Study unit 3 culture

Nursing Lecturer um Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT)
12. Feb 2015

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Study unit 3 culture

  1. CULTURE Study Unit 3 By C.Settley
  2. Learning Outcomes • Students should be able to; • - define the concept culture • - analyse the characteristics of culture in detail • - explore the components of culture • - explain material and non- material culture with specific reference to norms, values and sanctions • - explain the following concepts: subculture, counter culture, cultural relativity, cultural shock, cultural lag, ethnocentrism, xenocentrism, xenophobia • - explain how different cultures are formed and how they expand • - discuss transcultural nursing with regards to: defining the concept, explain the transcultural skills a nurse need to acquire • - explain the transcultural variations that need to be taken into account when nursing patients
  3. Culture Defined • A constantly changing pattern of behaviour, characterised by beliefs, morals, and norms of a particular social group. • Is a way of life of a certain social group defined by geographical boundaries (Du Toit & Van Staden p.18).
  4. Characteristics of Culture DuToit&VanStadenpage20 • Exclusive to humanity • - Governed by constant change embedded to environmental and biological conditions which is based on sensible creation. • Learned / acquired behaviour • - Is a learning process • - Not genetically inherited • - There is potential genetic exposition for the learning process • - Transferred from parent to child (socialization) • - Other groups become involved through the stages of development • - Acquisition/ learning process not always conscious or unintentional on the part of the learner- incidental.
  5. Characteristics of Culture Continued • Belongs to community/ group • Shared by majority of the group • Not unconditionally to all aspects • Continual Interaction among members preserve cultural practice (Steyn & Van Rensburg, 1985:32) • Dynamic and cumulative • - Culture changes all the time certain practices die and others are learned from other cultural groups and incorporated in. (diffusion)
  6. Characteristics of Culture Continued Similarities in culture • language,marriages, health systems, religion, economic system, recreation Differences in culture • different ways of looking at things • different ways of dressing • different ways of expressing personality/goodness
  7. Components of Culture CULTURAL ELEMENTS • Material Culture • physical and technological • Eg. pencil, book • Non-Material Culture • Eg. values, beliefs, philosophies, conventions, and ideologies. • physical existence. CULTURAL COMPLEXES • Combination of cultural elements • Eg. HOSPITAL: beds, wheelchair, catheter, bedpan • Eg. CAR: handbreak, pedal, ignition, backseat, tyre
  8. Components of Culture continued CULTURAL PATTERNS • Combinations of cultural complexes • Eg hospitals, clinics, private practices = HEALTH CARE
  9. Material and non material culture • Material Culture • - objects we feel represents how we feel about the world • - relationship between people and things • - food, clothing, cars, weapons, and buildings • Example: One common form of material culture is jewelry that indicates a person’s status as married. In American culture, people wear a metal band on the ring finger of the left hand to show that they are married. In smaller, non-industrialized societies, everyone knows everyone else, so no such sign is needed. In certain parts of India, women wear a necklace to indicate that they are married. In Northern Europe, married people wear wedding bands on the right hand.
  10. Material and non material culture continued • Non Material Culture • - value is a culturally approved concept about what is right or wrong, desirable or undesirable • - values are a culture’s principles about how things should be and differ greatly from society to society • Example: In the United States today, many women value thinness as a standard of beauty. In Ghana, however, most people would consider American fashion models sickly and undesirable. In that culture and others, robustness is valued over skinniness as a marker of beauty.
  11. Material and non material culture continued • - beliefs are specific ideas that people feel to be true. Values support beliefs. • Example: Americans believe in freedom of speech, and they believe they should be able to say whatever they want without fear of reprisal from the government. Many Americans value freedom as the right of all people and believe that people should be left to pursue their lives the way they want with minimal interference from the government.
  12. Material and non material culture continued • sanctions are rewards or punishments that a society sets up to enforce the norms. Done to protect society from chaos.
  13. Cultural Concepts • Subculture. A cultural group within a larger culture, often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture. • Counter culture. A way of life and set of attitudes opposed to or at variance with the prevailing social norm. • Cultural relativity. Is the view that moral or ethical systems, which vary from culture to culture, are all equally valid and no one system is really “better” than any other. This is based on the idea that there is no ultimate standard of good or evil, so every judgment about right and wrong is a product of society. • Cultural shock. The feeling of disorientation experienced by someone when they are suddenly subjected to an unfamiliar culture, way of life, or set of attitudes.
  14. Cultural Concepts continued • Cultural lag. Refers to the notion that culture takes time to catch up with technological innovations, and that social problems and conflicts are caused by this lag. Subsequently, cultural lag does not only apply to this idea only, but also relates to theory and explanation. Please read Box 2.1, pg 34 in Du Toit & Van Staden. • Ethnocentrism. Evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture. • Xenocentrism. Is the preference for the products, styles, or ideas of someone else's culture rather than of one's own. • Xenophobia. Intense or irrational dislike or fear of people from other countries.
  15. Methods of Cultural Formation and Expansion (DuToit&VanStadenpage35) 1) Culture formation through discovery 2) Culture formation through invention 3) Cultural diffusion 4) Speed 5) Selection 6) Accumulation 7) The corroboration process
  16. Seehandouts Furtherdefinitions NursingDecisions Majorconcepts ApplicationtoNursing HealthPracticesindifferentcultures NursingProcessandroleofanurse
  17. References • Du Toit, D.A. & Van Staden S.J. (2009). Nursing Sociology. 4th Edition. Pretoria: Van Schaik • (Steyn & Van Rensburg, 1985:32). •

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