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Reproductionsystem 131109102239-phpapp01

  1. By: CHETHAN YADAV Lecturer in Biotechnology Govt science college chitradurga
  2.  Students be able to identify the various structures of the male reproductive systems and state their functions;  Students be able to identify the various structures of the female reproductive systems and state their functions;
  3.  Reproduction is the process that continues life on Earth  Males and females each have structures specialized for their roles in reproduction.  Hormones are the key to how the human reproductive system functions,  Sex hormones are necessary for the development of sexual characteristics, such as breast development in females and facial hair growth in males.  Hormones from the pituitary gland also begin the production of eggs in females and sperm in males. Eggs and sperm transfer hereditary information from one generation to the next.
  4. Organ Function Testes (biji zakar) Produces sperm Scrotum (buah zakar) Place of testes Penis Canal sperms from testes to vagina Sperm tube (vas deferens) Canal sperms from testes to the urethra urethra Canal sperm and urine out of the body Seminal gland Produces fluid enabling sperms to move Epididimis Place of maturity of sperm
  5. Organ Function Ovaries Produce eggs and sex hormones Oviduct or fallopian tube Channels an egg from ad ovary to the uterus and place of fertilization Uterus Place of developing embryo and fetus Vagina Receives sperms from outside and lets a baby pass through at birth cervix Duct which connect uterus and vagina and produce mucus liquid Fimbrae To cacth ovum which
  6. 1. The Male Reproductive System1. The Male Reproductive System
  7. Male Reproductive SystemMale Reproductive System External Organs 1) Penis 2) Scrotum Internal Organs 1) Testes 2) Epididymis 3) Vas Deferens 4) Ejaculatory Duct 5) Seminal Vesicle 6) Prostate Glands 7) Cowper’s Gland
  8. External OrgansExternal Organs 1.) PENIS - male organ of copulation and urination It is a cylindrical copulatory organ. Parts: A). shaft/ body B). Glans penis – enlarged end; most sensitive
  9. Penile OpeningPenile Opening AbnormalitiesAbnormalities EPISPADIAS – a rare type of malformation of the penis in which the urethra ends in an opening on the upper aspect (dorsum) of the penis HYPOSPADIAS – penile opening at the anterior aspect of the penis
  10. External OrgansExternal Organs 2.) SCROTUM – The scrotum is an anatomical male reproductive structure that consists of a suspended sack of skin and smooth muscle that is dual- chambered, present in most terrestrial male mammals and located under the penis
  11. Internal OrgansInternal Organs  1.) TESTES – oval shaped glandular organ lying within the abdominal cavity in early fetal life and descend in the scrotum after 28 weeks gestation  undescended testes /cryptorchidism  functions: ◦ 1. Hormone production – testosterone that stimulates spermatogenesis and responsible for the secondary males characteristics ◦ 2. Spematogenesis – production and maturation of sperm cells; begins in puberty and continue until old age
  12. TestesTestes parts of the testes: 1) seminiferous tubules – long coiled tubes where spermatogenesis takes place 2) Leydig/interstitial cells – produce testosterone 3) Sertoli cells – supporting cells which play a role in sperm transport
  13. EpididymisEpididymis long coiled tube approximately 20 feet long; where sperm travels for 12- 20 days The epididymis is a coiled segment of the spermatic ducts that stores spermatozoa while they mature and then transports the spermatozoa between the testis and the tube connecting the testes with the urethra (vas deferens).
  14. Vas DeferensVas Deferens passageway of the sperm cells from the epididymis; contractile power of this area propels the spermatozoa to the urethra during ejaculation cut during vasectomy
  15. Ejaculatory DuctEjaculatory Duct passageway for the semen
  16. Seminal VesicleSeminal Vesicle a pouch like organ lying behind the bladder and in front of the rectum
  17. 6) Prostate Gland6) Prostate Gland walnut shaped body lying below the bladder Surrounds the urethra and the 2 ejaculatory ducts
  18. Cowper’s GlandCowper’s Gland located behind the prostate gland secretes an alkaline secretions that helps to neutralize the acidic nature of the urethra and provides lubrication during intercourse  Bulbourethral Glands
  19.  Sperm are male reproductive cells  Each sperm cell has a head and tail. The head contains hereditary information, and the tail moves the sperm.  A gland called the seminal vesicle provides sperm with a fluid. This fluid supplies the sperm with an energy source and helps them move. This mixture of sperm and fluid is called semen.
  21.  Paired oval gonads situated one on either side of the uterus  They produce ova and female sex hormones – estrogens And progesterone.
  22.  This tubes extend from the sides of the upper body region of uterus.  The free end with fimbriae opens into the body cavity  Fallopian tube is the site of fertilization
  23.  A hollow flat pear shaped muscular tube that lies between rectum and urinary bladder  It is differentiated into funds dome shaped region above the openings of the fallopian tubes  The body portion and neck that leads to vagina
  24.  The menstrual cycle is the monthly cycle of changes in the female reproductive system.  Before and after an egg is released from an ovary, the uterus undergoes changes. The menstrual cycle of a human female averages 28 days. However, the cycle can vary in some individuals from 20 to 40 days.  Changes include the maturing of an egg, the production of female sex hormones, the preparation of the uterus to receive a fertilized egg, and menstrual flow.
  25.  It is collectively called vulva which consists of labia major and minora,clitoris,vagina
  26.  Major stage of puberty (between the ages of 8 and 13)  From the beginning of one period to the beginning of the next takes about 28 days for most people (can differ)
  27.  First day of menstrual period  Blood and tissues that have built up on the inner lining of the uterus flow of out of the vagina  Last anywhere between 2-7 days  After menstruation, the body begins releasing hormones that signal the uterus to get ready to receive a new egg ( 1/10 of a poppy seed)
  28.  Hormones prepare an egg to be released from the ovary  Lining of uterus thickens and becomes rich in blood and nutrients in case a sperm fertilizes the egg  The fertilized egg would then attach to the lining
  29.  Middle of the cycle ovulation occurs  Ovulation is when the egg is released from one of the ovaries.  During this time the egg will travel down the fallopian tube
  30.  BEFORE ovulation – estrogen is released to stimulate the uterus to build the lining with extra blood and tissue to prepare for pregnancy  If the egg is fertilized by the sperm cell it travels to the uterus and attaches
  31.  FSH – Follicle Stimulation Hormone  LH - Luteinizing hormone LH – signals ovulation  Estrogen – produced throughout the menstrual cycle  Progesterone – produced during second half of cycle – contributes to thickening of the endometrium which is shed during the menstrual phase if fertilization does not take place - Produced in the pituitary gland -Produced by the follicles in the ovaries
  32. the fusion of the sperm cell nucleus with the egg cell nucleus to produce a zygote (fertilized egg)
  33.  External  Occurs outside of the body of the female  Increased number of eggs produced to insure the survival of the species  Ex) fish and amphibians
  34.  Internal  Occurs inside the body of the female  Fewer number of eggs are produced  Increased parental care insures species survival  Ex) mammals, reptiles, birds
  35.  fertilization in mammals occurs in the oviduct  The ova is viable for approximately 24 hours after ovulation
  36.  After approximately a week, the developing embryo is implanted into the uterus  Embryo: conception to 8 weeks
  37.  a multicellular organism in the early stages of development 2 four cell stage embryos Eight cell stage embryo
  38. The beginning developmental processes are always the same in all animals: 1) cleavage 2) growth 3) differentiation
  39.  after fertilization the diploid ZYGOTE undergoes cleavage divisions in the oviduct
  40. the first series of cell divisions by mitosis after fertilization Cell division is rapid, new cells do not take time for the growth phase G1 cell growth does not occur so cells decrease in size with each cleavage division
  41.  Gastrulation: one side of the blastula invaginates (indents) forming a gastrula  Three cell layers form
  42.  The changing of unspecialized embryonic cells into the specialized cells, tissues and organs of a multicellular animal
  43.  Ectoderm Outer layer  Nervous system including brain, spinal cord and nerves  Lining of the mouth, nostrils, and anus  Epidermis of skin, sweat glands, hair, nails
  44.  Mesoderm Middle Layer  Bones and muscles  Blood and blood vessels  Reproductive and excretory systems  Inner layer (dermis) of skin
  45.  Endoderm Inner Layer  Lining of digestive tract  Lining of trachea, bronchi, and lungs  Liver, pancreas  Thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, urinary bladder
  46. organ that forms from the embryo and the uterus
  47. contains blood vessels from the mother and the developing baby
  48.  Oxygen & nutrients diffuse from the mother’s blood vessels into the baby’s blood vessels  Wastes diffuse from the baby’s blood vessels into the mother’s blood vessels
  49.  the period between fertilization and birth  approximately 38-40 weeks
  50.  Substances that may harm the developing fetus and result in the formation of birth defects
  51. Alcohol, certain drugs/medications, infections, and certain chemicals
  52. Can result in mental retardation / learning disability Facial Features  Epicanthal folds  Small, widely spaced eyes  Flat midface  Short, upturned nose  Smooth, wide philtrum  Thin upper lip  Underdeveloped jaw