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Gender and Social Inclusion in West Africa projects

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Overview of gender and social inclusion activities, including youth engagement, in West African projects.

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Gender and Social Inclusion in West Africa projects

  1. 1. Sophia Huyer, GSI Leader Gender and Social Inclusion in West Africa projects Photo: N. Palmer (CIAT)
  2. 2. CCAFS Gender and Social Inclusion • Goal: ensure that rural women and youth benefit from CCAFS’ contribution to poverty reduction, enhanced environmental resilience, improved food security, human health and nutrition. • Strategy: undertake research to:  Inform, catalyze and target CSA solutions to women, youth and vulnerable groups that do not increase their workloads  Increase the control of women and youth over productive assets and resources, and  Promote their participation in decision making Women are central to agriculture in developing countries within a broader social context
  3. 3. Reduced Poverty Improved food & nutrition security for health • 11 million farm households have adopted improved varieties, breeds or trees, and/or improved management practices • 9 million people, of which 50% are women, assisted to exit poverty • 6 million more people, of which 50% are women, without deficiencies of one or more essential micronutrients • 160 Mt CO2e yr-1 reduction of agriculture- related GHG emissions (4%) compared to BAU scenario in 2022 • 0.8 million ha of forest saved from deforestation System Level Outcomes Improved natural resource systems & ecosystem services
  4. 4. CCAFS Gender Outcomes
  5. 5. Gender and Youth IDOs
  6. 6. GSI Strategy: Context • Social inclusion involves gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, disability and age (youth and seniors) and affects dynamics around perspectives, needs and access to resources • An important element is understanding power relations at all levels. Scientific information and agricultural assets are set within contexts of power relationships, so that existing gender roles and power inequalities will influence climate change impacts and adaptations. • Three main underlying approaches: vulnerabilities; gender transformation; and strengthening institutions. From Huyer et al, 2015, CCAFS GSI Strategy.
  7. 7. Partnerships and capacity for scaling CSA Flagship Program 1 Flagship Program 2 Flagship Program 3 Flagship Program 4 Climate-smart agriculture, gender and social inclusion CoA 1.3 Enabling policy environments for CSA CoA 4.3 Weather-related agricultural insurance products and programs CoA 1.2 Food and nutrition security futures under climate change CoA 2.2 Evidence, investment planning and application domains for CSA technologies and practices CoA 2.3 Equitable sub- national adaptation planning and implementation CoA 2.4 Business models, incentives and innovative finance for scaling CSA CoA 3.3 Policy, incentives and finance for scaling up low emissions practices CoA 4.4 Climate services investment planning and policy CoA 4.2 Climate information and advisory services for agriculture CoA 3.2 Identifying priorities and options for low-emissions development CoA 1.1 Ex-ante evaluation and decision support for climate- smart options CoA 2.1 Participatory evaluation of CSA technologies and practices in CSVs CoA 4.1 Climate information and early warning for risk management CoA 3.1 Quantifying GHG emissions from smallholder systems Integrating GSI research into CSA policy and investment decisions Understand GSI-differentiated CSA portfolios to benefit women and youth; incentive mechanisms Increase women’s participation in LED decision making (part. In supply chains) Strengthen understanding of how CIS and insurance can meet the needs of women farmers; scaling
  8. 8. GSI in the CCAFS Theory of Change CSA Implementation Policy & institutional change CSA, gender and social inclusion Partnerships and capacity for scaling CSA Monitoring, Evaluation & Learning Comms & Knowledge Management Key: Ongoing activities Cross-cutting work Approach Objectives
  9. 9. Building the evidence for what works in gender equality and women’s empowerment What do we know: • There is a gender gap in agriculture as it relates to climate change • Lower levels of access to resources and information and less stable land tenure access, restricting their ability to act on and implement climate adaptation practices in agriculture • Men and women are exposed to different climate shocks and experience different impacts • Largely neglected by agriculture and climate information service providers, and when they do have access to information, have less capacity to implement it • Jost et al, 2016; Kristjanson et al, 2017
  10. 10. Gender differences in adoption of CSA • Women and men tend to have different adaptation strategies and practices • Based in different preferences in crops and uses for crops • These depend on GDOL, differing access to and control over resources participation in decision making and sociocultural norms Five most common changes made by men and women to adapt to climate change
  11. 11. Building the evidence for what works in gender equality and women’s empowerment Knowledge gaps • Need better understanding of household and village labour roles in relation to CSA technologies and practices, so that they decrease women’s labour loads and become more attractive to women • The role of participatory approaches in understanding differences among women and traditionally under-represented groups and building capacity of researchers and development implementers to do so • What is the role of women’s organizations and collective action in providing a platform for gender equality in relation to CSA; and • CSA approaches that take into account indigenous knowledge, technology and practices of women
  12. 12. Closing the gender gap with Information, institutions and services What do we know • Widen range of institutions and information, from climate-specific (e.g. access to heat-tolerant crop varieties) to much broader approaches, such as social protection, health and nutrition. • Women tend to interact with informal, local-level and family or social based networks, while men have greater access to formalized institutions such as governments, extension, and international NGOs • Women are not well-served by agro- and climate information services
  13. 13. Gender differences in information and forecast access
  14. 14. Climate information through mobile phones Partey et al, 2018 • In Ghana, 51% of 900 respondents used climate information – 17% of women and 34% of men
  15. 15. Closing the gender gap with Information, institutions and services Knowledge gaps • What combination of communication processes best enable women to understand and act on weather and climate information • What is the best constellation of institutional services for women and men? • How, and to what degree, can rural climate services be scaled up, while meeting context- gender- and age-specific user needs? • What gender differences in demand for climate services exist and why?
  16. 16. Promoting women’s leadership and decision making / gender and climate policy What do we know • Gender is not well integrated into climate change policy at national or global levels • Many gaps in representation at local and community levels as well • Important to include women, women’s organizations in policy processes/platforms, dialogues, knowledge sharing meetings • Work with Ministries of Women, Youth, Social Development and/or other national women’s departments / organizations Knowledge gaps • How to work with local level organizations to increase women’s leadership. • Question: how can policy take into account gender aspects of climate change and agriculture, and how can women influence climate policy formulation?
  17. 17. Engendering climate finance mechanisms What do we know • Little attention to gender in climate finance at global and local levels • Lack of access to finance is one of the major barriers to women’s adaptation to climate change in agriculture • Constraints of financial literacy, collateral, land ownership, education, household decision making • Index insurance is one option where women do participate Knowledge gaps • What are the barriers and enabling strategies for women to access and use financial services such as insurance? • What kinds of investments and financial services most directly lead to increased women’s control of productive assets? • What is the role of collective finance organizations at the village / sub-national level, VSLAs, Women’s Banks?
  18. 18. Key tools and approaches • Collecting sex-disaggregated data and doing gender impact assessments on participation and benefits • Identification of gender-positive CSA practices and technologies • Sex-disaggregated data on climate-smart agriculture in CCAFS publications • A Gender-Responsive Approach to CSA: Evidence and guidance for practitioners • Gender and CSA Country Profiles (WA) currently under development • CCAFS Gender and Social Inclusion Tools
  19. 19. CCAFS Youth Strategy Goal: Target and equip youth with CSA knowledge and technologies to increase productivity and employment opportunities for young people (CCAFS 2016).
  20. 20. CCAFS Youth Strategy – Focus Areas 1. Inclusion of age- (and sex) disaggregated indicators (data) in monitoring, evaluation and learning (MEL) processes and all projects 2. Youth engagement in policy at global/national policy levels (e.g. through CSOs, social media, youth networks, negotiation processes) and in programming at subnational level 3. Examining the role of youth along CSA value chains in CCAFS and priority value chains in AFS-CRPs 4. Research on the use of ICT technologies and engagement processes to meet the CSA and climate information needs of youth to strengthen youth entrepreneurship and climate resilience 5. Capacity strengthening through participatory learning approaches (e.g. participatory video, theatre, ICTs). Rwanda Youth in Agriculture Forum (RYAF) members were trained in managing climate risks in agriculture through the Participatory Integrated Climate Services for Agriculture (PICSA) training.
  21. 21. Promising approaches for working with youth • CSAYN • Other youth platforms, i.e. university developer clubs, hackathons • Innovative business models that incorporate digital technologies • Youth as designers but also users • Crowd-sourcing
  22. 22. Thank you JL Urrea (CCAFS)