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FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
MRS.P.CHRISTENA, RNM
M.SC(N)-OBG
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
INTRODUCTION
• Reproduction is the process by which organisms make more organisms like
themselves.
• But even though the reproductive system is essential to keeping a species alive,
unlike other body systems, it's not essential to keeping an individual alive.
• In the human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells, or gametes are involved.
• The male gamete, or sperm, and the female gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the
female's reproductive system.
• When sperm fertilizes (meets) an egg, this fertilized egg is called a zygote. The
zygote goes through a process of becoming an embryo and developing into a fetus.
INTRODUCTION
• The female reproductive system provides several functions.
• The ovaries produce the egg cells, called the ova or oocytes.
• The oocytes are then transported to the fallopian tube where fertilization by a sperm may
occur.
• The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where the uterine lining has thickened in
response to the normal hormones of the reproductive cycle.
• Once in the uterus, the fertilized egg can implant into thickened uterine lining and
continue to develop.
• If implantation does not take place, the uterine lining is shed as menstrual flow.
• In addition, the female reproductive system produces female sex hormones that maintain
the reproductive cycle.
• During menopause, the female reproductive system gradually stops making the female
hormones necessary for the reproductive cycle to work. At this point, menstrual cycles can
become irregular and eventually stop.
• One year after menstrual cycles stop, the woman is considered to be menopausal.
EXTERNAL GENITALIA
• The function of the external female reproductive structures (the genitals) is
twofold:
• To enable sperm to enter the body and
• to protect the internal genital organs from infectious organisms.
• The vulva (pudendum) refers to the external female genitalia. Its
functions are threefold:
• Acts as sensory tissue during sexual intercourse
• Assists in micturition by directing the flow of urine
• Protects the internal female reproductive tract from infection
STRUCTURE OF VULVA
The vulva is a collective term for several anatomical structures:
• Mons pubis – a subcutaneous fat pad located anterior to the pubic
symphysis. It formed by the fusion of the labia majora.
• Labia majora – two hair-bearing external skin folds.
• They extend from the mons pubis posteriorly to the posterior
commissure (a depression overlying the perineal body).
• Embryologically derived from labioscrotal swellings
• Labia minora – two hairless folds of skin, which lie within the labia
majora.
• They fuse anteriorly to form the hood of the clitoris and extend
posteriorly either side of the vaginal opening.
• They merge posteriorly, creating a fold of skin known as the
fourchette.
• Embryologically derived from urethral folds
• Vestibule – the area enclosed by the labia minora. It contains the
openings of the vagina (external vaginal orifice, vaginal introitus) and
urethra.
• Bartholin’s glands – secrete lubricating mucus from small ducts
during sexual arousal. They are located either side of the vaginal
orifice.
• Clitoris – located under the clitoral hood. It is formed of erectile
corpora cavernosa tissue, which becomes engorged with blood during
sexual stimulation.
• Embryologically derived from the genital tubercle
VASCULAR SUPPLY AND
LYMPHATICS
• The arterial supply to the vulva is from the paired internal and
external pudendal arteries (branches of the internal iliac artery
and femoral artery, respectively).
• Venous drainage is achieved via the pudendal veins, with
smaller labial veins contributing as tributaries.
• Lymph drains to the nearby superficial inguinal lymph nodes.
NERVE SUPPLY
• Anterior – ilioinguinal nerve,
genital branch of the
genitofemoral nerve
• Posterior – pudendal nerve,
posterior cutaneous nerve of the
thigh.
• The clitoris and the vestibule also
receive parasympathetic
innervation from the cavernous
nerves – derived from the
uterovaginal plexus.
Female Reproductive system
External organs
Mons pubis
Labia majora
Labia minora
Vestibule
Bartholin gland
clitoris
Internal organs
Vagina
Cervix
Uterus
Fallopian tube
ovaries
• Vagina = “birth canal”
• A tube like, muscular but elastic organ
• About 4 to 5 inches long in an adult woman.
• PH- 4 acidic
• It is the passageway for sperm to the egg and for menstrual
bleeding
• Organ of copulation and forms the birth canal of parturition
Posterior wall of vagina is 10 c m long
Anterior wall is only 7.5 cm length
The upper end of the vagina is known as the vault
Pink in appearance
It connects the external genital organs to the uterus.
the organ of sexual intercourse in women.
Formed at the top of vagina due to projection of the uterine
cervix
Four fornics are there
Oneanterior – front of cervix
Oneposterior – behind
Two lateral – either side of cervix
Anterior to the vagina – lie the bladder and the urethra which
are closely connected to the anterior vaginal wall
Posterior to the vagina – lie the pouch of douglas, the rectum
and the perineal body; each occupying one third of the posterior
vaginal wall
Laterally – on the upper two third are the pelvic fascia and the
ureters, which pass beside the cervix
Superior to the vagina – lies the utreus
Inferior to the vagina – lies the external genitalia
Arteries – cervico vaginal branch of uterine
artery– vaginal artery-anterior division of
internal iliac
- Internal pudendal
Veins – Internal iliac vein
– Internal pudendal vein
Sympathetic and
parasympathetic from the
pelvic plexus
Lower part is supplied by
the pudendal nerve
Internal iliac group
Superficial inguinal group
THE CERVIX
• The cervix is the lower portion of the uterus, an organ of the female
reproductive tract. It connects the vagina with the main body of the uterus,
acting as a gateway between them.
• Anatomically and histologically, the cervix is distinct from the uterus, and
hence we consider it as a separate anatomical structure.
ANATOMICAL STRUCTURE
• The cervix is composed of two regions;
the ectocervix and the endocervical canal.
• The ectocervix is the portion of the cervix
that projects into the vagina. It is lined by stratified
squamous non-keratinized epithelium. The opening
in the ectocervix, the external os, marks the
transition from the ectocervix to the endocervical
canal.
• The endocervical canal (or endocervix) is the
more proximal, and ‘inner’ part of the cervix. It is
lined by a mucus-secreting simple columnar
epithelium. The endocervical canal ends, and the
uterine cavity begins, at a narrowing called
the internal os.
FUNCTION
• The cervix performs two main functions:
• It facilitates the passage of sperm into the uterine cavity. This is achieved
via dilation of the external and internal os.
• Maintains sterility of the upper female reproductive tract. The cervix, and
all structures superior to it, are sterile. This ultimately protects the uterine
cavity and the upper genital tract by preventing bacterial invasion. This
environment is maintained by the frequent shedding of the endometrium,
thick cervical mucus and a narrow external os.
VASCULAR SUPPLY AND
LYMPHATICS
• The blood supply to the
uterus is via the uterine
artery. Venous drainage is via
a plexus in the broad ligament
that drains into the uterine
veins.
• Lymphatic drainage of the
uterus is via the iliac, sacral,
aortic and inguinal lymph
nodes.
The uterus is a thick-walled, muscular, pear-shaped
organ
Located in the middle of the pelvis, behind the
bladder, and in front of the rectum. The uterus is
anchored in position by several ligaments.
The uterus consists of the cervix and the main body
(corpus).
The cervix is the lower part of the uterus, which
protrudes into the upper part of the vagina. It can be seen
during a pelvic examination. Like the vagina, the cervix
is lined with a mucous membrane, but the mucous
membrane of the cervix is smooth.
Sperm can enter and menstrual blood can exit the uterus
through a channel in the cervix (cervical canal).
The cervical canal is usually narrow, but during labor,
the canal widens to let the baby through.
The cervix is usually a good barrier against bacteria,
except around the time an egg is released by the
ovaries (ovulation), during the menstrual period, or
during labor..
The main function of the uterus is to sustain a developing
fetus.
It prepare for this possibility for eachmonth
At termination of pregnancy it expelsthe uterine
contents
Anterior – the uterovesical pouch and the bladder
Posterior – the rectouterine pouch of the douglas
Laterally – the broad ligament, the uterine tubes
Superior – the intestine
Inferior – the vagina
Measures 8 cm long, 5 cm wide ,1.25 cm thick
Weight 50 gms
Parts
 The body of corpus
 The fundus
 The cornua
 The isthumus
 The cervis
 Internal and external os
 Cervical canal
Endometrum
Myometrium
Perimetrium
ENDOMETRIUM: inner lining of uterus,
nourishes developing embryo, built up each month
for pregnancy, if not, shed during menstruation
MYOMETRIUM: muscular, supports fetus,
contracts at birth and to shed the endometrium
during menstruation.
PERIMETRIUM- The perimetrium is a serous
membrane that lines the outside of the uterus.
Arteries –uterine artery- branch of internal iliac artery
Veins –internal iliac vein
Deep andsuperficial lymph vessels
NERVE SUPPLY
Parasympathetic andsympathetic
 connect to each ovary, egg will enter through an
opening called a FIMBRIA, cilia sweep the egg
down towards the uterus
 fertilization will occur here, or it will die within
48 hours
The two fallopian tubes, which are about 4 to 5 inches (about 10
to 13 centimeters) long, extend from the upper edges of the
uterus toward the ovaries.
The fallopian tubes are lined with tiny hairlike projections (cilia).
The cilia and the muscles in the tube's wall propel an egg
downward through the tube to the uterus. The egg may be fertilized
by a sperm in the fallopian tube
Anterior, Posteriorand Superior – the peritoneal
cavity and intestine
Laterally – the sidewall of pelvis
Inferior – the broad ligament and the ovaries
Medial – the uterus lies between th euterine
tubes
The intestinal portion
The isthumus
The ampulla
The infundibulum
The intra mural part
Artery – uterine and ovary
Venous – ovarian vein
LYMPHATIC
Along with the ovarian vessels to para-aortic nodes
NERVE SUPPLY
Uterine and ovarian nerves
The ovaries are usually pearl-colored, oblong, and about the size of
a walnut.
They are attached to the uterus by ligaments. In addition to
producing female sex hormones
( estrogen and progesterone ) and male sex hormones, the ovaries
produce and release eggs.
The developing egg cells (oocytes) are contained in fluid-filled
cavities (follicles) in the wall of the ovaries. Each follicle contains
one oocyte.
Anterior to the ovaries are the broad ligaments
Posterior to the ovaries are the intestine
Laterally to the ovaries are the infundibulopelvic ligaments
and side walls of the pelvis
Superior to the ovaries lie the uterine tube
Inferior to the ovaries lies the ovarian ligaments
MEDULLA
CORTEX
MEDULLA
-supporting frame work Made of
fibrous tissue
- Has ovarian blood vessels
- Lymphatics and nerve travels through it
CORTEX
Functioning part of the ovum
Contains ovarian follicals in different stage
Artery –ovarian and abdominal aorta
Venous – ovarian vein
LYMPHATIC
Along the ovarian vessels to para-aortic nodes
NERVE SUPPLY
ovarian nerves from T10 segment
Process of releasing one mature ovum each month into that ovary’s
fallopian tube
2-300,000 immature ova in ovaries at birth
Hormones from pituitary cause ovaries to begin producing female
sex hormones
Ova begin to mature
Ovum can live about 2 days in fallopian tube
One sperm will enter ovum = fertilization/conception
If the ovum is not fertilized
– it doesn’t attach to the uterine lining/endometrium
Muscles of the uterus contract  lining breaks down
(“cramps”)
Lining passes through the cervix into the vagina and out of
the vaginal opening
EACH MONTH, UTERUS
PREPARES FOR POSSIBLE
PREGNANCY
 Hormones cause thickening of
endometrium
 If ovum is fertilized, it moves into the uterus
and may burrow into this lining
 Will divide millions of times over 9-10
months
• Process of shedding the lining of the uterus
• Usually lasts 4-7 days (may be shorter or longer
depending on the female’s individual cycle)
• Regulated by hormones
• Rest of flow is other tissue that makes up the
endometrium
– Blood and tissue are not needed,person should not be
weak or ill from loss
– After period (“menses”), cyclebegins again.
A WOMAN’S MENSTRUAL CYCLE IS DIVIDED
INTO FOUR PHASES:
menstrual
phase
follicular
phase
ovulation
phase
luteal
phase
MENSTRUAL PHASE
• The menstrual phase is the first stage of the menstrual cycle. It’s also when
the women get the women period.
• This phase starts when an egg from the previous cycle isn’t fertilized.
Because pregnancy hasn’t taken place, levels of the hormones estrogen and
progesterone drop.
• The thickened lining of the women uterus, which would support a pregnancy,
is no longer needed, so it sheds through the women vagina. During the
women period, the women release a combination of blood, mucus, and
tissue from the women uterus
• symptoms like these:
• cramps , tender breasts, bloating, mood swings, irritability, headaches,
tiredness & low back pain
• On average, women are in the menstrual phase of their cycle for 3 to 7
days. Some women have longer periods than others.
FOLLICULAR PHASE
• The follicular phase starts on the first day of the women period (so there is
some overlap with the menstrual phase) and ends when the women ovulate.
• It starts when the hypothalamus sends a signal to the women pituitary gland
to release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This hormone stimulates the
women ovaries to produce around 5 to 20 small sacs called follicles. Each
follicle contains an immature egg.
• Only the healthiest egg will eventually mature. (On rare occasions, a woman
may have two eggs mature.) The rest of the follicles will be reabsorbed into
the women body.
• The maturing follicle sets off a surge in estrogen that thickens the lining of
the women uterus. This creates a nutrient-rich environment for an embryo to
grow.
• The average follicular phaseTrusted Source lasts for about 16 days. It can
range from 11 to 27 days, depending on the women cycle.
OVULATION PHASE
• Rising estrogen levels during the follicular phase trigger the women pituitary
gland to release luteinizing hormone (LH). This is what starts the process
of ovulation.
• Ovulation is when the women ovary releases a mature egg. The egg travels
down the fallopian tube toward the uterus to be fertilized by sperm.
• The ovulation phase is the only time during the women menstrual cycle when
the women can get pregnant. You can tell that you’re ovulating by symptoms
like these:
• a slight rise in basal body temperature
• thicker discharge that has the texture of egg whites
• Ovulation happens at around day 14 if the women have a 28-day cycle —
right in the middle of the women menstrual cycle. It lasts about 24 hours.
After a day, the egg will die or dissolve if it isn’t fertilized.
LUTEAL PHASE
• After the follicle releases its egg, it changes into the corpus luteum. This structure
releases hormones, mainly progesterone and some estrogen. The rise in hormones
keeps the women uterine lining thick and ready for a fertilized egg to implant.
• If the women do get pregnant, the women body will produce human chorionic
gonadotropin (hCG). This is the hormone pregnancy tests detect. It helps maintain the
corpus luteum and keeps the uterine lining thick.
• If the women don’t get pregnant, the corpus luteum will shrink away and be resorbed.
This leads to decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone, which causes the onset
of the women period. The uterine lining will shed during the women period.
• During this phase, if the women don’t get pregnant, the women may experience
symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). These include: Bloating, breast swelling,
pain, or tenderness, mood changes, Headache, weight gain, changes in sexual desire,
food cravings & trouble sleeping
• The luteal phase lasts for 11 to 17 days. The average lengthTrusted Source is 14 days.
The mammary glands are sweat
glands specialized for the
production of milk. The milk-
producing secretory cells form
walls of bulb-shaped chambers
called alveoli that join together
with ducts, in grapelike
fashion, to form clusters called
lobules.
REFERNCES
• Dutta, D. C., Hiralal, K., & Konar, H. (2018). DC Dutta’s Textbook of Obstetrics:
Including Perinatology and Contraception (9th ed.). Jaypee Brothers Medical Pub.
• Fhea, W. A. M. C. S. R., & Rgn, G. A. B. P. (2018). Ross & Wilson Anatomy and
Physiology in Health and Illness (13th ed.). Elsevier.
• Female Reproductive System: Structure & Function. (2021). Cleveland Clinic.
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/9118-female-reproductive-system
• The Vulva - Structure - Innervation. (2020, August 15). TeachMeAnatomy.
https://teachmeanatomy.info/pelvis/female-reproductive-tract/the-vulva/
• Your Guide to the Female Reproductive System. (2002, February 5). WebMD.
https://www.webmd.com/sex-relationships/guide/your-guide-female-reproductive-
system

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Female Reproductive System: Anatomy and Functions

  • 1. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MRS.P.CHRISTENA, RNM M.SC(N)-OBG ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
  • 2. INTRODUCTION • Reproduction is the process by which organisms make more organisms like themselves. • But even though the reproductive system is essential to keeping a species alive, unlike other body systems, it's not essential to keeping an individual alive. • In the human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells, or gametes are involved. • The male gamete, or sperm, and the female gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system. • When sperm fertilizes (meets) an egg, this fertilized egg is called a zygote. The zygote goes through a process of becoming an embryo and developing into a fetus.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • The female reproductive system provides several functions. • The ovaries produce the egg cells, called the ova or oocytes. • The oocytes are then transported to the fallopian tube where fertilization by a sperm may occur. • The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where the uterine lining has thickened in response to the normal hormones of the reproductive cycle. • Once in the uterus, the fertilized egg can implant into thickened uterine lining and continue to develop. • If implantation does not take place, the uterine lining is shed as menstrual flow. • In addition, the female reproductive system produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle. • During menopause, the female reproductive system gradually stops making the female hormones necessary for the reproductive cycle to work. At this point, menstrual cycles can become irregular and eventually stop. • One year after menstrual cycles stop, the woman is considered to be menopausal.
  • 4.
  • 5. EXTERNAL GENITALIA • The function of the external female reproductive structures (the genitals) is twofold: • To enable sperm to enter the body and • to protect the internal genital organs from infectious organisms. • The vulva (pudendum) refers to the external female genitalia. Its functions are threefold: • Acts as sensory tissue during sexual intercourse • Assists in micturition by directing the flow of urine • Protects the internal female reproductive tract from infection
  • 6. STRUCTURE OF VULVA The vulva is a collective term for several anatomical structures: • Mons pubis – a subcutaneous fat pad located anterior to the pubic symphysis. It formed by the fusion of the labia majora. • Labia majora – two hair-bearing external skin folds. • They extend from the mons pubis posteriorly to the posterior commissure (a depression overlying the perineal body). • Embryologically derived from labioscrotal swellings • Labia minora – two hairless folds of skin, which lie within the labia majora. • They fuse anteriorly to form the hood of the clitoris and extend posteriorly either side of the vaginal opening. • They merge posteriorly, creating a fold of skin known as the fourchette. • Embryologically derived from urethral folds
  • 7. • Vestibule – the area enclosed by the labia minora. It contains the openings of the vagina (external vaginal orifice, vaginal introitus) and urethra. • Bartholin’s glands – secrete lubricating mucus from small ducts during sexual arousal. They are located either side of the vaginal orifice. • Clitoris – located under the clitoral hood. It is formed of erectile corpora cavernosa tissue, which becomes engorged with blood during sexual stimulation. • Embryologically derived from the genital tubercle
  • 8.
  • 9. VASCULAR SUPPLY AND LYMPHATICS • The arterial supply to the vulva is from the paired internal and external pudendal arteries (branches of the internal iliac artery and femoral artery, respectively). • Venous drainage is achieved via the pudendal veins, with smaller labial veins contributing as tributaries. • Lymph drains to the nearby superficial inguinal lymph nodes.
  • 10. NERVE SUPPLY • Anterior – ilioinguinal nerve, genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve • Posterior – pudendal nerve, posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh. • The clitoris and the vestibule also receive parasympathetic innervation from the cavernous nerves – derived from the uterovaginal plexus.
  • 11. Female Reproductive system External organs Mons pubis Labia majora Labia minora Vestibule Bartholin gland clitoris Internal organs Vagina Cervix Uterus Fallopian tube ovaries
  • 12. • Vagina = “birth canal” • A tube like, muscular but elastic organ • About 4 to 5 inches long in an adult woman. • PH- 4 acidic • It is the passageway for sperm to the egg and for menstrual bleeding • Organ of copulation and forms the birth canal of parturition
  • 13.
  • 14. Posterior wall of vagina is 10 c m long Anterior wall is only 7.5 cm length The upper end of the vagina is known as the vault Pink in appearance It connects the external genital organs to the uterus. the organ of sexual intercourse in women.
  • 15. Formed at the top of vagina due to projection of the uterine cervix Four fornics are there Oneanterior – front of cervix Oneposterior – behind Two lateral – either side of cervix
  • 16. Anterior to the vagina – lie the bladder and the urethra which are closely connected to the anterior vaginal wall Posterior to the vagina – lie the pouch of douglas, the rectum and the perineal body; each occupying one third of the posterior vaginal wall Laterally – on the upper two third are the pelvic fascia and the ureters, which pass beside the cervix Superior to the vagina – lies the utreus Inferior to the vagina – lies the external genitalia
  • 17. Arteries – cervico vaginal branch of uterine artery– vaginal artery-anterior division of internal iliac - Internal pudendal Veins – Internal iliac vein – Internal pudendal vein
  • 18. Sympathetic and parasympathetic from the pelvic plexus Lower part is supplied by the pudendal nerve Internal iliac group Superficial inguinal group
  • 19. THE CERVIX • The cervix is the lower portion of the uterus, an organ of the female reproductive tract. It connects the vagina with the main body of the uterus, acting as a gateway between them. • Anatomically and histologically, the cervix is distinct from the uterus, and hence we consider it as a separate anatomical structure.
  • 20. ANATOMICAL STRUCTURE • The cervix is composed of two regions; the ectocervix and the endocervical canal. • The ectocervix is the portion of the cervix that projects into the vagina. It is lined by stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium. The opening in the ectocervix, the external os, marks the transition from the ectocervix to the endocervical canal. • The endocervical canal (or endocervix) is the more proximal, and ‘inner’ part of the cervix. It is lined by a mucus-secreting simple columnar epithelium. The endocervical canal ends, and the uterine cavity begins, at a narrowing called the internal os.
  • 21. FUNCTION • The cervix performs two main functions: • It facilitates the passage of sperm into the uterine cavity. This is achieved via dilation of the external and internal os. • Maintains sterility of the upper female reproductive tract. The cervix, and all structures superior to it, are sterile. This ultimately protects the uterine cavity and the upper genital tract by preventing bacterial invasion. This environment is maintained by the frequent shedding of the endometrium, thick cervical mucus and a narrow external os.
  • 22. VASCULAR SUPPLY AND LYMPHATICS • The blood supply to the uterus is via the uterine artery. Venous drainage is via a plexus in the broad ligament that drains into the uterine veins. • Lymphatic drainage of the uterus is via the iliac, sacral, aortic and inguinal lymph nodes.
  • 23.
  • 24. The uterus is a thick-walled, muscular, pear-shaped organ Located in the middle of the pelvis, behind the bladder, and in front of the rectum. The uterus is anchored in position by several ligaments. The uterus consists of the cervix and the main body (corpus).
  • 25. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus, which protrudes into the upper part of the vagina. It can be seen during a pelvic examination. Like the vagina, the cervix is lined with a mucous membrane, but the mucous membrane of the cervix is smooth. Sperm can enter and menstrual blood can exit the uterus through a channel in the cervix (cervical canal).
  • 26. The cervical canal is usually narrow, but during labor, the canal widens to let the baby through. The cervix is usually a good barrier against bacteria, except around the time an egg is released by the ovaries (ovulation), during the menstrual period, or during labor..
  • 27. The main function of the uterus is to sustain a developing fetus. It prepare for this possibility for eachmonth At termination of pregnancy it expelsthe uterine contents
  • 28. Anterior – the uterovesical pouch and the bladder Posterior – the rectouterine pouch of the douglas Laterally – the broad ligament, the uterine tubes Superior – the intestine Inferior – the vagina
  • 29. Measures 8 cm long, 5 cm wide ,1.25 cm thick Weight 50 gms Parts  The body of corpus  The fundus  The cornua  The isthumus  The cervis  Internal and external os  Cervical canal
  • 30. Endometrum Myometrium Perimetrium ENDOMETRIUM: inner lining of uterus, nourishes developing embryo, built up each month for pregnancy, if not, shed during menstruation MYOMETRIUM: muscular, supports fetus, contracts at birth and to shed the endometrium during menstruation. PERIMETRIUM- The perimetrium is a serous membrane that lines the outside of the uterus.
  • 31. Arteries –uterine artery- branch of internal iliac artery Veins –internal iliac vein Deep andsuperficial lymph vessels NERVE SUPPLY Parasympathetic andsympathetic
  • 32.  connect to each ovary, egg will enter through an opening called a FIMBRIA, cilia sweep the egg down towards the uterus  fertilization will occur here, or it will die within 48 hours
  • 33.
  • 34. The two fallopian tubes, which are about 4 to 5 inches (about 10 to 13 centimeters) long, extend from the upper edges of the uterus toward the ovaries. The fallopian tubes are lined with tiny hairlike projections (cilia). The cilia and the muscles in the tube's wall propel an egg downward through the tube to the uterus. The egg may be fertilized by a sperm in the fallopian tube
  • 35. Anterior, Posteriorand Superior – the peritoneal cavity and intestine Laterally – the sidewall of pelvis Inferior – the broad ligament and the ovaries Medial – the uterus lies between th euterine tubes
  • 36. The intestinal portion The isthumus The ampulla The infundibulum The intra mural part
  • 37. Artery – uterine and ovary Venous – ovarian vein LYMPHATIC Along with the ovarian vessels to para-aortic nodes NERVE SUPPLY Uterine and ovarian nerves
  • 38. The ovaries are usually pearl-colored, oblong, and about the size of a walnut. They are attached to the uterus by ligaments. In addition to producing female sex hormones ( estrogen and progesterone ) and male sex hormones, the ovaries produce and release eggs. The developing egg cells (oocytes) are contained in fluid-filled cavities (follicles) in the wall of the ovaries. Each follicle contains one oocyte.
  • 39.
  • 40. Anterior to the ovaries are the broad ligaments Posterior to the ovaries are the intestine Laterally to the ovaries are the infundibulopelvic ligaments and side walls of the pelvis Superior to the ovaries lie the uterine tube Inferior to the ovaries lies the ovarian ligaments
  • 41. MEDULLA CORTEX MEDULLA -supporting frame work Made of fibrous tissue - Has ovarian blood vessels - Lymphatics and nerve travels through it CORTEX Functioning part of the ovum Contains ovarian follicals in different stage
  • 42. Artery –ovarian and abdominal aorta Venous – ovarian vein LYMPHATIC Along the ovarian vessels to para-aortic nodes NERVE SUPPLY ovarian nerves from T10 segment
  • 43. Process of releasing one mature ovum each month into that ovary’s fallopian tube 2-300,000 immature ova in ovaries at birth Hormones from pituitary cause ovaries to begin producing female sex hormones Ova begin to mature Ovum can live about 2 days in fallopian tube One sperm will enter ovum = fertilization/conception
  • 44. If the ovum is not fertilized – it doesn’t attach to the uterine lining/endometrium Muscles of the uterus contract  lining breaks down (“cramps”) Lining passes through the cervix into the vagina and out of the vaginal opening
  • 45. EACH MONTH, UTERUS PREPARES FOR POSSIBLE PREGNANCY  Hormones cause thickening of endometrium  If ovum is fertilized, it moves into the uterus and may burrow into this lining  Will divide millions of times over 9-10 months
  • 46. • Process of shedding the lining of the uterus • Usually lasts 4-7 days (may be shorter or longer depending on the female’s individual cycle) • Regulated by hormones • Rest of flow is other tissue that makes up the endometrium – Blood and tissue are not needed,person should not be weak or ill from loss – After period (“menses”), cyclebegins again.
  • 47. A WOMAN’S MENSTRUAL CYCLE IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR PHASES: menstrual phase follicular phase ovulation phase luteal phase
  • 48.
  • 49. MENSTRUAL PHASE • The menstrual phase is the first stage of the menstrual cycle. It’s also when the women get the women period. • This phase starts when an egg from the previous cycle isn’t fertilized. Because pregnancy hasn’t taken place, levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone drop. • The thickened lining of the women uterus, which would support a pregnancy, is no longer needed, so it sheds through the women vagina. During the women period, the women release a combination of blood, mucus, and tissue from the women uterus • symptoms like these: • cramps , tender breasts, bloating, mood swings, irritability, headaches, tiredness & low back pain • On average, women are in the menstrual phase of their cycle for 3 to 7 days. Some women have longer periods than others.
  • 50. FOLLICULAR PHASE • The follicular phase starts on the first day of the women period (so there is some overlap with the menstrual phase) and ends when the women ovulate. • It starts when the hypothalamus sends a signal to the women pituitary gland to release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This hormone stimulates the women ovaries to produce around 5 to 20 small sacs called follicles. Each follicle contains an immature egg. • Only the healthiest egg will eventually mature. (On rare occasions, a woman may have two eggs mature.) The rest of the follicles will be reabsorbed into the women body. • The maturing follicle sets off a surge in estrogen that thickens the lining of the women uterus. This creates a nutrient-rich environment for an embryo to grow. • The average follicular phaseTrusted Source lasts for about 16 days. It can range from 11 to 27 days, depending on the women cycle.
  • 51. OVULATION PHASE • Rising estrogen levels during the follicular phase trigger the women pituitary gland to release luteinizing hormone (LH). This is what starts the process of ovulation. • Ovulation is when the women ovary releases a mature egg. The egg travels down the fallopian tube toward the uterus to be fertilized by sperm. • The ovulation phase is the only time during the women menstrual cycle when the women can get pregnant. You can tell that you’re ovulating by symptoms like these: • a slight rise in basal body temperature • thicker discharge that has the texture of egg whites • Ovulation happens at around day 14 if the women have a 28-day cycle — right in the middle of the women menstrual cycle. It lasts about 24 hours. After a day, the egg will die or dissolve if it isn’t fertilized.
  • 52. LUTEAL PHASE • After the follicle releases its egg, it changes into the corpus luteum. This structure releases hormones, mainly progesterone and some estrogen. The rise in hormones keeps the women uterine lining thick and ready for a fertilized egg to implant. • If the women do get pregnant, the women body will produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). This is the hormone pregnancy tests detect. It helps maintain the corpus luteum and keeps the uterine lining thick. • If the women don’t get pregnant, the corpus luteum will shrink away and be resorbed. This leads to decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone, which causes the onset of the women period. The uterine lining will shed during the women period. • During this phase, if the women don’t get pregnant, the women may experience symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). These include: Bloating, breast swelling, pain, or tenderness, mood changes, Headache, weight gain, changes in sexual desire, food cravings & trouble sleeping • The luteal phase lasts for 11 to 17 days. The average lengthTrusted Source is 14 days.
  • 53.
  • 54. The mammary glands are sweat glands specialized for the production of milk. The milk- producing secretory cells form walls of bulb-shaped chambers called alveoli that join together with ducts, in grapelike fashion, to form clusters called lobules.
  • 55.
  • 56. REFERNCES • Dutta, D. C., Hiralal, K., & Konar, H. (2018). DC Dutta’s Textbook of Obstetrics: Including Perinatology and Contraception (9th ed.). Jaypee Brothers Medical Pub. • Fhea, W. A. M. C. S. R., & Rgn, G. A. B. P. (2018). Ross & Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness (13th ed.). Elsevier. • Female Reproductive System: Structure & Function. (2021). Cleveland Clinic. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/9118-female-reproductive-system • The Vulva - Structure - Innervation. (2020, August 15). TeachMeAnatomy. https://teachmeanatomy.info/pelvis/female-reproductive-tract/the-vulva/ • Your Guide to the Female Reproductive System. (2002, February 5). WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/sex-relationships/guide/your-guide-female-reproductive- system