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Planning thoughts and philosophy of Sir Ebenezar howard

  1. Sir Ebenezar Howard PLANNING THOUGHTS AND PHILOSOPHY OF SIR EBENEZAR HOWARD Submitted by Chinmay H Gowda, M Tech. URP School of Planning And Architecture, University of Mysore
  2. INTRODUCTION Shopkeeper Farmer Reporter Ebenezar Howard at the age of 16
  3. Major Achievements Letchworth Garden city movement Welwyn
  4. London and other cities in the 19th century were in the throws of industrialization and the cities were exerting massive forces on the labour markets of time. Massive immigration from the countryside to the cities was taking place with London. Arise of the problem
  5. In trying to understand and represent the attraction of the city he compared each city to a magnet, with individuals represented as needles drawn to the city. He set about comparing the ‘town and country magnets’ but decided that neither were suitable attractors for his utopian vision. Instead he believed that “Human society and the beauty of nature are meant to be enjoyed together” – hence giving his solution “the two magnets must be made one.” Cure of the problem Utopian Society
  6. Three Magnets Theory 1.Town life has both good and bad characteristics 1.Country life has both good and bad characteristics Town-Country is a mixture of good characteristics of both Town and Country life. The diagram summarizes the political, social and economical context underlying Howard’s Utopian vision for the future of British settlement using 3 illustrated magnets.
  7. Social opportunity Isolation of crowd Places of amusement Chance of employment High money wages Well lit streets Closing out of nature High rent Foul air Murky sky Slums and gin places Less human nature interaction Land lying idle Wood,Meadow,Forest Fresh air,Bright sunshine Low rents Abundance of water Land lying idle Low wages Lack of amusement Crowded dwellings Lack of drainage Lack of opportunity Need for reform TOWN COUNTRY
  8. COMBINATION OF BOTH TOWN AND COUNTRY BEAUTY OF NATURE-PEACE ALL OVER THE PLACES SOCIAL OPPURTUNITY – CUMULATIVE GROWTH FIELDS AND PARKS OF EASY ACCESS LOW RENTS – HIGH WAGES LOW RATES LOW PRICES PURE AIR AND WATER – GOOD DRAINAGE FIELD FOR ENTERPRISE – FLOW OF CAPITAL
  9. Garden Cities of tomorrow Bird eye view of Garden city
  10. Garden city concept 5000 acres of land surrounding central city. 1000 acres purely for central garden city. 6000 acres total area
  11. According to the garden cities and town planning association in 1919 “A garden city is a town designed for healthy living and industry of a size that makes possible a full measure of life,but not larger, surrounded by a rural belt, the whole of the land being in public ownership or held in trust for community”. Garden city movement is a method of urban planning in which self contained communities are surrounded by greenbelts which contains proportionate areas of • Residences • Industries • Agriculture
  12. The garden city will be self sufficient and when it reached the full population, another garden city would be developed radially. Ebenezar Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellite cities of a central city of 58,000 people, linked by road and rail. Garden city is planned on a concentric pattern with open space, public parks and six boulevards,420 ft(37m)wide, extending from the centre. Each garden city would have an optimum population of 30,000 in town centres and 2000 more in the surrounding green belt and agriculture land on 9,000 acres . Ebenezar Howard believed that all people agrees the overcrowding and deterioration of cities was one of the troubling issues of their time. Howard’s garden city concept combined the town and country in order to provide the working class an alternative to working on farms or in crowded, unhealthy cities. Garden city data
  13. Conceptual Layout 1. Circular city growing in a radial manner or pattern. 2. Divided into six equal wards, by six main Boulevards that radiated from the central park/garden. 3. Civic institutions are placed around the central garden.
  14. Main Components of Garden city concept Garden city Planned dispersal Limit of Town size Town and country relationship Planning control Amenities Neighbourhood
  15. Contains open spaces and gardens around all the dwelling houses and factory buildings Has a population which is neither too small nor too large that is between 30,000 – 40,000 people. It is a city owned by all citizens on a co-operative basis It is an independent entity having its own civic life and affording all daily needs with adequate spaces for schools and other functional purposes. It is surrounded by green belt on its periphery. It is a self-sufficient unit and has its own unit. Features of Garden city
  16. Central city Surrounding boundry Land Distribution in Garden City 5000 acres 1000 acres
  17. The peripheral area around the city will serve as a leisure area and also serves as agricultural area. Large scale planning of 5000 acres will give us economical and social advantages. Urban decentralization Co-operative holding of land to ensure that the advantage of appreciation of land values goes to the community and not the individuals Establishment of cities of limited size but at the same time possessing a balanced agricultural industrial economy. Principles of Garden city
  18. Need for Garden City To prevent overcrowding of cities. To encourage agricultural activities. To provide healthy living conditions. To preserve the environment. To increase green cover.
  19. Case study - 1 Letchworth garden city 1. Letchworth Garden City, is a town in Hertfordshire, England, with a population of 33,600 2. It was designed by Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker. 3. Letchworth – 35 miles from London LETCHWORTH DATA 1. Land of 3822 acres 2. Reserved Green belt- 1300 acres 3. Designed for a maximum of 35000 population 4. In 30 years – developed with 15000 population & 150 shops, industries.
  20. Present day pictures of Letchworth City
  21. Case study - 2 Welwyn garden city 1. Welwyn Garden City is a town within the Borough of Welwyn Hatfield in Hertfordshire, England. 2. It is located approximately 19 miles from Kings Cross and 24 miles from London. 3. On 29 April 1920 a company, Welwyn Garden City Limited, was formed to plan and build the garden city, chaired by Sir Theodore Chambers. Louis de Soissons was appointed as architect and town planner and Frederic Osborn as secretary. WELWYN DATA 1. Land of 2378 acres 2. Designed for a maximum of 40000population 3. In 15 years – developed with 10000population & 50 shops, industries.
  22. Present day pictures of Welwyn City
  23. Personalization of homes in Welwyn with varying roofline, texture and composition for each house. Separation of pedestrian walkways with the main streets gives a sense of natural beauty. Open and green spaces are given on a large scale.
  24. Conclusion The garden city idea however, showed how both industrial estates and collective retailing spaces could be used within a comprehensive planning approach to serve public purposes. Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City concept shows us a place where genuine urban activities are carried at human scale. The garden city introduced the use of greenbelts that have served many uses including the preservation of agricultural and rural life, nature and heritage conservation, recreation, pollution minimization, and growth management. Garden city tradition endowed urban planning with a social and community dimensions.
  25. Critics 1.Garden cities were often criticized for damaging the economy, being destructive of the beauty of nature. 1.According to a Trystan Edwards Garden cities led to desecration of the country side by trying to recreate country side houses. 1.Recreating country side in cities were not possible due to the limitation of land . TRYSTAN EDWARDS
  26. References https://www.jstor.org/stable/40100071 https://online.ucpress.edu/jsah/article- abstract/28/3/184/56297/The-Origin-of-the-Garden- City-Concept-of-Urban?redirectedFrom=fulltext •https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334609864_ The_origin_and_development_of_Garden_cities_An_o verview
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