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F O R H U M A N D I G N I T Y

  1. 1. FOR HUMAN DIGNITY EXTRACTS FROM INTERVENTIONSOF BENEDICT XVI AND THE HOLY SEE ABOUT INTERNATIONAL QUESTIONS
  2. 2. « For human dignity » gathers extracts from speeches of the Pope and Holy See Delegates before InternationalOrganizations. This publication could be a good guideline and a constant reference for those working in theinternational arena. The publication has been made possible thanks to the offer of the Librería Editrice Vaticana which owns thecopyright. Furthermore, FPSC would like to thank Johan Ketelers, Secretary General of the International CatholicMigration Commission for the idea of setting up this project and giving us the opportunity to publish and diffuseit among the participants of the 2010 Forum. February 2010 EDITED BY: EDITADO POR: Fundación Promoción Social de la Cultura Huertas, 71, 5º Dcha. 28014 Madrid (Spain) Tel.: 34-91 344 01 76 Fax: 34-91 344 03 66 e-mail: fpsc@fundacionfpsc.org www.fundacionfpsc.org© Copyright 2010 Libreria Editrice Vaticana, concession has been offered
  3. 3. INDEXINTRODUCTION................................................................................................................ 1DEVELOPMENT AND COOPERATION....................................................................... 3 Development Aid .............................................................................................................. 3 Trade ................................................................................................................................... 5 Globalization...................................................................................................................... 7 Business .............................................................................................................................. 9 Finance ................................................................................................................................10 Companies..........................................................................................................................12 Work....................................................................................................................................13 Human person ...................................................................................................................15 Population ..........................................................................................................................17 Food security......................................................................................................................18 Food Safety.........................................................................................................................20 Solidarity and Cooperation..............................................................................................22 Subsidiarity ........................................................................................................................24 Human Development .......................................................................................................25 Rural Development ...........................................................................................................28ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ............................................................................................31 Environment ......................................................................................................................31 Human Ecology .................................................................................................................32EDUCATION ........................................................................................................................35 Integral Education.............................................................................................................35 Inclusive Education...........................................................................................................36 Cultural Integration ..........................................................................................................37RELIGIOUS ISSUES ...........................................................................................................39 Religious Freedom ............................................................................................................39 Interreligious Dialogue.....................................................................................................42HUMAN RIGHTS................................................................................................................45 Dignity and Human Nature ............................................................................................45 Rights and Responsibilities..............................................................................................47 Right to Food......................................................................................................................49
  4. 4. Right to education, training and instruction .................................................................52 Promotion of women ........................................................................................................53 Childhood...........................................................................................................................55 Trade-unionism .................................................................................................................57PEACE AND SECURITY ....................................................................................................59 International Humanitarian Rights ................................................................................60 Disarmament......................................................................................................................61 Peace, Right of the responsibility to protect..................................................................64HUMAN MOBILITY, MIGRATION AND REFUGEES ..............................................67 Migration ............................................................................................................................67 Refugees..............................................................................................................................70 Trafficking in human beings............................................................................................73 International Tourism.......................................................................................................74LIFE AND HEALTH ............................................................................................................75 Health care .........................................................................................................................75 Life.......................................................................................................................................76 Drugs...................................................................................................................................79 HIV/AIDS ..........................................................................................................................79SOCIAL ISSUES...................................................................................................................83 Family .................................................................................................................................83 Social Integration...............................................................................................................84 Means of Social Communication ....................................................................................87 Technology .........................................................................................................................89
  5. 5. INTRODUCTIONIt is my pleasure to introduce this collection of highlights related to the positioning andpolicy work of the Holy See. The collection of excerpts primarily intends to serve as areminder of some of the more recent statements of the Church on various subjects ofinterest and aims to be of good use, both in better preparing for the upcoming 2010Forum meeting, and in building the future political commitments of Catholic-inspiredNGOs.In searching for those elements that would prove to be most useful, we came acrossmany more documents and the initiative gradually became a major effort in selectingthose that seemed most relevant to recent positioning. We wanted these highlights tobe organized in accordance with the themes already identified during the previousmapping exercise of the policy work of Catholic-inspired NGOs, but rapidly came tothe conclusion that, for reading purposes and to avoid a repetition of excerpts resortingunder various chapters, a more detailed subdivision would be necessary. Additionalsubdivisions that were not part of the initial approach have therefore been introduced,yet still within the framework of the eight major themes identified.Today the collection includes more than 230 extracts of various documents from thepast three years. The collection is not built on scientific criteria, nor was there muchattention paid to the relationship between the various excerpts. Instead, focus was givento the positioning value, and to the aim to make this a useful tool in preparing for theForum meeting, as well as in the further daily work of Catholic-inspired organisations.It can, therefore, not be read as a compendium or as a unique reference guideline, noris it an exhaustive collection. It serves much more as a reminder and as an appetizer toread more and think further. Hopefully, it also serves as an eye opener on those subjectswith which we are less familiar, and as an invitation to go in more depth in those linesthat are repeatedly heard, à charge et à décharge, of our Church’s positioning.We hope to see this effort continued, and have therefore included CDs that offer thevery practical potential to use and increase the collection with those excerpts that mayprove to be of use for us. In regularly updating the extracts, the tool may graduallybecome a more exhaustive collection that integrates the work of previous years, as wellas interesting statements made in the future. We would recommend that all of thevarious future thematic groups give this idea some further consideration. Furthermore,compiling, in a similar way, positions taken and statements issued by the variousorganisations could prove to be an extremely valuable complement to show both theway in which Catholic-inspired organisations largely contribute pursuing shared goals,and how much is being targeted and worked at today.This volume owes a lot to the patient research work done by Marco Rotunno, MarcoBattelli, Maria Letizia Perugini and Laura Vaticano. Their extensive reading and 1
  6. 6. selections have no doubt contributed significantly to the quality of this collection. Wealso want to express great gratitude to Mrs. Pilar Lara, President of the Foundation forthe Social Promotion of Culture (Fundación de la Promoción Social de la Cultura-FPSC)who offered to edit the collection to be handed to all participants of the Forum. Ourgratitude also includes the relentless coordination efforts of Mrs. Fermina Alvarez,whose great determination and conviction have greatly contributed to achieving thisfirst collection in very limited time.We sincerely hope to see this effort continued and integrated as a goal in the continuedForum process. We are convinced that such an initiative will make an importantcontribution to enhancing our collective Catholic-inspired identity, and increasevisibility of the work and commitment carried by so many organisations. Johan Ketelers Chair of the Working Group 2
  7. 7. DEVELOPMENT AND COOPERATIONDevelopment AidThe international development aid, whatever the donors’ intentions, can sometimes lockpeople into a state of dependence and even foster situations of localized oppressionand exploitation in the receiving country. Economic aid, in order to be true to itspurpose, must not pursue secondary objectives. It must be distributed with theinvolvement not only of the governments of receiving countries, but also local economicagents and the bearers of culture within civil society, including local Churches. Aidprogrammes must increasingly acquire the characteristics of participation andcompletion from the grass roots. Indeed, the most valuable resources in countriesreceiving development aid are human resources: herein lies the real capital that needsto accumulate in order to guarantee a truly autonomous future for the poorestcountries. It should also be remembered that, in the economic sphere, the principalform of assistance needed by developing countries is that of allowing and encouragingthe gradual penetration of their products into international markets, thus making itpossible for these countries to participate fully in international economic life. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 58 *International cooperation requires people who can be part of the process of economic andhuman development through the solidarity of their presence, supervision, training andrespect. From this standpoint, international organizations might question the actualeffectiveness of their bureaucratic and administrative machinery, which is oftenexcessively costly. […] Within this context of responsibility you place the right of eachcountry to define its own economic model by providing ways of ensuring their freedomof choice and goals. In this perspective, cooperation is to became effective, free fromconstraints and interests that can absorb a significant proportion of resources devotedto development. It’ s also important to stress that the path of solidarity for thedevelopment of the poor countries can also become a way of resolving the global crisis.Arguing, in fact, with plans to finance solidarity inspired by these Nations to arrangefor themselves to meet their consumers demand and development not only promoteseconomic growth in them, but you can have a positive impact on overall humandevelopment other countries. Benedict XVI, Visit to the Palace of the FAO on the occasion of the 36th Session of the General Conference of the United Nation Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, November 16, 2009 *Therefore with the same force as that with which John Paul II asked for the cancellationof the foreign debt I too would like to appeal to the member countries of the G8, to theother States represented and to the Governments of the whole world to maintain and 3
  8. 8. reinforce aid for development, especially aid destined to “make the most” of “humanresources”, not only in spite of the crisis, but precisely because it is one of the principalpaths to its solution. Is it not in fact through investment in the human being in all themen and women of the earth that it will be possible to succeed in effectively dispellingthe disturbing prospective of global recession? Is not this truly the way to obtain, tothe extent possible, a trend in the world economy that benefits the inhabitants of everycountry, rich and poor, large and small? Benedict XVI, Letter to Hon. Mr Silvio Berlusconi, Prime Minister of Italy, on the occasion of the G8 Summit (L’Aquila, 8-10 July 2009), July 1, 2009 *The aid given to poor countries must be guided by sound economic principles, avoidingform of waste associated principally with the maintenance of expensive bureaucratise. Benedict XVI, Message for the celebration of the XLI World Day of Peace, January 1, 2008 *The current crisis has raised the spectre of the cancellation or drastic reduction ofexternal assistance programmes, especially for Africa and for less developed countrieselsewhere. Development aid, including the commercial and financial conditionsfavourable to less developed countries and the cancellation of the external debt of thepoorest and most indebted countries, has not been the cause of the crisis and, out offundamental justice, must not be its victim. Benedict XVI, Letter to the Right Hon. Gordon Brown Prime Minister of Great Britain at the Vigil of the G20 Summit in London, March 30, 2009 *Long-term financing programs are needed to overcome the external debt of the highlyindebted poor countries (HIPC), consolidate the economic and constitutional systemsand create a social safety network. Likewise, international trading conditions have toconform to its proper needs and economic challenges. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 64 Session of the Un Assembly before the Plenary: th “Progress in implementation and International Support”, New York, October 21, 2009 *Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising theability of future generations to meet their needs. Likewise, sustainable financing shouldmeet the present capital needs for development, while ensuring the long-termpreservation and increase of resources. It is time for developed and developing 4
  9. 9. countries alike to reaffirm the principle of sustainable financial development apply itto financial markets and thus create truly sustainable capital management. Such is thegreat challenge of this Conference: nothing less than to ensure, in a sustainable way, thefinancing for development. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the Doha Conference on Financing for Development, Doha, December 1, 2008 *Although international aid is important, even more crucial is a fair international tradeenvironment, where correct practices that are biased to the detriment of the weaker economies. Intervention by The Holy See at the 62nd UN General Assembly on “Recognizing achievements, addressing the challenges and getting back on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015”, New York, April 4, 2008TradeIn a climate of mutual trust, the market is the economic institution that permitsencounter between persons, inasmuch as they are economic subjects who make use ofcontracts to regulate their relations as they exchange goods and services of equivalentvalue between them, in order to satisfy their needs and desires. The market is subjectto the principles of so-called commutative justice, which regulates the relations of givingand receiving between parties to a transaction. But the social doctrine of the Church hasunceasingly highlighted the importance of distributive justice and social justice for themarket economy, not only because it belongs within a broader social and politicalcontext, but also because of the wider network of relations within which it operates. Infact, if the market is governed solely by the principle of the equivalence in value ofexchanged goods, it cannot produce the social cohesion that it requires in order tofunction well. Without internal forms of solidarity and mutual trust, the market cannotcompletely fulfil its proper economic function. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 35 *Economic activity cannot solve all social problems through the simple application ofcommercial logic. This needs to be directed towards the pursuit of the common good, for whichthe political community in particular must also take responsibility. Therefore, it mustbe borne in mind that grave imbalances are produced when economic action, conceivedmerely as an engine for wealth creation, is detached from political action, conceived asa means for pursuing justice through redistribution […] The great challenge before us,accentuated by the problems of development in this global era and made even moreurgent by the economic and financial crisis, is to demonstrate, in thinking and 5
  10. 10. behaviour, not only that traditional principles of social ethics like transparency, honestyand responsibility cannot be ignored or attenuated, but also that in commercialrelationships the principle of gratuitousness and the logic of gift as an expression offraternity can and must find their place within normal economic activity. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 36 *The increasing globalization of markets does not always promote the availability offood and production systems are often constrained by structural limitations, as well asprotectionist policies and speculative phenomena that relegate entire populations tothe margins of development processes. In light of this situation, we must reaffirmstrongly that hunger and malnutrition are unacceptable in a world that, in fact, level ofproduction, resources and knowledge sufficient to put an end to this tragedies and theirconsequences. The great challenge today is to “globalize not only economic andcommercial interests, but also the expectations of solidarity, respecting and promotingthe contribution of each component of man. Benedict XVI, Message to the High Level Conference on World Food Security sponsored by FAO, Rome, June 2, 2008 *Global interconnectedness has led to the emergence of a new political power, that ofconsumers and their associations. This is a phenomenon that needs to be further explored, asit contains positive elements to be encouraged as well as excesses to be avoided. It is goodfor people to realize that purchasing is always a moral —and not simply economic—act. Hence the consumer has a specific social responsibility, which goes hand-in- hand withthe social responsibility of the enterprise. Consumers should be continually educatedregarding their daily role, which can be exercised with respect for moral principleswithout diminishing the intrinsic economic rationality of the act of purchasing. In theretail industry, particularly at times like the present when purchasing power hasdiminished and people must live more frugally, it is necessary to explore other paths:for example, forms of cooperative purchasing like the consumer cooperatives that havebeen in operation since the nineteenth century, partly through the initiative of Catholics.In addition, it can be helpful to promote new ways of marketing products from deprivedareas of the world, so as to guarantee their producers a decent return. However, certainconditions need to be met: the market should be genuinely transparent; the producers,as well as increasing their profit margins, should also receive improved formation inprofessional skills and technology; and finally, trade of this kind must not becomehostage to partisan ideologies. A more incisive role for consumers, as long as theythemselves are not manipulated by associations that do not truly represent them, is adesirable element for building economic democracy. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 66 6
  11. 11. Charity in truth places man before the astonishing experience of gift. Gratuitousness ispresent in our lives in many different forms, which often go unrecognized because ofa purely consumerist and utilitarian view of life. The human being is made for gift,which expresses and makes present his transcendent dimension […] Economic, socialand political development, if it is to be authentically human, needs to make room forthe principle of gratuitousness as an expression of fraternity. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 34 *In the global era, economic activity cannot rescind from gratuitousness, which fostersand disseminates solidarity and responsibility for justice and the common good amongthe different economic players. It is clearly a specific and profound form of economicdemocracy […] While in the past it was possible to argue that justice had to come firstand gratuitousness could follow afterwards, as a complement, today it is clear thatwithout gratuitousness, there can be no justice in the first place. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 38 *The dignity of the individual and the demands of justice require, particularly today,that economic choices do not cause disparities in wealth to increase in an excessive andmorally unacceptable manner, and that we continue to prioritize the goal of access to steadyemployment for everyone […] Lowering the level of protection accorded to the rights ofworkers, or abandoning mechanisms of wealth redistribution in order to increase thecountry’s international competitiveness, hinder the achievement of lastingdevelopment. Moreover, the human consequences of current tendencies towards ashort-term economy —sometimes very short-term— need to be carefully evaluated. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 32 *In addressing food insecurity, due consideration must be given to the structuralsystems, such as subsidies in developed countries and commodity dumping whichdrives down the ability of African farmers to make a living wage. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 64 Session of the General Assembly before the Plenary, on item 63: th “New economic partnership for Africa’s Development: progress in implementation and international support”, New York, October 21, 2009GlobalizationGlobalization has been the principal driving force behind the emergence fromunderdevelopment of whole regions, and in itself it represents a great opportunity. 7
  12. 12. Nevertheless, without the guidance of charity in truth, this global force could causeunprecedented damage and create new divisions within the human family. Hencecharity and truth confront us with an altogether new and creative challenge, one thatis certainly vast and complex. It is about broadening the scope of reason and making itcapable of knowing and directing these powerful new forces, animating them within theperspective of that “civilization of love” whose seed God has planted in every people,in every culture. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 33 *Globalization eliminates certain barriers, but is still able to build new ones; it bringspeoples together, but spatial and temporal proximity does not of itself create theconditions for true communion and authentic peace. Effective means to redress themarginalization of the world’s poor through globalization will only be found if peopleeverywhere feel personally outraged by the injustices in the world and by theconcomitant violations of human rights. The Church […] will continue to offer hercontribution so that injustices and misunderstandings may be resolved, leading to aworld of greater peace and solidarity. Benedict XVI, Message for the celebration of the XLII World Day of Peace, n. 8, January 1, 2009 *Globalization by itself is incapable of making peace and, in many cases, it actuallycreates divisions and conflicts. It points to a need: to be oriented to a goals ofprofound solidarity which seeks the good of each and everyone. In this sense,globalization is seen as a good opportunity to achieve something important in thefight against poverty and for providing justice and peace resources previouslyunthinkable. Benedict XVI, Message for the celebration of the XLII World Day of Peace, n. 14, January 1, 2009 *Fighting poverty requires a careful consideration of the complex phenomenon ofglobalization. This consideration is important form the point of view of method,because it suggests using the result of research conducted by economists and socialscientists on many aspects of poverty. The appeal of globalization should, however,also carry a spiritual meaning and moral calling to look in order to be aware all sharea single divine plan, that of the vocation to be a single family in which everyone–individuals, populations and nations- regulate their behaviour based on principles ofbrotherhood and responsibility. Benedict XVI, Message for the celebration of the XLII World Day of Peace, n. 2, January 1, 2009 8
  13. 13. Sometimes globalization is viewed in fatalistic terms, as if the dynamics involved werethe product of anonymous impersonal forces or structures independent of the humanwill. In this regard it is useful to remember that while globalization should certainly beunderstood as a socio-economic process, this is not its only dimension. Underneath themore visible process, humanity itself is becoming increasingly interconnected; it ismade up of individuals and peoples to whom this process should offer benefits anddevelopment, as they assume their respective responsibilities, singly and collectively.The breaking-down of borders is not simply a material fact: it is also a cultural eventboth in its causes and its effects […] Hence a sustained commitment is needed so as topromote a person-based and community-oriented cultural process of world-wide integrationthat is open to transcendence. Despite some of its structural elements, which shouldneither be denied nor exaggerated, “globalization, a priori, is neither good nor bad. Itwill be what people make of it”. We should not be its victims, but rather itsprotagonists, acting in the light of reason, guided by charity and truth. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 42BusinessA “common code of ethics” is also needed, consisting of norms based not upon mereconsensus, but rooted in the natural law inscribed by the Creator on the conscience ofevery human being (cf. Rom 2, 14-15). Does not every one of us sense deep within hisor her conscience a call to make a personal contribution to the common good and topeace in society? Benedict XVI, Message for the celebration of the XLII World Day of Peace, n. 8, January 1, 2009 *Striving to meet the deepest moral needs of the person also has important and beneficialrepercussions at the level of economics. The economy needs ethics in order to functioncorrectly — not any ethics whatsoever, but an ethics which is people-centred […] Effortsare needed —and it is essential to say this— not only to create “ethical” sectors orsegments of the economy or the world of finance, but to ensure that the whole economy—the whole of finance— is ethical, not merely by virtue of an external label, but by itsrespect for requirements intrinsic to its very nature. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 45 *The economy Healthy, you have to build a new confidence. This can only be achievedthrough the implementation of an ethic based on the innate dignity of the human person. Benedict XVI, Address to the members of the Diplomatic Corps, Rome, January 8, 2009 9
  14. 14. Financial crises are triggered when –partially due to the decline of correct ethicalconduct– those working in the economic sector lose trust in its modes of operatingand in its financial systems. Nevertheless, finance, commerce and productionsystems are contingent human creations which, if they become objects of blind faith,bear within themselves the roots of their own downfall. Their true and solidfoundation is faith in the human person. For this reason all the measures proposedto rein in this crisis must seek, ultimately, to offer security to families and stabilityto workers and, through appropriate regulations and controls, to restore ethics tothe financial world. Benedict XVI, Letter to the Right Hon. Gordon Brown Prime Minister of Great Britain at the vigil of the G20 Summit in London, March 30, 2009 *There are economic, juridical and cultural dimensions of the present crisis. To engagein financial activity cannot be reduced to making easy profits, but also must include thepromotion of the common good among those who lend, those who borrow, and thosewho work. The lack of an ethical base has brought the crisis to low, middle and highincome countries alike. The Delegation of the Holy See, Mr. President, calls for renewed“attention to the need for an ethical approach to the creation of positive partnershipsbetween markets, civil society and States”. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the Special Session of the Human Rights Council on the world financial crisis, Geneva, February 20, 2009FinanceFinance, therefore -through the renewed structures and operating methods that haveto be designed after its misuse, which wreaked such havoc on the real economy- nowneeds to go back to being an instrument directed towards improved wealth creation anddevelopment. Insofar as they are instruments, the entire economy and finance, not justcertain sectors, must be used in an ethical way so as to create suitable conditions forhuman development and for the development of peoples. It is certainly useful, and insome circumstances imperative, to launch financial initiatives in which thehumanitarian dimension predominates. However, this must not obscure the fact thatthe entire financial system has to be aimed at sustaining true development. Above all,the intention to do good must not be considered incompatible with the effectivecapacity to produce goods. Financiers must rediscover the genuinely ethicalfoundation of their activity, so as not to abuse the sophisticated instruments whichcan serve to betray the interests of savers. Right intention, transparency, and the searchfor positive results are mutually compatible and must never be detached from oneanother. If love is wise, it can find ways of working in accordance with provident and 10
  15. 15. just expediency, as is illustrated in a significant way by much of the experience ofcredit unions. Both the regulation of the financial sector, so as to safeguard weakerparties and discourage scandalous speculation, and experimentation with new formsof finance, designed to support development projects, are positive experiences thatshould be further explored and encouraged, highlighting the responsibility of theinvestor. Furthermore, the experience of micro-finance, which has its roots in the thinkingand activity of the civil humanists —I am thinking especially of the birth of pawnbroking— should be strengthened and fine-tuned. This is all the more necessary inthese days when financial difficulties can become severe for many of the morevulnerable sectors of the population, who should be protected from the risk of usuryand from despair. The weakest members of society should be helped to defendthemselves against usury, just as poor peoples should be helped to derive real benefitfrom micro-credit, in order to discourage the exploitation that is possible in these twoareas. Since rich countries are also experiencing new forms of poverty, micro-financecan give practical assistance by launching new initiatives and opening up new sectorsfor the benefit of the weaker elements in society, even at a time of general economicdownturn. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 65 *Lending is a necessary social activity. Nonetheless, financial institutions and agents areresponsible for ensuring that lending fulfils its proper function in society, connectingsavings to production […] Financial activity needs to be sufficiently transparent sothat individual savers, especially the poor and those least protected, understand whatwill become of their savings. This calls not only for effective measures of oversight bygovernments, but also for a high standard of ethical conduct on the part of financialleaders themselves. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 63 Session of the UN General Assembly on the global financial crisis, rd New York, October 30, 2008 *The most important function of finance is to sustain the possibility of long-terminvestment and hence of development. Today this appears extremely fragile: it isexperiencing the negative repercussions of a system of financial dealings –bothnational and global– based upon very short-term thinking, which aims at increasingthe value of financial operations and concentrates on the technical management ofvarious forms of risk. The recent crisis demonstrates how financial activity can attimes be completely turned in on itself, lacking any long-term consideration of thecommon good. This lowering of the objectives of global finance to the very shortterm reduces its capacity to function as a bridge between the present and the future,and as a stimulus to the creation of new opportunities for production and for workin the long term. Finance limited in this way to the short and very short term 11
  16. 16. becomes dangerous for everyone, even for those who benefit when the marketsperform well. Benedict XVI, Message for the celebration of the XLII World Day of Peace, n. 10, January 1, 2009 *It cannot be denied that policies which place too much emphasis on assistance underliemany of the failures in providing aid to poor countries. Investing in the formation ofpeople and developing a specific and well-integrated culture of enterprise would seemat present to be the right approach in the medium and long term. If economic activitiesrequire a favourable context in order to develop, this must not distract attention fromthe need to generate revenue. While it has been rightly emphasized that increasing percapita income cannot be the ultimate goal of political and economic activity, it is still animportant means of attaining the objective of the fight against hunger and absolutepoverty. Hence, the illusion that a policy of mere redistribution of existing wealth candefinitively resolve the problem must be set aside. In a modern economy, the value ofassets is utterly dependent on the capacity to generate revenue in the present and thefuture. Wealth creation therefore becomes an inescapable duty, which must be kept inmind if the fight against material poverty is to be effective in the long term. Benedict XVI, Message for the celebration of the XLII World Day of Peace, n. 11, January 1, 2009,CompaniesWhen we consider the issues involved in the relationship between business and ethics, aswell as the evolution currently taking place in methods of production, it would appearthat the traditionally valid distinction between profit-based companies and non-profitorganizations can no longer do full justice to reality, or offer practical direction for thefuture. In recent decades a broad intermediate area has emerged between the two typesof enterprise. It is made up of traditional companies which nonetheless subscribe tosocial aid agreements in support of underdeveloped countries […] This is not merelya matter of a “third sector”, but of a broad new composite reality embracing the privateand public spheres, one which does not exclude profit, but instead considers it a meansfor achieving human and social ends. […] It is to be hoped that these new kinds ofenterprise will succeed in finding a suitable juridical and fiscal structure in everycountry. Without prejudice to the importance and the economic and social benefits ofthe more traditional forms of business, they steer the system towards a clearer andmore complete assumption of duties on the part of economic subjects. And not onlythat. The very plurality of institutional forms of business gives rise to a market which is not onlymore civilized but also more competitive. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 46 12
  17. 17. In order to promote development at the macroeconomic level it seems necessary toreinforce the productive capacity of the poorer countries by means of investment intechnical formation; this allows for competition in today’s knowledge-based economyand gives support to enterprises that create new jobs and decent work. In this regard,trans-national corporations carry a particular responsibility to facilitate the transfer oftechnology, sponsor capacity building in management, and enable local partners toprovide more employment opportunities. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the Ministerial Segment of the ECOSOC Session of 2007 Fund, Geneva, July 4, 2007WorkNo consideration of the problems associated with development could fail to highlightthe direct link between poverty and unemployment. In many cases, poverty results froma violation of the dignity of human work, either because work opportunities are limited(through unemployment or underemployment), or “because a low value is put onwork and the rights that flow from it, especially the right to a just wage and to thepersonal security of the worker and his or her family”. For this reason, on 1 May2000 on the occasion of the Jubilee of Workers, my venerable predecessor Pope JohnPaul II issued an appeal for “a global coalition in favour of ‘decent work‘”,supporting the strategy of the International Labour Organization. In this way, hegave a strong moral impetus to this objective, seeing it as an aspiration of families inevery country of the world. What is meant by the word “decent” in regard to work?It means work that expresses the essential dignity of every man and woman in thecontext of their particular society: work that is freely chosen, effectively associatingworkers, both men and women, with the development of their community; workthat enables the worker to be respected and free from any form of discrimination;work that makes it possible for families to meet their needs and provide schoolingfor their children, without the children themselves being forced into labour; workthat permits the workers to organize themselves freely, and to make their voicesheard; work that leaves enough room for rediscovering one’s roots at a personal,familial and spiritual level; work that guarantees those who have retired a decentstandard of living. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 63 *I am therefore keen to remind the distinguished participants of the G8 that themeasure of technical efficacy of the provisions to adopt in order to emerge from thecrisis coincides with the measure of its ethical value. In other words, it is necessary tobear in mind practical human and family needs. I refer, for example, to the effectivecreation of positions for all, that enable workers to provide fittingly for their family’s 13
  18. 18. needs and to fulfil their primary responsibility as educators of their children andprotagonists in the community to which they belong. “A society in which this right issystematically denied”, John Paul II wrote, “in which economic policies do not allowworkers to reach satisfactory levels of employment, cannot be justified from an ethicalpoint of view, nor can that society attain social peace” (Centesimus Annus, n. 43; cf.,Laborem Excercens, n. 18). Benedict XVI, Letter to Hon. Mr Silvio Berlusconi, Prime Minister of Italy, on the occasion of the G8 Summit (L’Aquila, 8-10 July 2009), July 1, 2009 *The Holy See, while praising all efforts to improve working conditions, particularlyas regards the poor, and the introduction of new parameters, such as the proposedinstrument for the protection of national workers, emphasizes the need to recognizethat a strategy focused on the job must put the person, not the task, the centre of theproduction process. If you do this, then the decor takes on a new importance and adeeper meaning because it is tied directly to the person and his dignity. Fact, is thedignity of the person providing the basis for establishing the parameters that makedecent job. [...] So a decent job is the main road to overcome the current crisis, astrategy that may well create the conditions for stable economic development andlasting. We have to bet on the creative work of the person and his talent. […] Thesecond element in the strategy for the overcoming should be to outlines policyinitiatives that pay particular attention to supporting small and medium enterprises. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 98 Session of the International Labour Conference, th Geneva, June 10, 2009 *Working parents, both women and men, should be assisted, if necessary by law, tobring their own unique and irreplaceable contribution to the upbringing of theirchildren, to the evident benefit of the whole of society […] The Holy See understandsdecent work as that which is both properly remunerated and worthy of the humanperson. Work is a right but it is also the duty of all people to contribute to the good oftheir society and the whole human family. Work is dignified by the people who do it;but it must also be dignified in itself. Full employment and decent work cannot includework that is not as safe as possible, justly remunerated or worthy of the human person.If work is an essential part of our human vocation, only decent work in this sense canever be suitable for the promotion of human dignity and the achievement of socialdevelopment. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 45 Session of the ECOSOC Commission for Social Development, th Geneva, February 8, 2007 14
  19. 19. The work plays a crucial role in the life of every person who, as a protagonist, showsthat the dignity of labour is linked to the dignity of the human person. Through workpeople engage in their own development and production and exchange of goods andservices and, therefore, the life of their societies as a key architect of development. Theachievement of high levels of quality and dignity of work can not be separated from theissue of health and education. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the XII Session of the Conference of UNCTAD, Accra, 20-25 April 2008 *In the current debate on international labour market, all suggestions should take intoaccount two fundamental facts. First, the importance of “subjective dimension” ofwork. What gives value to work is not his product, but whoever does it. This allows usto speak of the dignity of work. Without this subjective dimension with any concern forthe dignity of work because the only important dimension that becomes linked toeconomic productivity. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 97 Session of the International Labour Conference, th Geneva, June 10, 2008 *The trust between the parties, rather than captured data, is essential in employment. Thepersistence of poverty, unemployment and social disintegration is the result of themistrust and lack of correct relations between the various components of economic andsocial mechanisms. The lack of mutual trust between the parties also means a lack ofconfidence in the future and this, in turn, means no job security. People, especially youngpeople seeking their first job, they discover the meaning of the future and trust in it whenthey find a long term employment with the opportunity of a well-deserved promotion. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 46 Session of the ECOSOC Commission for Social Development, th Geneva, February 7, 2008Human PersonIn development programmes, the principle of the centrality of the human person, as thesubject primarily responsible for development, must be preserved. The principalconcern must be to improve the actual living conditions of the people in a given region,thus enabling them to carry out those duties which their poverty does not presentlyallow them to fulfil. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 47 15
  20. 20. I would like to remind everyone, especially to governments involved to write a profilefor renewed economic and social arrangements in the world, the first capitalpreservation and promotion of the man, the person, in its entirety: ‘The man is theauthor, the centre and goal of all socio-economic life‘. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 25 *Guiding principles of assistance both in natural and human-made disasters need to beimplemented but before all, we must put at the centre of all our interventions the personand her material, psychological and spiritual needs. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the Humanitarian Affairs Segment of the UN Economic and Social Council, Geneva, July 20, 2009 *Only the protection of person, therefore, can combat the root cause of hunger, namelythe closure of human being against their own kind that dissolves solidarity, justifiesthe ways of life and consumer disrupts the social fabric, preserving, if not evendeepening the wake of unjust balances and neglecting the deeper needs of theproperty […] The defence of human dignity in international action, includingemergency help, also to measure the superfluous in view of the need of others and toadminister according to justice the fruits of creation, placing them available to allgenerations. Benedict XVI, Message to the High-Level Conference on World Food Security sponsored by FAO, Rome, 3-5 June 2008 *In this age of increased economic interconnection must make efforts to ensureconsiderable attention to a development approach that focuses on man. In the world,millions of children have no access to ways or means to help them forge a better futurefor themselves and for their community. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy Seeat the 63 Session of UN General Assembly on the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights, rd New York, October 28, 2008 *All the nations of the world and its specialized agencies must commit to “the integraldevelopment of the human, economic progress and social development of all peoples.”All nations are called to recognize that “the human person is the central subject of thedevelopment process and therefore the policies for the development of the humanbeing must do the main participant and beneficiary of development.” This type ofapproach “human” and “integral” should inform themselves of the policies and 16
  21. 21. projects to achieve the second Millennium Development Goals: universal primaryeducation. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 48 International Conference on Education of UNESCO, th Paris, October 26, 2008 *An effective campaign against hunger thus demands far more than a mere scientificstudy to confront climate change or give priority to the agricultural production of food.It is necessary first of all to rediscover the meaning of the human person, in hisindividual and community dimensions, from the founding of family life, a source oflove and affection from which the sense of solidarity and sharing develop. This settingsatisfies the need to build relations between peoples, based on constant and authenticavailability, to enable each country to satisfy the requirements of needy people but alsoto transmit the idea of relations based on a reciprocal exchange of knowledge, values,rapid assistance and respect. Benedict XVI, Message on the occasion of World Food Day, October 13, 2008PopulationThe notion of rights and duties in development must also take account of the problemsassociated with population growth. This is a very important aspect of authenticdevelopment, since it concerns the inalienable values of life and the family. To considerpopulation increase as the primary cause of underdevelopment is mistaken, even froman economic point of view. Suffice it to consider, on the one hand, the significantreduction in infant mortality and the rise in average life expectancy found ineconomically developed countries, and on the other hand, the signs of crisis observablein societies that are registering an alarming decline in their birth rate. Due attentionmust obviously be given to responsible procreation, which among other things has apositive contribution to make to integral human development. The Church, in herconcern for man’s authentic development, urges him to have full respect for humanvalues in the exercise of his sexuality. It cannot be reduced merely to pleasure orentertainment, nor can sex education be reduced to technical instruction aimed solelyat protecting the interested parties from possible disease or the “risk” of procreation.This would be to impoverish and disregard the deeper meaning of sexuality, a meaningwhich needs to be acknowledged and responsibly appropriated not only by individualsbut also by the community. It is irresponsible to view sexuality merely as a source ofpleasure, and likewise to regulate it through strategies of mandatory birth control. Ineither case materialistic ideas and policies are at work, and individuals are ultimatelysubjected to various forms of violence. Against such policies, there is a need to defendthe primary competence of the family in the area of sexuality, as opposed to the State 17
  22. 22. and its restrictive policies, and to ensure that parents are suitably prepared to undertaketheir responsibilities. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 44Food SecurityThe goods of nature are meant for everyone in the world community and economic lifeshould be oriented towards the sharing of these assets towards their sustainable useand equitable sharing of benefits arising from. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 44 *Resources to solve the problem of poverty do exist, even in the face of an increasingpopulation. Nor must it be forgotten that, since the end of the Second World War, theworld’s population has grown by four billion, largely because of certain countries thathave recently emerged on the international scene as new economic powers, and haveexperienced rapid development specifically because of the large number of theirinhabitants. Moreover, among the most developed nations, those with higherbirth-rates enjoy better opportunities for development. In other words, population isproving to be an asset, not a factor that contributes to poverty. Benedict XVI, Message for the celebration of the XLII World Day of Peace, n. 3, January 1, 2009 *The objective of eradicating hunger and at the same time of being able to providehealthy and sufficient food also demands specific methods and actions that mean awise use of resources that respect Creation’s patrimony. The result of working in thisdirection will benefit not only science, research and technology, but also take intoaccount the cycles and rhythm of nature known to the inhabitants of rural areas, thusprotecting the traditional customs of the indigenous communities, leaving asideegotistical and exclusively economic motivations. Benedict XVI, Message on the occasion of World Food Day, October 4, 2007 * Questions linked to the care and preservation of the environment today need to give dueconsideration to the energy problem […] The international community has an urgent dutyto find institutional means of regulating the exploitation of non-renewable resources,involving poor countries in the process, in order to plan together for the future. On thisfront too, there is a pressing moral need for renewed solidarity, especially in relationshipsbetween developing countries and those that are highly industrialized. Thetechnologically advanced societies can and must lower their domestic energy 18
  23. 23. consumption, either through an evolution in manufacturing methods or through greaterecological sensitivity among their citizens. It should be added that at present it is possibleto achieve improved energy efficiency while at the same time encouraging research intoalternative forms of energy. What is also needed, though, is a worldwide redistributionof energy resources, so that countries lacking those resources can have access to them. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 49 *One area where there is a particular need to intensify dialogue between nations is thatof the stewardship of the earth’s energy resources. The technologically advanced countriesare facing two pressing needs in this regard: on the one hand, to reassess the high levelsof consumption due to the present model of development, and on the other hand toinvest sufficient resources in the search for alternative sources of energy and for greaterenergy efficiency. The emerging counties are hungry for energy, but at times thishunger is met in a way harmful to poor countries which, due to their insufficientinfrastructures, including their technological infrastructures, are forced to undersellthe energy resources they do possess. At times, their very political freedom iscompromised by forms of protectorate or, in any case, by forms of conditioning whichappear clearly humiliating. Benedict XVI, Message for the celebration of the World Day of Peace, n. 8, January 1, 2008 *Availability of and access to energy has a profound positive impact on health,education, nutrition and income opportunities. Improving access to energy requiresbetter infrastructure, ensured by appropriate legal and institutional “frameworks”. Thisinevitably needs the involvement of local institutions, which can more easily identifythe type of energy, including the forms of financing and marketing most appropriatefor the complex realities of the zone. Where this access is denied to the poor or delayeddue to various reasons, more efficient and sustainable use of traditional energyresources should be promoted, existing energy efficiency improved and conservationby relying on a mix of available technologies encouraged. […] The field of renewableenergy presents a challenge and an opportunity for Governments and all other relevantstakeholders, including the private sector, civil society and international organizations,to work together to address this pressing challenge. The common initiatives ofrenewable energy should also be based on “intergenerational justice” since the energyconsumption pattern of today impacts future generations. We should not burden futuregenerations with our overstated energy consumption. Therefore a change of lifestyle isimperative in this regard. In this way, renewable energy programs will ensure an“intergenerational solidarity” beyond national and economic boundaries.Finally, for successful renewable energy programs, proper energy consciousnesseducation and ongoing energy learning are vital. In this regard, civil society and 19
  24. 24. faith-based organizations can contribute a great deal to raising awareness about andadvocating for the use of renewable energy sources at the grass-roots level. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 64 Session of the UN General Assembly on item 53: th Promotion of New and Renewable Sources of Energy, New York, November 3, 2009Food SafetyAccess to food, rather than a primary need, is a fundamental right of individuals andpeoples. It can become a reality and a security if it is guaranteed a satisfactorydevelopment in all regions. In particular, the tragedy of hunger can be overcome only“by eliminating the structural causes that provoke and promote agriculturaldevelopment in poorer countries through investment in rural investment in ruralinfrastructure in irrigation system in transport, organization of market training anddissemination of appropriate agricultural techniques, that is able to harness the human,natural and socio-economic more accessible locally. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 27 *The considerations of a purely technical or economic should not override the duties ofjustice toward those who suffer from hunger. The right to “respond mainly to ethicaljustification: ‘give food to the hungry’ (cf. Mt 25, 35), which leads to share the tangiblesign of what we all need [...] This law Primary Food is intrinsically linked to theprotection and defence of human life, rock solid and inviolable which rests the wholeedifice of human rights. Benedict XVI, Message to the High-Level Conference on World Food Security sponsored by FAO, Rome, 3-5 June 2008 *Ensure individuals and peoples an opportunity to defeat the scourge of hunger meansensuring their access to adequate and practical healthy eating. This is, in fact, a concretemanifestation of the right to life, which, while solemnly proclaimed, is too often farfrom full implementation. Benedict XVI, Message for the World Food Day, October 16, 2009 *The call to solidarity operates, in fact, can mean to the world, gives meaning andprimary importance to the work of farmers as an essential economic activity. This placesthe goal of food security in a climate of respect and mutual love of authentic sharing, 20
  25. 25. recognizing and reinforcing the truth of the fundamental dignity and equality of everyperson. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 29 FAO Regional Conference for Asia and the Pacific, th Bangkok, March 28, 2009 *Food security is the outcome of a special commitment in finding the most adequateengagement to carry out, with effectiveness and coherence, programs that grant orimprove the fundamental right of each individual and community to be free from hunger. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 29 Session of the FAO Regional Conference for the Near East, th Cairo, 1–5 March, 2008 *An ordered research aimed at improving agricultural production so as to meet thegrowing food demand, must not forget the reasons of food security which is theconsumers’ health, nor crop sustainability, i.e. the environmental protection. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 35th Special Session of the FAO Conference, Rome, November 20, 2008 *The responsibility to protect the climate requires us to further deepen the interactionsbetween food security and climate change, focusing on the centrality of the human person,in particular on the most vulnerable populations, often located in rural areas of developingcountries. The strategies to confront the challenges of food security and climate change,through synergic actions of adaptation and mitigation, must take into account thecentrality of these populations, respecting their culture and traditional customs. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy Seeat the Second Committee of the 63 Session of the UN General Assembly on sustainable development, rd New York, October 28, 2008 *The problem of food insecurity needs to be addressed within a long-term perspective,eliminating the structural causes that give rise to it and promoting the agriculturaldevelopment of poorer countries. This can be done by investing in rural infrastructures,irrigation systems, transport, organization of markets, and in the development anddissemination of agricultural technology that can make the best use of the human,natural and socio-economic resources that are more readily available at the local level,while guaranteeing their sustainability over the long term as well. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 27 21
  26. 26. If the aim is the elimination of hunger, international action is called not only toencourage the sustainable and balanced economic growth and political stability, butalso to seek new standards -and then necessarily ethical legal and economic- that caninspire the ‘cooperative activities to build an equal relationship between countries thatare in a different stage of development. [...] To fight hunger by promoting integralhuman development, we must also understand the needs of rural as well as prevent thetrend towards decreasing the contribution of donors creates uncertainty in the fundingof cooperative activities; go averted the danger that the rural world be considered, asa short-sighted, as secondary. At the same time, it should facilitate access to theinternational market for products from the poorest areas, now often relegated to limitedspace. To achieve these objectives is necessary to strip the rules of international tradeto profit-making end in itself, directing them to the economic development of thecountries most in need, who, it provides more revenue, may proceed to sufficientlythat is a prelude to food safety. [...] By the Catholic Church there will always focus onefforts to eradicate hunger and we will be committed to support, by word and deed, theconsolidated action -planned, responsible and regulated- that all components of theinternational community will be called upon to undertake. The Church does notpresume to interfere in political decisions, it is respectful of knowledge and results ofscience as well as the choices are determined by a responsible right when illuminatedby authentic human values, joins the effort to eliminate hunger. This is the mostimmediate and concrete sign of solidarity inspired by love, a sign that leaves no roomfor delays and compromises. Such solidarity is relying on technology, laws andinstitutions to meet the aspirations of people, communities and entire peoples, butshould not exclude the religious dimension, with its powerful spiritual force and thepromotion of the human person. Recognizing the transcendent value of every man andevery woman is the first step to encourage that change of heart that can sustain thecommitment to eradicate poverty, hunger and poverty in all its forms. Benedict XVI, Visit to the Palace of the FAO for the 36th Session of the General Conference of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, November 16, 2009Solidarity and CooperationTrue solidarity, though it begins with the recognition of the equal worth of the takesplace only when I willingly place my life in the service of them (cf. Eph 6, 21). This isthe vertical dimension of solidarity: I am moved to make me less of the other to meettheir needs (cf. Jn 13, 14-15), just as Jesus “humbled himself” to allow men and womento in his divine life with the Father and the Spirit (cf. Phil 2, 8, Mt 23, 12). Benedict XVI, Address to participants in the Plenary Assembly of the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences, May 3, 2008 22
  27. 27. It should be a spirit of solidarity conducive to promoting as those ethical principles donot “negotiable” for their nature and their role as the foundation of social life. Solidarityimbued with strong sense of fraternal love leads to appreciate the initiatives of othersto facilitate and cooperate with them. Benedict XVI, Address to participants in the NGO Forum of Catholic inspiration, December 1, 2007 *Peace is a commitment and a way of life which demands that you meet the legitimateexpectations of all, such as access to food, water and energy, medicine and technology,and the monitoring of climate change. Only then can we build the future of humanity,the only way to foster the integral development for today and tomorrow. Forging aparticularly happy, Pope Paul VI pointed out 40 years ago, in the encyclical PopulorumProgressio, that “development is the new name of peace.” For that reason, consolidatingpeace requires that the macroeconomic results, obtained by several developingcountries in 2007, is supported by effective social policies, and the laying of assistancecommitments by rich countries. Benedict XVI, Address to the Diplomatic Corps, January 7, 2008 *In those countries whose population is majority Christian, the call to share is even moreurgent, since their responsibility toward the many who suffer poverty andabandonment is even greater. To come to their aid is a duty of justice even prior tobeing an act of charity […] If, in accomplishing a good deed, we do not have as ourgoal God’s glory and the real well being of our brothers and sisters, looking rather fora return of personal interest or simply of applause, we place ourselves outside of theGospel vision. In today’s world of images, attentive vigilance is required, since thistemptation is great. Almsgiving, according to the Gospel, is not mere philanthropy:rather it is a concrete expression of charity, a theological virtue that demands interiorconversion to love of God and neighbour. Benedict XVI, Message for the Lent, 2008 *The principle of subsidiarity must remain closely linked to the principle of solidarity and viceversa, since the former without the latter gives way to social privatism, while the latterwithout the former gives way to paternalist social assistance that is demeaning to thosein need. This general rule must also be taken broadly into consideration when addressingissues concerning international development aid […] Aid programmes must increasinglyacquire the characteristics of participation and completion from the grass roots. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 58 23
  28. 28. Perhaps it is necessary to direct aid to more targeted and less generic projects that canbring about tangible, measurable and empowering change in the daily life-experienceof individuals and families and in the social fabric of the community. Directing aid tothe creation of jobs would fall within this approach. Such effective aid requires multiplechannels of distribution and should reach the basic infrastructure of communities thatis assured not only by governments but also by community-based organizations andinstitutions, including those sponsored by faith-groups, such as schools, hospitals andclinics, community centres, and youth training and recreation programs. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the Ministerial Segment of the ECOSOC Session of 2007 Fund, Geneva, July 4, 2007SubsidiaritySolidarity and subsidiarity can be viewed as complementary. While the former relatesto the mobilization of financial and human resources for development, the latter helpsto identify the most appropriate level of decision-making and intervention. Theprinciple of subsidiarity can therefore be seen as a cross-cutting criterion for the creationof the enabling environment to the right to development. It allows the participation ofthe beneficiaries of aid in the process of development through the responsible use oftheir freedom and talents. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy Seeat the 12 Ordinary Session of the United Nations Human Rights Council on the right to development, th Geneva, September 22, 2009 *Subsidiarity is first and foremost a form of assistance to the human person via theautonomy of intermediate bodies. Such assistance is offered when individuals orgroups are unable to accomplish something on their own, and it is always designed toachieve their emancipation, because it fosters freedom and participation throughassumption of responsibility. Subsidiarity respects personal dignity by recognizing inthe person a subject who is always capable of giving something to others. Byconsidering reciprocity as the heart of what it is to be a human being, subsidiarity is themost effective antidote against any form of all-encompassing welfare state. It is able totake account both of the manifold articulation of plans —and therefore of the pluralityof subjects— as well as the coordination of those plans. Hence the principle ofsubsidiarity is particularly well-suited to managing globalization and directing ittowards authentic human development. In order not to produce a dangerous universalpower of a tyrannical nature, the governance of globalization must be marked by subsidiarity,articulated into several layers and involving different levels that can work together.Globalization certainly requires authority, insofar as it poses the problem of a globalcommon good that needs to be pursued. This authority, however, must be organized 24
  29. 29. in a subsidiary and stratified way, if it is not to infringe upon freedom and if it is to yieldeffective results in practice. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 57 *The principle of subsidiarity must remain closely linked to the principle of solidarity and viceversa, since the former without the latter gives way to social privatism, while the latterwithout the former gives way to paternalist social assistance that is demeaning to thosein need. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 58 *A society that honours the principle of subsidiarity liberates people from a sense ofdespondency and hopelessness, granting them the freedom to engage with one anotherin the spheres of commerce, politics and culture (cf. Quadragesimo Anno, 80). Whenthose responsible for the public good attune themselves to the natural human desirefor self-governance based on subsidiarity, they leave space for individual responsibilityand initiative, but most importantly, they leave space for love (cf. Rom 13:8; Deus Caritasest, 28). Benedict XVI, Address to the participants in the 14th Session of the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences, May 3, 2008 *The principle of subsidiarity requires that governments and large international agenciesensure solidarity on the national and global levels and between generations. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 63 Session of the UN General Assembly on the global financial crisis, rd New York, October 30, 2008Human DevelopmentIn the present social and cultural context, where there is a widespread tendency torelativize truth, practising charity in truth helps people to understand that adhering tothe values of Christianity is not merely useful but essential for building a good societyand for true integral human development. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 4 *Truth, and the love which it reveals, cannot be produced: they can only be received asa gift. Their ultimate source is not, and cannot be, mankind, but only God, who ishimself Truth and Love. This principle is extremely important for society and for 25
  30. 30. development, since neither can be a purely human product; the vocation todevelopment on the part of individuals and peoples is not based simply on humanchoice, but is an intrinsic part of a plan that is prior to us and constitutes for all of us aduty to be freely accepted. That which is prior to us and constitutes us —subsistentLove and Truth— shows us what goodness is, and in what our true happiness consists.It shows us the road to true development. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 52 *Yet it should be stressed that progress of a merely economic and technological kind isinsufficient. Development needs above all to be true and integral. The mere fact ofemerging from economic backwardness, though positive in itself, does not resolve thecomplex issues of human advancement. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 23 *The imbalance lies both in the cultural and political order and in the spiritual andmoral order. In fact we often consider only the superficial and instrumental causes ofpoverty without attending to those harboured within the human heart, like greed andnarrow vision. The problems of development, aid and international cooperation aresometimes addressed without any real attention to the human element, but as merelytechnical questions – limited, that is, to establishing structures, setting up tradeagreements, and allocating funding impersonally. What the fight against povertyreally needs are men and women who live in a profoundly fraternal way and are ableto accompany individuals, families and communities on journeys of authentic humandevelopment. Benedict XVI, Message for the Celebration of the XLII World Day of Peace, January 1, 2009 *The nuclear policy should be considered in the perspective of overall development ofthe human being “(Declaration on the Right to Development, 1986, p. 5), which impliesnot only material development but, more importantly, the cultural and moral duty toany person and all peoples. We are all involved in this ambitious and vital, outside andinside the nuclear industry, as well as in the public and private, both inside and outsidegovernment. Thus, a common commitment to peace and security can lead not only toequitable distribution of resources of the earth, but above all, building a “social andinternational order in which rights and freedoms” of all persons human can fully realize(Universal Declaration of Human Rights, art. 28). Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 53 General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, rd Vienna, 14-18 September 2009 26
  31. 31. Integral human development presupposes the responsible freedom of the individual and ofpeoples: no structure can guarantee this development over and above humanresponsibility. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 17 *Development will never be fully guaranteed through automatic or impersonal forces,whether they derive from the market or from international politics. Development isimpossible without upright men and women, without financiers and politicians whoseconsciences are finely attuned to the requirements of the common good. Both professionalcompetence and moral consistency are necessary. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 71 *Projects for integral human development cannot ignore coming generations, but needto be marked by solidarity and inter-generational justice, while taking into account a varietyof contexts: ecological, juridical, economic, political and cultural. Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, n. 48 *In this last decade, a broad consensus on the commitment to promote the developmentwas expressed in combating poverty and promoting inclusion and participation of allpeople and all social groups. This consensus is also formalized in the MillenniumDeclaration of 2000. Development objectives enshrined therein are defined byreference to specific indicators and goals. Constant monitoring of results is importantto make more humane living conditions for all. Moreover, the interest in obtainingquantitative or measurable results should not distract our attention and our policies byobtaining a comprehensive development. Monitoring the Millennium DevelopmentGoals is discovered that it is relatively easy to achieve the goals pursued throughtechnical measures that require, above all, material resources and organization.However, the pursuit of objectives and, ultimately, development and social cohesionrequires not only financial, but also the effective involvement of people. The ultimatepurpose and content of development programs should be to give people realopportunities to shape their lives and be actors for development. What seems missingin the fight against poverty, inequality and discrimination, is not so much financialassistance, or economic cooperation and legal assistance, essential as relationalnetworks and people can share their lives with those who are in situations of povertyand exclusion, individuals capable of action and presence, whose work is recognizedby local, national and global. [...] The Holy See and the various institutions of theChurch remains committed to this task. Through programs, agencies andorganizations on every continent, who have been forgotten by many in society areidentified and incorporated into the social stream. With this common effort, the lessonslearned from those who are marginalized validate the truth that poverty eradication, 27
  32. 32. full employment and social integration is achieved when the clarity of purpose willcomplement efforts of the spirit. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 47 Session of the Commission for Social Development th of the UN Economic and Social Council, New York, February 5, 2009 *Each state is required to pursue the development and the common good of the peopleand not the national power, whether economic or military purposes, the essential pointof reference is, in fact, the human person, his dignity and his fundamental rights. Thisapproach must be stamped on the development and implementation of a newparadigm of collective security in which each country recognizes the clear limitationsof relying on nuclear weapons for its security. [...] Need to reject the temptation to facenew situations with old systems. We must redefine the priorities and hierarchies ofvalues by which mobilize resources towards objectives of moral, cultural and economic,on the basis that development, solidarity and justice are not merely the real name ofpeace, lasting peace in time and space. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 53 General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, rd Vienna, 14-18 September 2009Rural DevelopmentWe must increase the availability of food valuing the industriousness of small farmersand ensuring market access. The overall increase in agricultural production may,however, be effective only if it is accompanied by effective distribution of thatproduction and whether it will be devoted primarily to the satisfaction of basic needs[...] to rediscover the value of the rural family: it does not only preserve thetransmission from parents to children, systems of cultivation, conservation anddistribution of food, but primarily a way of life, education, culture and religion. Also,economically, ensure effective and loving attention to the weakest and, under theprinciple of subsidiarity, can play a direct role in the chain of distribution andmarketing of agricultural products for use in reducing the costs of intermediation andpromoting small-scale production. Benedict XVI, Message to the High-Level Conference on World Food Security sponsored by FAO, Rome, 3-5 June 2008 *We are facing a process of redefining the global cycle of production and marketing ofagricultural products, which urges us to serious reflection on its consequences and 28
  33. 33. what might be new balanced solutions. It is at these levels that we must work to createa new economy, more attention not only to profit, but, above all, needs and humanrelations. Intervention by the Delegation of the Holy See at the 64 Session of the General Assembly, Second Committee on Item 60: th “Agricultural Development and Food Security”, New York, October 23, 2009 *One essential condition for increasing production levels, for guaranteeing the identityof indigenous communities as well as peace and security in the world, is to guaranteeaccess to land, thereby favouring farm workers and upholding their rights. Benedict XVI, Message on the occasion of World Food Day, October 13, 2008 *Farming must have access to adequate investments and resources. This topic calls intoquestion and makes clear that by their nature the goods of creation are limited: theytherefore require responsible attitudes capable of encouraging the sought-after security,thinking likewise of that of future generations. Thus profound solidarity and farsightedbrotherhood are essential [...] such an intervention may encourage cooperation with aview to protecting the methods of cultivating the land proper to each region and toavoiding a heedless use of natural resources. I also hope that this cooperation willpreserve the values proper to the rural world and the fundamental rights of those whowork the land. By setting aside privileges, profit and convenience, it will then bepossible to achieve these objectives for the benefit of the men, women, children, familiesand communities that live in the poorest regions of the planet and are the mostvulnerable. Experience shows that even advanced technical solutions lack efficiency ifthey do not put the person first and foremost, who comes first and who, in his or herspiritual and physical dimensions, is the alpha and the omega of all activity. Benedict XVI, Message on the occasion of World Food Day, October 16, 2009 29

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