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Use of English

  1. 1. Use of English Basic Use of English contents review
  2. 2. Perfect and Progressive forms • Aspect • They give us a perspective on a situation. • PERFECT: Action is complete • PROGRESSIVE: Action is ongoing / in progress • Perfect and Progressive combine with all the TENSES (present, past and future)
  3. 3. Difference: Tense or Aspect? • I am ill • I was ill • I have worked • I’m working • I study English • I had studied English.
  4. 4. Difference: Tense or Aspect? • I am ill • I was ill • I have worked • I’m working • I study English • I had studied English. • Tense • Aspect • Tense and Aspect
  5. 5. Perfect forms • It’s the first time I have been on a plane. • When I arrived, the guests had left. • By this time tomorrow, I will have finished my exams. • He must have left his office hours ago. • Having studing German, I was able to work in Berlin that summer.
  6. 6. Progressive forms • John is listening to the radio. • At this time yesterday, John was listening to the radio. • At this time tomorrow, John will be listening to the radio. • The thief appers to be hiding in the countryside. • They have been running three miles.
  7. 7. Perfect progressive forms • They have been running three miles. • They have run three miles. • They are running three miles.
  8. 8. Special uses of the progressive • Future value • Annoyance • Polite distancing
  9. 9. Future value • I’m visting my in-laws this weekend. • I was meeting my friends that afternoon. (future in the past)
  10. 10. Annoyance • Always • Constantly • He is constantly arriving late to class.
  11. 11. Polite distancing • I was wondering whether you could give me a hand with the project.
  12. 12. Conjunctions AND, BUT, OR • If we have any of these conjuntions, both clauses must be in the same tense and aspect. • He arrived late and the teacher punished him. • I don’t like going shopping but skiing. • Do you prefer walking or running?
  13. 13. Voices • Active voice  I bought a house. • Passive voice  A house was bought (by me). • In passive voice: ▫ Be + past participle ▫ Object becomes the subject ▫ Subject becomes a by-phrase (optional) • I’ll write a paper  A paper will be written.
  14. 14. Complex passive voice • People think that she is a good student – ACTIVE • It’s thought that she is a good student – PASSIVE • She is thought to be a good student – PASSIVE
  15. 15. Complex passive voice • Complex passive sentences usually involves REPORTING VERBS • The focus is on the information, not on who thinks, reports, believes, etc. • We use perfect infinitive to express anteriority. • We use progressive infinitive to express ongoingness.
  16. 16. Double passive sentences • S + V + IO + DO • I give Mary a pen - Active • S + V + DO + IO • I give a pen to Mary - Active
  17. 17. Double passive sentences • Both objects can be the subject. • I give Mary a pen. – ACTIVE • A pen is given to Mary (by me) – PASSIVE • Mary is given a pen (by me) – PASSIVE
  18. 18. Finite and non-finite forms • Finite forms express tense (present, past, future): she sings • Non-finite forms don’t express tense: ▫ Infinitive: to sing ▫ Bare infinitive: sing ▫ Past participle: sung ▫ Present participle / gerund: singing
  19. 19. Complex forms: finite or not? • I am leaving ▫ Am: Finite ▫ Leaving: Non-finite ▫ Finite • If there’s any finite form, then this is a finite complex form. • Having finished ▫ Having: Non-finite ▫ Finished: Non-finite ▫ Non-finite • If there’s none finite form, then this is a non-finite complex form.
  20. 20. Two types • Deontic modality ▫ Obligation (must, have to) ▫ Ability (can, be able to) ▫ Permition (can, may) ▫ Advice (should, ought to) • Epistemic modality ▫ Probability (might, may)
  21. 21. MAY: Deontic or epistemic? • You may go. • It may rain.
  22. 22. MAY: Deontic or epistemic? • You may go. ▫ Permition  DEONTIC • It may rain. ▫ Probability  EPISTEMIC
  23. 23. NEED: A tricky verb • NEED can be a LEXICAL VERB or a MODAL VERB. • You don’t need to be tall to play football. ▫ General lack of necessity • You don’t need to come if you are tired. • You needn’t come if you are tired. ▫ Specific lack of necessity
  24. 24. NEED: A tricky verb • In past: • It was sunny when I left. I didn’t need to take my umbrella. (so I didn’t) • It stopped raining five minutes after I left. I needn’t have taken my umbrella. (but I took it)
  25. 25. Kinds of verbs • Lexical verbs VS Modal (and Auxiliary) verbs.
  26. 26. Kinds of verbs Lexical verbs Modal and Auxiliary verbs • Followed by an infinitve with TO ▫ I need to go. • Negation with DO + NOT ▫ I don’t want to leave. • Question formed with DO. ▫ Do I leave tomorrow? • Verb agreement with subject. ▫ I go, he goes. • Followed by the bare infinitive ▫ You may go. • Negation with NOT ▫ I may not go. • Question formed by inversion. ▫ May Susan go? • Verb doesn’t agree with subject. ▫ I can, he can.
  27. 27. Expressing wishes • I wish... • Rather / Better
  28. 28. I wish… • I wish [+ Past (Simple, Progressive, Perfect, etc)] ▫ I wish I had travelled more when I was young.
  29. 29. Some sentences to practise • I would like to be able to afford a country house. ▫ I wish… I was able to afford a country house. • It’s a pity I didn’t bring my camera with me. • I would like to go out more at the weekend. • I would love tobe lying on a beach in the Bahamas right now.
  30. 30. Some sentences to practise • It’s a pity I didn’t bring my camera with me. ▫ I wish I had brought my camera with me. • I would like to go out more at the weekend. • I would love tobe lying on a beach in the Bahamas right now.
  31. 31. Some sentences to practise • It’s a pity I didn’t bring my camera with me. • I would like to go out more at the weekend. ▫ I wish I went out more at the weekend. • I would love tobe lying on a beach in the Bahamas right now.
  32. 32. Some sentences to practise • It’s a pity I didn’t bring my camera with me. • I would like to go out more at the weekend. • I would love tobe lying on a beach in the Bahamas right now. ▫ I wish I was lying on a beach in the Bahamas right now.
  33. 33. Rather / Better • Two different structures: ▫ WOULD RATHER + Infinitive (without TO) ▫ HAD BETTER + Infinitive (without TO) • Both can be written as “ ’d ”. ▫ I’d rather = I would rather ▫ I’d better = I had better
  34. 34. Rather / Better • I would prefer to travel abroad this summer. ▫ RATHER: I’d rather travel abroad this summer. • He should pay more attention in class. ▫ BETTER: He’d better pay more attention in class.
  35. 35. Let’s practice! • She would prefer not to work on Saturdays. ▫ RATHER: • She should not skip classes. ▫ BETTER: • I would prefer that you stopped playing the piano in the evenings. ▫ RATHER:
  36. 36. Let’s practice! • She would prefer not to work on Saturdays. ▫ RATHER: I would rather not work on Saturdays. • She should not skip classes. • I would prefer that you stopped playing the piano in the evenings.
  37. 37. Let’s practice! • She would prefer not to work on Saturdays. • She should not skip classes. ▫ BETTER: She had better not skip classes. • I would prefer that you stopped playing the piano in the evenings.
  38. 38. Let’s practice! • She would prefer not to work on Saturdays. • She should not skip classes. • I would prefer that you stopped playing the piano in the evenings. ▫ RATHER: I’d rather you stopped playing the piano in the evenings.
  39. 39. Emphasis techniques • We emphasise information by means of: ▫ INTONATION. ▫ ADVERBIALS. ▫ WORD ORDER.  Fronting  Clefting  Inversion
  40. 40. Intonation • He saw you in Barcelona. • He saw YOU in Barcelona. • He SAW you in Barcelona. • HE saw you in Barcelona.
  41. 41. Adverbials • I’m sure you were there. • I’m ABSOLUTELY sure I saw you. • I’m EXTREMELY sure I saw you. • I’m TOTALLY sure I saw you.
  42. 42. Word order • Fronting • Clefting • Inversion
  43. 43. Fronting • The basic sentence word order is S + V + O. • I don’t care what he wants. • What he wants, I don’t care.
  44. 44. Fronting: Try yourself! • The climbers went up the rocky slope. • It’s unbelievable that he passed the exam. • It’s my dream to visit Japan.
  45. 45. Fronting: Try yourself! • The climbers went up the rocky slope. ▫ Up the rocky slope went the climbers. • It’s unbelievable that he passed the exam. ▫ That he passed the exam is unbelievable. • It’s my dream to visit Japan. ▫ Visiting Japan is my dream. ▫ To visit Japan is my dream. (Subject: Pres. Part.)
  46. 46. Clefting • I need a holiday. • My brother sent a letter. • I just want to sleep. • She hid the money under the mattress • I came to say goodbye.
  47. 47. Clefting • I need a holiday. ▫ What I need is a holiday. • My brother sent a letter. • I just want to sleep. • She hid the money under the mattress • I came to say goodbye.
  48. 48. Clefting • I need a holiday. • My brother sent a letter. ▫ It was my brother who sent a letter. • I just want to sleep. • She hid the money under the mattress • I came to say goodbye.
  49. 49. Clefting • I need a holiday. • My brother sent a letter. • I just want to sleep. ▫ All I want is to sleep. • She hid the money under the mattress • I came to say goodbye.
  50. 50. Clefting • I need a holiday. • My brother sent a letter. • I just want to sleep. • She hid the money under the mattress ▫ The place where she hid the money was under the mattress. • I came to say goodbye.
  51. 51. Clefting • I need a holiday. • My brother sent a letter. • I just want to sleep. • She hid the money under the mattress • I came to say goodbye. ▫ The reason why I came is to say goodbye.
  52. 52. Inversion • I have never seen such a beautiful place! ▫ Never have I seen such a beautiful place! • Adverb phrase / Prep phrase + Auxiliary / Modal / Verb “to be” + Subject.
  53. 53. Inversion • I have seldom heard something so convincing! ▫ Seldom have I heard something so convincing! • You can’t tell her the result. ▫ Under no circumstances can you tell the result. • I was able to truly appreciate him when he dead. ▫ Only after his death was I able to truly appreciate him.
  54. 54. Inversion • We understood only then what she meant. ▫ Only then did we understand what she meant. • Hardly had I arrived when the telephone. • No sooner had they closed the door than the alarm went off. • Not until he read her diary did he fully understand how much she had loved him.
  55. 55. Use of English

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