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Grade 8 - Music of East Asia (2nd Quarter)

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Grade 8 - Music | Second Quarter
Music of Japan, China & Korea

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Grade 8 - Music of East Asia (2nd Quarter)

  1. 1. Country Capital China (PRC) Beijing Japan Tokyo North Korea Pyongyang South Korea Seoul Taiwan (ROC) Taipei Mongolia Ulaan Baatar
  2. 2. Japanese vocal music is quite different from the Western vocal music, and is based on the intervals of human breathing rather than mathematical timing, and how Japanese musicians show their spiritual self-mastery in mastering his or her instrument more than simply perfecting a technique of some sort and how they give value to their performance and composure.
  3. 3. Instrumental music of Japan Traditional Japanese music is basically meditative in character. Its performance is highly ritualized, as much in the music itself, as in the composure of the musicians when performing it. Japanese chamber and solo music have a slow meditative pace.
  4. 4. The performance of Japanese music has traditionally been of a spiritual character, similarly to martial arts and other forms of art such as the tea ceremony and calligraphy. It is usually about religious festivals, work, dance, love, and regional songs.
  5. 5. Audiences are looking for this self- mastery in musicians. This is the reason why music has become highly ritualized. Musicians must show this spiritual self-mastery in their performance and composure. They work on an inner strength in mastering his or her instrument, more than simply perfecting a technique of some sort and providing entertainment.
  6. 6. Percussion Instruments (Membranophone) 1. Odaiko - (big drum). The physical energy and sheer excitement of an Odaiko performance is an integral part of many Japanese matsuri (festivals).
  7. 7. 2. Tsuzumi (hourglass- shape) – There are two varieties; the (smaller) kotsuzumi is held on the right shoulder and the player alters the tone by squeezing the laces. The (bigger) otsuzumi is placed on the left thigh.
  8. 8. 3. Tsuridaiko – a large hanging barrel drum
  9. 9. 4. Taiko - is a Japanese drum that comes in various sizes and is used to play a variety of musical genres.
  10. 10. String Instruments (Chordophone) 1. Koto - is a 13-string zither, about two meters long and made of Paulownia wood. It is plucked using picks on the thumb and first two fingers of the right hand, while the left hand can be used to modify pitch and tone. Koto is used in an ensemble in gagaku or as a solo instrument.
  11. 11. 2. Shamisen - is a plucked stringed instrument. Its construction follows a model similar to that of a guitar or a banjo, employing a neck, and strings stretched across a resonating body. The neck of the shamisen is fretless, and is slimmer than that of a guitar or a banjo.
  12. 12. 3. Biwa - is a Japanese short- necked fretted lute, often used in narrative storytelling. The biwa is the chosen instrument of Benten, the goddess of music, eloquence, poetry, and education in Japanese Shinto.
  13. 13. Wind Instruments (Aerophone) 1. Shakuhachi - the most famous flute made from bamboo. It has 4 or 5 finger holes on the front face and a thumbhole on the rear face.
  14. 14. 2. Nokan - a parallel, bamboo flute is the only melodic instrument used in noh. The melody of the flute has no specific pitch relationship with the melody of the chanting.
  15. 15. 3. Hichiriki - is a double reed Japanese flute used as one of two main melodic instruments in Japanese gagaku music, the other being the ryūteki.
  16. 16. 4. Sho - is a Japanese free reed musical instrument that was introduced from China during the Nara period.
  17. 17. 5. Shinobue – also called takebue (in the context of Japanese traditional arts) is a Japanese transverse flute or fue that has a high- pitched sound.
  18. 18. 6. Ryūteki - literally "dragon flute" is a Japanese transverse fue made of bamboo. It is used in gagaku.
  19. 19. SHINOBUE SHO PIPA YUNLUO TSUZUMI HICHIRIKI PENGLING YUEQIN RYUTEKI SHAKUHACHI KOTO TSURIDAIKO BIWA SHENG ODAIKO ZHENG TAIKO ERHU
  20. 20. For several thousand years Chinese culture was dominated by the teachings of the philosopher Confucius, he conceived music in the highest sense as a means of calming the passion of dispelling of unrest and lust, rather than as a form of amusement.
  21. 21. Traditionally the Chinese have believed that sound influences the harmony of the universe. Significantly, one of the most important duties of the first emperor of each new dynasty was to search out and establish that dynasty’s through standard of pitch. A result of this philosophical orientation was that the Chinese theoretically opposed music performed solely for entertainment.
  22. 22. 1. Yueqin - Moon- shaped lute with shorter neck and four strings, played with a spectrum, used for accompanying local operas.
  23. 23. 2. Pipa - Four-stringed lute with 30 frets and a pear-shaped body. This instrument has an extremely wide dynamic range and remarkable expressive power.
  24. 24. 3. Erhu - Two-stringed fiddle and one of the most popular Chinese instruments. It is used as a solo instrument as well as in small ensembles or large orchestra, and by various ethnic groups.
  25. 25. 4. Yunluo - Literally "cloud gongs" or "cloud of gongs", the yunluo is a set of ten small tuned gongs mounted in a wooden frame.
  26. 26. 5. Sheng – (Chinese mouth organ) looks like a set of panpipes, with 12 to 36 bamboo pipes. Each pipe is of different length with a brass reed at the bottom and a hole that must be blocked in order for the note to sound.
  27. 27. 6. Dizi - is the traditional Chinese flute. It can have a membrane over an extra hole to give the characteristic rattle effect.
  28. 28. 7. Zheng - An ancient Chinese instrument that has an arched surface and an elongated- trapezoid with 13 to 21 strings stretched over individual bridges.
  29. 29. 8. Pengling - these are two small bells made of high-tin bronze, without internal clappers, and hemispheric or bottomless gourd- like in shape.
  30. 30. Listening Activity Find a partner and prepare a pen and a paper for this activity. Listen to recordings of different instruments of Korea. Classify the instrument heard into string, percussion, or wind.
  31. 31. Analysis What kind of feeling or mood does it express? How do these sounds show aspects of Korean culture? What similarities with other East Asian countries can you identify in these sounds?
  32. 32. Korea's folk music tradition, with its generous use of bright rhythms and melodies, offers a more energetic and capricious contrast to the nation's collection of classical music works.
  33. 33. Chong-ak means literally "right (or correct) music", Chong- ak also refers to ensemble music for men of high social status outside of the court.
  34. 34. Sog-ak or minsogak is a category of Korean music traditionally associated with the lower classes or for the general public and are vibrant and energetic. It includes genres such as pansori and minyo.
  35. 35. Pansori is a kind of music presented to audiences by skilled vocal singers and drummers. But even the unskilled could sing these songs.
  36. 36. Instrumental Music of Korea Korean music especially in South Korea has a rich vocal tradition, and diverse instruments and music forms. Folk songs, religious works, court music, and shaman rituals all express the soul of a nation whose history is filled with colorful and fascinating tales.
  37. 37. String Instruments 1. Kayagum (gayageum) - is a traditional Korean zither-like string instrument, with 12 strings, although more recently variants have been constructed with 21 or more numbers of strings. It is probably the best-known traditional Korean musical instrument.
  38. 38. 2. Geomungo – (six-string plucked zither), is a traditional Korean stringed musical instrument of the zither family of instruments with both bridges and frets.
  39. 39. 3. Haegum (two-string vertical fiddle) – It has a rodlike neck, a hollow wooden soundbox, two silk strings, and Is held vertically on the knee of the performer and played with a bow.
  40. 40. Wind Instruments Piri - it is made of bamboo. Its large reed and cylindrical bore gives it a sound mellower than that of many other types of oboe.
  41. 41. Percussion Instrument Changgo - is the most widely used drum used in the traditional music of Korea. It is available in most kinds, and consists of an hourglass-shaped body with two heads made from animal skin.
  42. 42. Sakura – (Cherry Blossoms) is a traditional Japanese folk song depicting spring, the season of cherry blossoms.
  43. 43. Mo Li Hua - is a traditional Chinese song with a beautifully gentle and lyrical melody. The lyrics is about “the jasmine flower” also turn it into a love song.
  44. 44. Arirang - is a Korean folk song, sometimes considered the unofficial national anthem of Korea. It is used as a symbol of Korea and Korean culture. Arirang is in essence a song of farewell. The origin of the word 'Arirang' is ‘the hill’. An emotion of deep regret is imbued in the rhythm of Arirang. The song evokes the feeling of the tears shed by Koreans and the remembrance of their sad stories.
  45. 45. Express Yourself On an oslo paper, draw a creative illustration on the relationship of man and nature as reflected in three folk songs you have learned. Present and describe your illustration to the class.
  46. 46. SYNTHESIS JAPAN • Japanese music was influenced by the court music of China • It is based on the five tone scale or the pentatonic scale • Before the historical period, the Japanese traditional music (Hogaku) develop an accompaniment of ritual dances called Kagura. • In religion, Confucianism propagated the themes on loyalty and filial piety while Shintoism inculcated the idea that music is a gift from God.
  47. 47. • Before the historical period, the Japanese traditional music (Hogaku) develop an accompaniment of ritual dances called Kagura. • In religion, Confucianism propagated the themes on loyalty and filial piety while Shintoism inculcated the idea that music is a gift from God. • Japanese music is monophony in nature. It observes minute tones, free rhythm and delicate timbre. It is usually written in duple meter.
  48. 48. • Japanese music has two basic types of scales, both pentatonic in nature, that are often used in playing the koto and shamisen. • These are the male scale called Yo – sen and the female scale known as In – sen. • The most important note in the pentatonic scale is the corner stone or the third note. • Japanese Vocal music is quite different from the Western vocal Music, and is based on the intervals of human breathing rather than mathematical timing.
  49. 49. • Japanese musicians show their spiritual self-mastery in mastering his or her instrument more than simply perfecting a technique of some sort and how they give value to their performance and composure. • Traditional Japanese music is basically meditative in character. • Its music and performance are highly ritualized, as is the composure of the musicians when performing it. • Japanese chamber music and solo music have a slow meditative pace and use concrete elements
  50. 50. • Japanese music has three general types of instruments - percussion instruments (odaiko, tsuzumi, shoko, tsuridaiko, taiko), string instruments (koto, shamisen, biwa), and wind instruments -mostly flutes (shakuhachi, nokan, sho, hichiriki). • Compared to our music, Japanese music is very simple. They sing melodies in unison and they never repeat the same melody in a song.
  51. 51. There are two ancient foundations for Japanese traditional music. SHOMYO: • Is also called Buddhist chanting. • The chants are based on sacred text and hymns. • They have flexible rhythm, where the singers simply stops when there is no more breath • They are sung acapella and are monophonic texture • At present, the SHOMYO has lost its real religious nature
  52. 52. GAGAKU: • Literally means “elegant and refined music”. ga – refined gaku – music • It is the only surviving music in Japan. • This court music has been greatly influenced by China. • Bugaku- Japanese court dance
  53. 53. MUSICAL STYLES a. Togaku – highest musical style or court music. b. Komagaku – Korean origin and of native composition associated with rituals of the Shinto religion. c. Saibara – Is a small number of regional Japanese folk songs.
  54. 54. CHINA • Chinese vocal music has traditionally been sung in a thin, non-resonant voice, or in falsetto • Chinese vocal music is usually solo rather than choral. • All traditional Chinese music is melodic rather than harmonic. • Chinese music uses the pentatonic scale as can be heard in the song “Mo Li Hua”.
  55. 55. • Xiaodiao, or short tunes, are popular music in Chinese urban areas. • Chinese musical instruments are classified according to the materials by which they are made: animal skins, gourd, bamboo, wood, silk, earth/clay, metal, and stone.
  56. 56. KOREA • Korean music has a slow tempo, giving it a very peaceful and pensive character. • Yayue - an elegant music which includes ritual and ceremonial court music • Suyue - popular music • Huyue - foreign music • A-ak - elegant vocal and instrumental music • Pansori is a kind of music presented to audiences by skilled vocal singers and drummers.

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