard feynman. You can also add co-authors.
    Best of all, it's quick to set up and simple to maintain - even if you have written hundreds of articles, and even if your name is shared by several different scholars. You can add groups of related articles, not just one article at a time; and your citation metrics are computed and updated automatically as Google Scholar finds new citations to your work on the web. You can choose to have your list of articles updated automatically or review the updates yourself, or to manually update your articles at any time.

    Academics use Academia.edu to share their research, monitor deep analytics around the impact of their research, and track the research of academics they follow. 20,044,471 academics have signed up to Academia.edu, adding 5,514,194 papers and 1,510,539 research interests. Academia.edu attracts over 30 million unique visitors a month.

    ReseachGate: Share publications and access scientific output, knowledge, and expertise. Connect and collaborate with colleagues. ResearchGate has more than 6 million members.

    Mendeley is a combination of a desktop application and a website which helps you manage, share and discover both content and contacts in research.
    Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is devoted to the rapid worldwide dissemination of social science research and is composed of a number of specialized research networks in each of the social sciences.
    LinkedIn: professional network with 300 million members in over 200 countries and territories around the globe.
    Social bookmarking is the practice of saving bookmarks to a public Web site and “tagging” them with keywords. To create a collection of social bookmarks, you register with a social
    bookmarking site, which lets you store bookmarks, add tags of your choice, and designate individual bookmarks as public or private. Because social bookmarking services indicate who created each bookmark and provide access to that person’s other bookmarked resources, users can easily make social connections with other individuals interested in just about any topic.
  • https://www.maynoothuniversity.ie/research/research-development-office/ris-guide
  • Export your details to Orcid. In this case its already set up.
  • http://orcid.org/
  • Search for an Author and you get the option to be notified if anybody cites that author (you can do the same for a specific Journal article)

    Citation tracking is used to discover how many times a particular article has been cited by other articles. As a general rule, high quality articles attract a greater number of citations. Though poor quality articles or Reviews can also be cited while being refuted or criticised.

    You can also use Alerts based on Search Terms and Tables of Contents of a new issue of a Journal. You could do this for example by registering with: Biomed Central, PubMed, Springer, RSC,Wiley, Nature, Sage, Highwire.
  • “The weakening relationship between the Impact Factor and papers’ citations in the digital age” http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1205/1205.4328.pdf

    Interferes with development of Open Access by placing publishing restrictions on authors



    Annual Meeting of The American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) in San Francisco, CA, on December 16, 2012.

  • The impact factor (IF) of an academic journal is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to recent articles published in the journal. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field, with journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those with lower ones.

    Impact Factors: A Broken System ://datapub.cdlib.org/2013/05/22/impact-factors/
  • http://lawlib.wlu.edu/LJ/
  • http://www.cefage.uevora.pt/en/links/revistas_cientificas_rankings

    Borrowing methods from network theory, eigenfactor.org ranks the influence of journals much as Google’s PageRank algorithm ranks the influence of web pages . By this approach, journals are considered to be influential if they are cited often by other influential journals.
  • Thomson Reuters Whitepaper on using Bibliometrics to evaluate Research http://ip-science.thomsonreuters.com/m/pdfs/325133_thomson.pdf