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Instructional Strategies: Indirect Instruction in your lessons

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As there are many categories of instructional strategies, this e-book focuses on indirect instruction. Indirect instruction is mainly student- centred and emphasizes on allowing students to get involved throughout a lesson by observing thus seeking their own meaning of the lesson.
In this e-book, the methods of indirect instruction that can be used in class will be discussed and explored.

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Instructional Strategies: Indirect Instruction in your lessons

  1. 1. 1 Table of Contents Introduction 3 1.0 Problem Solving 1.1 What is Problem Solving? 4 1.2 How to apply Problem Solving in Lesson? 7 1.3 Example 9 1.4 References 12 2.0 Concept Mapping 2.1 What is Concept Mapping? 14 2.2 How to apply Concept Mapping in Lesson? 18 2.3 Example 20 2.4 References 21 3.0 Concept Formation 3.1 What is Concept Formation? 22 3.2 How to apply Concept Formation in Lesson? 23 3.3 Example 25 3.4 References 29 4.0 Concept Attainment 4.1 What is Concept Attainment? 30 4.2 How to apply Concept Attainment in Lesson? 32 4.3 Example 33 4.4 References 35 5.0 Inquiry 5.1 What is Inquiry? 36 5.2 How to apply Inquiry in Lesson? 38 5.3 Example 41 5.4 References 44
  2. 2. 2 6.0 Reading for Meaning 6.1 What is Reading for Meaning? 44 6.2 How to apply Reading for Meaning in Lesson? 45 6.3 Example 48 6.4 References 50 7.0 Reflective Discussion 7.1 What is Reflective Discussion? 51 7.2 How to apply Reflective Discussion in Lesson? 55 7.3 Example 56 7.4 References 57 8.0 Cloze Procedure 8.1 What is Cloze Procedure? 58 8.2 How to apply Cloze Procedure in Lesson? 59 8.3 Example 61 8.4 References 63 9.0 Case Studies 9.1 What are Case Studies? 64 9.2 How to apply Case Studies in Lesson? 65 9.3 Example 66 9.4 References 68
  3. 3. 3 INTRODUCTION As there are many categories of instructional strategies, this e-book focuses on indirect instruction. Indirect instruction is mainly student- centred and emphasizes on allowing students to get involved throughout a lesson by observing thus seeking their own meaning of the lesson. In this e-book, the methods of indirect instruction that can be used in class will be discussed and explored. The methods that will be discussed include: 1. Problem Solving 2. Concept Mapping 3. Concept Formation 4. Concept Attainment 5. Inquiry 6. Reading for Meaning 7. Reflective Discussion 8. Cloze Procedure 9. Case Studies Under each topic, the methods will be divided into 4 subtopics, which is introduction, how to apply in lessons, example and references. With this e-book, we hope that educators can have a clearer understanding of the methods and integrate into their lesson in class. This would lead to more effective learning among students and promote interaction between students as well as with educators.
  4. 4. 4 1.0 PROBLEM SOLVING 1.1 What is Problem Solving? Problem Solving is the ability to find a solution to a given problem by applying appropriate skills or concepts, either from existing knowledge, or newly acquired knowledge. Problem Solving involves the process of first obtaining information on the problem in its current state to its goal state, then generating new knowledge on methods to achieve the goal state, and lastly making the decision to select the most suitable method to its goal state. This scenario is explained in the figure below. Figure 1.1: Process of Problem Solving PROBLEM IN CURRENT STATE PROBLEM IN GOAL STATE PROBLEM SOLVER PROCESS OF PROBLEM SOLVING
  5. 5. 5 Mayer and Wittrock (2006), defines problem solving as "cognitive processing related at achieving a goal when no solution method is obvious to the problem solver". There are four parts to this definition, as described in the diagram below: Figure 1.2: Definition of Problem Solving from Mayers & Wittrock. Many views of problem solving stem from two theories, i.e. Gestalk Theory or Information Processing Theory. According to Gestalk Theory (Duncker, 1945 and Wertheimer, 1959), problem solving occurs with a flash of insight. Insight occurs when the problem solver devise the way to solve the problem. According to this theory, several things happen during the insight that gives raise to the solution. They are: 1) Building a schema that fits all the parts of the problem together 2) Reorganizing the visual information to solve the problem 3) Restating the problem in a new way that is easier to solve. 4) Removing mental blocks
  6. 6. 6 5) Finding a problem analog, which is a similar problem which has been solved by the problem solver before. In the Information Processing Theory (Newell & Simon, 1972), the process is described based on the human computer metaphor which involves a series of mental computations on mental representations. It involves solving the problem in stages by applying an operator suitable to solve the problem at that stage, then proceeding to the next stage, until the desired goal state in achieved.
  7. 7. 7 1.2 How to Apply Problem Solving in Lesson? There are several ways on how problem solving can be incorporated into the classroom. Among them are: 1. Brainstorming Provide a certain problem that needs to be solved and encourage students to brainstorm on the possible solutions. 2. Group Problem Solving Assign students in groups and give them problems that they need to solve together as a group. This method allows the students to listen to ideas and insights from their friends that they themselves may not have thought about before. 3. Game-based Problem Solving. Create games such as playing detectives where they need to solve a case using clues given. Apart from problem solving, this activity encourages critical thinking and teamwork among the students. 4. Scenario-based Problem Solving What would you do if you are stranded on an island with just a knife? Create scenarios where the students need to think of possible survival solutions using their creativity and thinking skills. 5. Real-life Problem Solving
  8. 8. 8 What are the current issues that the school or community is facing? How do we help solve these issues? These are questions that can be posed to the students to get them to find solutions to real-life problems that they may face every day. Applications of problem solving the classroom can be done in a variety of ways which are fun and interactive.
  9. 9. 9 1.3 Example Here are some examples of activities related to problem solving suitable for children in kindergarten or lower primary school. Example 1. These are problems related to real-life scenarios that need to be solved by the students either using Brainstorming or Group Problem Solving approach. Figure 1.3: Example 1 Example 2: These are maths related problems that are presented in an mini mystery form. There are a few "mysteries" to be solved that are based on mathematical concepts. This example is the application of Scenario-based Problem Solving.
  10. 10. 10 Figure 1.4: Example 2 - Cover of Mini-Math Mystery Figure 1.5: Example 2 - Problems to be solved in the mystery
  11. 11. 11 Depending on the age of students and their level of knowledge, the teachers can create a few variation of the same problems to suit the student's level. After each activity, teachers are encouraged to discuss the methods of problem solving with the students.
  12. 12. 12 1.4 References 5 Problem-Solving Activities for the Classroom. (2013, February 13). Retrieved August 19, 2015, from http://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/teaching-strategies/5- problem-solving-activities-for-the-classroom Duncker, K. (1945). On problem solving. Psychological Monographs, 58(5), Whole No. 270. Fredericks, A. (2005). Problem-Solving. Retrieved August 19, 2015, from https://www.teachervision.com/problem-solving/teaching-methods/48451.html Problem-Solving Helper, A. (n.d.). Logical Leprechauns - a game to work on problem solving. Retrieved August 19, 2015, from https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Logical- Leprechauns-a-game-to-work-on-problem-solving-570367 Lewis, H. (n.d.). Corrected-Mini-Math Mystery-Jogging Gingerbread-Grade 3-Freebie. Retrieved August 19, 2015, from https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Corrected-Mini-Math-Mystery- Jogging-Gingerbread-Grade-3-Freebie-189837 Mayer, R., & Wittrock, M. (2009, December 23). Problem Solving. Retrieved August 19, 2015, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/problem-solving1/#A /
  13. 13. 13 Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Wertheimer, M. (1959). Productive thinking. New York: Harper & Row.
  14. 14. 14 2.0 Concept Mapping 2.1 What is Concept Mapping? Concept mapping is a way to organize conceptual information by using graphical tools. A typical concept map contains a particular concept usually enclosed in circles or boxes. The related ideas or concepts will be linked by a connecting line and sometimes linking words are written on the line to specify the relationship between those two concepts (Novak & Canas, 2008). According to Novak and Canas, there are several features of concept mapping: 1. The concepts are represented in hierarchical fashion. The most general concepts were put at the top of the map followed by the less general concepts below. 2. Cross links is included to show relationship between concepts from the different segments of the concept map. 3. Specific examples might also be included to help clarify the meaning of the concept. Figure 2.1: Sample of concept map and its features (Zeilik, 2008). LEVE L 1 LEVE L 2 Key Concept General Concept Concept Example Concept Example General Concept Concept Example Concept General Concept Subconcept Specific Concept Subconcept Specific Concept LEVE L 3 LEVE L 4 Links Cross links
  15. 15. 15 Concept mapping was first developed in 1970s by Joseph D. Novak and his friends from Cornell University. This instructional strategy emerged from David P. Ausubel‘s Assimilation Theory of meaningful verbal learning. According to this theory, ―meaningful human learning occurs when new knowledge is consciously and purposively linked to an existing framework of prior knowledge in a non-arbitrary, substantive fashion.‖ (n.d.) There are several types of concept mapping: 1. Spider Concept Map Use to show data that relates to a central idea or theme. The data is arranged surrounding the centre of the map. 2. Hierarchy Concept Map Use to show hierarchical relationships. The map could either progress horizontally or vertically. Concept Idea Idea Idea Idea Concept Idea IdeaIdea
  16. 16. 16 2.1Narrow and Deep Hierarchy Consist of one main category followed by several sub-categories linking which become more specific as it goes down. 2.2Wide and Shallow Hierarchy Consist of one main category broken down into a few smaller categories. 2.3Trees Categories linked with lines to its subtopics. 2. Flowchart Concept Map The information is organizes in a linear order. Concept Idea Sub-idea Sub-idea Idea Sub-idea Concept Idea Idea Idea Concept Idea Idea Idea Idea 1 Idea 2 Idea 3
  17. 17. 17 3. System Concept Map The information is organizes similar to flowchart concept map except that this type of concept map contains the input and output functions. Process 1 Process 2 Process 3Process 4 Process 5 Input Output
  18. 18. 18 2.2 How to apply Concept Mapping in lesson? Constructing a Concept Mapping could follow this procedure: 1. Define a focus question or central idea that the concept map would represent. The central idea should be clearly explains the ideas that should be linked to it. 2. Identify the key concepts that is related to the central idea. Rank the concepts according to most general concept first, down to the most specific concept. Link the central idea to the most general concepts. 3. Link the most general concept to the less general concepts. Label the connecting line to show the relationship between concepts if necessary. What Animal Eat? What Animal Eat? Carnivore Herbivore Omnivore ANIMAL'S DIET Carnivore Only eat meats Lion Tiger Dog Herbivore Only eat plants Cow Goat Monkey Omnivore Eat both meat & plant Human Chimpanzees Chicken Characteristi c Characteristi c Characteristi c Example s Example s Example s
  19. 19. 19 4. Keep on revising the concept map by adding necessary or cutting down unnecessary information until it reach satisfactory condition.
  20. 20. 20 2.3 Example Here is an example of concept map for science subject: Figure 2.2: Science of Global Warming. (Mappio, n.d.) Here is an example of concept map in history subject: Figure 2.3: Christopher Columbus (Learning Fundamentals, n.d.)
  21. 21. 21 2.4 References Inspiration Web Inc. (n.d.). Explorer Web: Christopher Colombo. Retrieved from http://www.inspiration.com/Kidspiration-social-studies-examples Learning Fundamentals. (2008, September 1). The Science of Global Warming. Retrieved from http://mappio.com/mindmap/learning-fundamentals/the- science-of-global- warming Novak, J.D. & Canas, A.J. (2008). The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct and Use Them. Retrieved from http://cmap.ihmc.us/docs/theory-of- concept-maps Zeilik, M. (n.d.). Classroom Assessment Techniques-Concept Mapping. Retrieved from http://www.flaguide.org/cat/conmap/conmap7.php
  22. 22. 22 3.0 CONCEPT FORMATION 3.1 What is Concept Formation? Concept formation is ―an inductive teaching strategy that helps students form a clear understanding of a concept (or idea) through studying a small set of examples of the concept‖ (Parker, n.d.). That is how our brain works, by constantly observing and classifying things or events around us to form a concept. By using concept formation, the teacher does not directly communicate the targeted concept or idea but instead he/she provides students with some examples. Students will figure out the concept or idea by looking for common attributes within those examples given. A lot of people confused concept formation with concept attainment and concept learning. While it looks almost similar, concept formation is actually the opposite of concept attainment. In concept attainment, students are provided with a set of positive examples and negative examples classified by the teacher in a way that he/she would like the student to view it. Whilst in concept formation, students are presented with just a list of examples and they decide the way how to classify those (Kaur, 2009). Concept learning in the other hand is a learning process on how to classify things. Concept formation is suitable for teaching any concepts in all subjects. There are various instructional strategies that could be used for concept formation. It could be through direct or indirect instruction, experiential learning, interactive instruction or independent study (Kaur, 2009). Concept formation is good as it promotes creative and
  23. 23. 23 critical thinking. By using this instructional strategy, it is easier for them to remember the concept as they learn it thoroughly rather than just remembering the definition given. 3.2 How to Apply Concept Formation in Lesson? Applying Concept Formation in classroom could follow this procedure: PLANNING THE LESSON: 1. In planning the lesson, select and decide on a concept that will be taught and list its critical attributes. 2. Develop a good set of examples. Make sure that all those examples has all critical attributes required to form the concept. 3. Produce a data organization chart. Below is the examples of such chart: Questions Examples What types of foods that these animal eats? Does these animals have sharp claws or teeth? What is the characteristic of their digestive system? Tiger Cat Dog Shark Diagram 1: Example of data organization chart for learning about carnivore The questions at the top row is the focus question, in which it should help students to list the critical characteristics from the examples given.
  24. 24. 24 CLASSROOM LESSON: 1. Introduce the concept formation process by simulating using simpler concept that students have mastered before. 2. Once students get hold of the process, let them know that the teacher is going to teach them a new concept. Instead of directly giving them terminology or definition of the concept, the teacher will do it by using concept formation. 3. Present the examples using the data organization chart. 4. Ask student to discuss and gather data until they could recognized the critical attributes of those examples given. 5. Introduce the rule or a name for the concept. Discuss the process of thinking with class. 6. Evaluate their understanding. Be preparde to explain further to help them refine their knowledge.
  25. 25. 25 3.3 Example An example of science lesson using concept attainment as the instructional strategy: PLANNING THE LESSON Step 1: Define concept and its attributes. Concept: Physical change of matter Important attributes: Physical change does not change the identity of the substance itself.  Physical change does not produce new substance, unlike chemical change.  Could either be change in size, texture, volume and mass. Step 2: Develop a good set of example. Examples Crushing a can Melting an ice cube Boiling water Mixing sand and water Breaking a plate Dissolving sugar and water Shredding paper Chopping wood Dicing vegetables
  26. 26. 26 Mixing different coloured marbles CLASSROOM LESSON Step 3 Introduce the process  Introduce the idea of concept formation of carnivore animals.  Read the examples to the class. Ask student what similarities they recognize from the list of examples of animals given. Example: Lion and tiger have claws and sharp teeth. Lion and tiger eat meat  Ask student to suggest more examples that have similar critical attributes  Ask if anyone in the class recognize the concept and define it. ‗Lion and tiger are carnivore. Carnivore only eat meats.‘  Explain that you will maintain similar process for the actual lesson after this. Step 4 Present the examples  Remind students that they are now in a topic on matter and how they have discussed about physical properties in previous lesson. Let them know that today you are going to introduce a new concept.  Handout a data organization chart to each student. Ask student to discuss and answer the questions for each of the examples.
  27. 27. 27 Examples Is there any chemical reaction involved? Is it reversible? Why? Is there any new substance produced? Sample of data organization chart on physical changes of matter Step 5 Develop the concept  Let a few students share their answers with the class. Reveal more examples for them to examine.
  28. 28. 28  Let students attempt at giving definition to the concept. Ask them to suggest their own examples to represent the concept.  Verify their understanding of the concept. If they have not reach the correct answer, ask guiding questions to bring them to the intended concept. Examples: What is involved when we crushed the can? Does the substance change when ice melts? What makes the nails rust?  Once most of students in class reach the intended understanding of the concept, explain in details of the concept, giving the correct definition. Example: The photographic examples shows change in size, shape or state of the matter. The change involve maybe reversible. The melted ice could be freeze back into ice for example. This is physical change. Chemical change is when chemical reaction is involved during the process and the change is irreversible. For example, the burning of woods involve combustion reaction. Step 7 Discuss the process  Ask question about the process of reaching the understanding of the concept. Examples: After which photo you start to figure out the category? Does the examples have clear attributes of the concept? Step 8 Evaluate
  29. 29. 29  Evaluate their understanding by giving more practices. 3.4 References Kaur, R. (2009) Concept Formation. Retrieved from http://teacher-educator.jimdo.com/social-science/concept-formation/ Parker, W. (n.d.) Concept Formation. Retrieved from http://teachinghistory.org/teaching- materials/teaching-guides/25184 Secondary Science 2010. (2010) Physical Changes – Concept Attainment Lesson. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/secondaryscience2010/excel- grade-sheet/physicalchanges
  30. 30. 30 4.0 CONCEPT ATTAINMENT 4.1 What is Concept Attainment? Concept attainment is a method that uses an indirect yet structured inquiry process. Generally, it is a tool for learners to categorise or group attributes or characteristics given. It is a search and identify of attributes to recognize differences in the examples. Leaners figure out by comparing and contrasting example attributes by referring to concepts given or learnt. Examples are then separated and categorised into groups. It is also known as concept learning, category learning and concept formation, usually based on the research of Jerome Bruner, the cognitive psychologist. According to Bruner, Goodnow, & Austin (1967) defined concept attainment as the search, listing and categorising of characteristics observed and found, used to differentiate and separate examples or evidences. Simply put, concepts are mental categories to simplify the phenomenon that happens around us. It helps us to classify objects, events or ideas to a set of common relevant features. It is a strategic process of ‗making sense of things that are around us‘.
  31. 31. 31 Beginnings: Theories & Models Jerome Bruner pioneers and researched in the field of cognitive psychology and educational psychology. He coined the term ‗scaffolding‘, meaning the process children go through to build information that they acquired and familiar with. He also proposed a model of integrated three modes of representation: action-based, image-based and language-based. He further explains that when learners (children or adults) face with new material of information, they organized it through a progression from action to image then language. He suggests that a learner is able to understand and remember provided that the instruction is organized. He refers to Bloom‘s Taxonomy as a good example of a coding system for learners to form and arrange categories and relate to it. With each specific category level, learners arrange knowledge acquired and related subjects, topics and ideas in a ‗scaffolding fashion‘. Bruner further proposed with spiral curriculum, an approach to teach subjects or skills recalled at intervals with a more specific or ‗narrowing down like a funnel‘ level each time. The teaching of basic knowledge of a subject (the concept), add specifics at levels of intervals while reinforcing the basics. Most concept learning theories are based on the knowing of examples.
  32. 32. 32 4.2 How to use Concept Attainment in Lesson One, choose and define a concept. Give a definition of a concept. Example, ‗What makes us human?‘ Two, select the attributes or characteristics. Learners to list the appropriate attributes of a human being. Three, develop positive and negative examples. Example, ‗Human walks.‘ ‗Human speaks‘. Four, introduce by showing through action, images and words the process to learners. Five, present examples and list the attributes. ‗Walk by using legs in a sequenced movement of steps.‘ Six, develop a concept definition based on the attributes. ‗A human is a being walking with a pair of legs in a movement of sequence of steps.‘ Seven, give additional examples; through actions, visual images and words. Eight, discuss the process with learners. Learners give inputs on refining the definition or arguments on the defined concept. Nine, evaluate. Give value to the concepts. Concept attainment explains a learning task in which a learner is trained to categorize objects or actions by being shown a set of examples through images and words. The learner simplifies and classifies by labelling what has been observed in the form of an example which is then applied to future examples. A learner is less likely to learn when
  33. 33. 33 not able to simplify difficult concepts. This process is simply known as ‗learning from examples‘. 4.3 Example The activity above is a common example of concept attainment. It can be done using the board, chart paper or a projector. It can be applied to a large or small group and one-on-one work. Involve the learners from the beginning by using a learner‘s concept. Also, concept attainment can be used to introduce or conclude a unit of study. Variations - Learners determine the essential characteristics by presenting all positive examples. - Determine essential attributes by grouping examples into two categories. Present all positive and negative examples without labelling them. - Learners identify essential attributes, choose positive examples and define the concept. - It is a model for group activity. Assessment and Evaluation Reflections A teacher must note learners‘ ability to write the definition from memory. Determine the difference between positive and negative examples from a given group. Create relevant examples from a concept. ‗Thinking aloud‘ through choice words that describe
  34. 34. 34 examples. Learners write learning logs. Do an oral presentation in front of class, individually or in pairs. Create a web, cluster, mind-map, flow-chart, illustrations or concept mapping to describe the concept and example. Purposes and Benefits:  Creates a connection between what learners know now and future learning  Examine a concept from a number of perspectives or point of views  Sort out and categorize relevant information  By classifying more than an example of a concept enhances knowledge of the concept  Retention of information improved by associating key terms with a concept definition Limitations:  Time constraint on large volume classes  Learners require a good level of vocabulary for ‗thinking aloud‘  Need large spaces to write and illustrate relevant examples and concepts. Ie. mind-mapping
  35. 35. 35 4.4 References Harvey F. Silver, Richard W. Strong & Matthew J. Perini. (2007). The Strategic Teacher: Selecting the Right Research-Based Strategy for Every Lesson. ASCD. Bruner, J., Goodnow, J. J., & Austin, G. A. (1967). A study of thinking. New York: Science Editions.
  36. 36. 36 5.0 INQUIRY BASED LEARNING 5.1 What is Inquiry Based Learning? Inquiry Based Learning (IBL) is yet another strategy under Indirect Instruction. It is a purely student-centred approach with teachers acting as facilitators. It is a strategy that promotes thinking and active learning (Murdoch, 2006). Through IBL, students will be encouraged to question things and to explore the answers to their questions. The strategy encompasses both minds-on and hands-on activities. IBL is not a teaching strategy per se, in fact it is an umbrella term that covers a number of other approaches to teaching and learning; problem-based learning, project based learning and design- based learning (Stephenson, n.d.). In comparison to the traditional way of teaching where passive learning takes place and the focus is solely on the content, IBL focuses on the learning process (Stephenson, n.d.). The learning process is equally important to the content if not more. This strategy could be applied to learners from every stages of learning from pre-schoolers (guided inquiry) up to university students (open inquiry) (Spronken-Smith 2007). The aim is for learners to become active thinkers who are able to question things and to independently find answers to the questions (Murdoch, 2006). A few definitions of Inquiry are as the followings: a) According to Exline (2004) "Inquiry" is defined as "a seeking for truth, information, or knowledge -- seeking information by questioning." b) According to McMaster University (2007) “Inquiry is a form of Self-Directed Learning and follows the four basic stages defining self-directed learning. Students take more
  37. 37. 37 responsibility for: 1) determining what they need to learn, 2) identifying resources and how best to learn from them 3) using resources and reporting their learning and 4) assessing their progress in learning.”
  38. 38. 38 5.1 How to apply Inquiry Based Learning in Lesson? According to Spronken-Smith (2007), the main components of an IBL approach that are in agreement with most researchers are: 1) learning are driven by questions or problems 2) learning are based on a process of seeking knowledge and new understanding 3) a student-centred approach in teaching where teacher acts as a facilitator 4) a move to self-directed learning in students 5) active learning. Teachers should try to adhere to these five components in order for IBL to be successfully applied in a lesson. There are different ways for a teacher to carry out IBL, depending on whether it is guided inquiry or open inquiry. However, the following steps could be taken as a guideline on how this strategy could be used in a lesson. These steps are adapted from Dr Cornelia Brunner‘s four step model of the inquiry process (Education Development Center Inc., 2012) : Step 1: Posing Real Questions Students must be guided to come up with real questions which are valid and subjected to the scientific and quasi-scientific methods which are the core of inquiry-based learning. Teachers must help students identify and refine their questions to suit the learning objectives or topics. In this step, students must also come up with a hypothesis to be tested. Step 2 : Finding Relevant Resources
  39. 39. 39 Once the students have identified the question(s) and hypothesis, they have to start gathering information or inputs from relevant resources. Depending on the topic or subject, the resources would vary. For science subjects, the main resources would be from books, websites and from doing experiments. For other subjects, the resources could be from people, websites, books, encyclopaedias, podcasts and videos. Students must be taught to be critical when choosing the resources and to filter the sources and the information accordingly. Step 3 : Interpreting Information Next, when the students have gotten all the information they need, they have to interpret the information and decide whether the information is relevant in answering the questions that they have. Here, the students must decide whether the information contributes in proving or disproving the hypothesis. Step 4 : Reporting Findings Lastly, students are hoped to arrive at a conclusion in answering the question and in proving the hypothesis. Students must be taught to put emphasis on the process and not the answer per se. If students are satisfied with their findings, they can stop there, and if they are unsatisfied, they can continue the inquiry process until they get the findings that they feel good with. As Dr Brunner put it “The objective is not to state the answer but to tell how this student arrived at this answer.” (Education Development Center Inc., 2012) The four steps are summarized in diagram 1 below:
  40. 40. 40 Diagram 5.1 : The Inquiry Process by Dr Cornelia Brunner (Education Development Center Inc., 2012)
  41. 41. 41 5.3 Example Here is an example of a Guided Inquiry Project under Oceanography on the question ―Does the thermocline location vary throughout the summer months?‖ This template is called Virtual Vee Map that functions as a systematic tool to promote inquiry learning through students‘ investigation (Coffman and Riggs, 2006).
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. 43 5.4 References Coffman, M. and L. Riggs. 2006, The Virtual Vee Map: A Template for Internet Inquiry, Journal of College Science Teaching, September, 32-39. Education Development Center Inc. (2012). How to: Inquiry. Technology, media & project-based learning to inspire young minds. Retrieved on 19th August 2015, from http://www.youthlearn.org/learning/planning/lesson-planning/how- inquiry/how-inquiry Exline, Joe (2004) Workshop: Inquiry-based Learning. Retrieved on 19th August 2015 from: www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry Murdoch, K. (2006). Inquiry learning: journeys through the thinking processes.Teacher Learning Network, 13(2), 32-34. Spronken-Smith, R. (2007). Experiencing the process of knowledge creation: The nature and use of inquiry-based learning in higher education. J. GEOGR. HIGHER ED., 2, 183.
  44. 44. 44 6.0 READING FOR MEANING 6.1 What is Reading for Meaning? Reading for Meaning (RFM) is another strategy under Indirect Instruction. It promotes comprehension, the ability to reason and active reading. RFM is also known as Reading with Comprehension (Reading Rocket, 2009). Through RFM, students will be trained to take out useful information and to provide evidence from the text in their arguments. The process focuses on the three stages of reading; before, during and after (Reading Rocket, 2009). How RFM differ from passive reading is through the use of a set of statements for every text during every reading session. The statements will be used and referred to, using a RFM organiser throughout the three stages. It could be applied to readers from every stages of learning from pre-schoolers up to university students. The aim is for readers to become proficient readers who read for meaning instead of merely reading. A few definitions of RFM are as the followings: a) According to Kellard (2015), “Reading for Meaning means students focus on discussing and understanding what they are reading, not just pronouncing the words correctly.‖ b) According to Silver et al. (2012) “Reading for Meaning is a research-based strategy that helps all readers build the skills that proficient readers use to make sense of challenging texts. Frequent use of the strategy will enable students to practice and master the three phases of critical reading; 1) previewing and predicting before reading, 2) actively searching for relevant information during reading 3) reflecting on learning after reading” (Silver et al. 2012).
  45. 45. 45 6.2 How to apply Reading for Meaning in lesson? In a Reading for Meaning lesson, teachers will provide students with simple statements. These statements will be used throughout the three stages of reading and will help the students preview and predict before reading, actively search for relevant evidence during reading, and reflect on and synthesize what they have learned after reading (Silver et.al. 2007). The statements will be the core aspect of the reading process and will serve two purposes; to activate prior knowledge and to give the reading activity a sense of purpose (Silver et.al. 2007). The statements could be plainly written or it could also be thought-provoking and appealing, to bring out best results. The statements could either be written on the whiteboard or handed out to students in RFM organiser sheet prior to reading session. Readers must find evidences in the text that either support or refute the statement. In a lesson, the following 7 steps could be carried out for a teacher to successfully apply the Reading for Meaning strategy. These steps are adapted from the book, The Core Six: Essential Strategies for Achieving Excellence with the Common Core by Silver et.al. (2012) : Step 1: Choose a short text that you are going to use with the students for the activity "Reading for Meaning." The text is not necessarily in article form, it could be any kind of text such as a poem, a fable or a blog post. The text could also be in the form of mathematical word problems and data charts. Step 2 : Provide a list of statements about the text to the students. Students will also be provided with a RFM organiser for them to complete. Throughout the reading session, students will have to search the text for evidence that either supports or refutes each
  46. 46. 46 statement. Teachers can be creative in creating the statements. They can either be true or false, can be open to interpretation and be customized to fit whatever skills or objectives that the teacher is trying to achieve —for example, identifying main ideas or analysing characters and ideas. Step 3 : Introduce the topic of the text. Teachers must be sure that the students have already previewed the statements before they begin reading. Teachers are to remind students to think about what they already know about the topic (activating prior knowledge) and to use the statements to make some predictions about the text. Step 4 : Students are to decide whether they agree or disagree with the statements and record evidence for their stand for each statement. This should be done while they are reading. Step 5 : Students are to discuss their evidence in pairs or small groups. Through discussion, pairs or groups have to reach an agreement about which statements are supported and which are refuted by the text. Step 6 : Teacher is to conduct a whole-class discussion. Here, students will share and justify their stands. Teacher will help students clarify their thinking and any misconceptions that might have arisen. Step 7 : Teacher will use students' responses as a tool to evaluate their understanding of the reading and their ability to support a position with evidence.
  47. 47. 47 Once mastered, RFM could be used in a number of different ways apart from reading comprehension activity. For example, it could be used for note-making, for interpreting a scene from a stage play, and also for analysing mathematical data.
  48. 48. 48 6.3 Example Here is an example on how a teacher could use Reading for Meaning in an English lesson. Directions: Read the statements before you read the story. Then read the story and collect evidence in the text that either supports or refutes each statement. Meet with a group and share your evidence. Then, as a group, decide if you agree or disagree with each statement. The Mouse At The Seashore A mouse told his mother and father that he was going on a trip to the seashore. ―We are very alarmed!‖ they cried. ―The world is full of terrors. You must not go!‖ ―I have made my decision, ― said the mouse firmly. ―I have never seen the ocean, and it is high time that I did. Nothing can make me change my mind.‖ ―Then we cannot stop you,‖ said the mother and father mouse, ―but do be careful!‖ The next day, in the first light of dawn, the mouse began his journey. Even before the morning had ended, the mouse came to know trouble and fear. A cat jumped out from behind a tree. ―I will eat you for lunch,‖ the cat said. It was a narrow escape for the mouse. He ran for his life, but he left a part of his tail in the mouth of the cat. By afternoon the mouse had been attacked by birds and dogs. He had lost his way several times. He was bruised and bloodied. He was tired and frightened. At evening the mouse slowly climbed the last hill and saw the seashore spreading out before him. He watched the waves rolling onto the beach, one after another. All of the colours of the sunset filled the sky.
  49. 49. 49 ―How beautiful!‖ cried the mouse. ―I wish that mother and father were here to see this with me.‖ The moon and the stars began to appear over the ocean. The mouse sat silently on the top of the hill. He was overwhelmed by a feeling of deep peace and contentment. Before After The mouse thought that he ought to go and see the seashore The mouse had no real reason to leave home When the end is good, even a difficult journey is worth it The author probably wants us to feel happy for the mouse. SUPPORT REFUTE SUPPORT REFUTE SUPPORT REFUTE SUPPORT REFUTE
  50. 50. 50 6.4 References Kellard, J. (2015). Reading Comprehension: Teaching kids how to read for meaning. Retrieved on 19th August 2015 from http://readingpartners.org/blog/teaching-kids- read-meaning/ Reading Rockets (2009). Reading for Meaning with Your Child. Retrieved on 19th August 2015 from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/reading-meaning-your- child Silver, H., Strong, R. W., & Perini, M. J. (2007). The strategic teacher. ASCD Multimedia. Silver, H. F., Dewing, R. T., & Perini, M. J. (2012). The core six: Essential strategies for achieving excellence with the Common Core. ASCD.
  51. 51. 51 7.0 REFLECTIVE DISCUSSION 7.1 What is Reflective Discussion? Reflective discussion is a method to internalize and realize perception in the form of viewpoints manifested within a discourse. Generally, it is a tool for learners to recall, reflect and talk about what is experienced using their senses. The usual steps in applying this method are a teacher or a learner starts a conversation by asking a question that refers to an experience: a common or shared experience. Learners recreate or recall the experience and as they focus, refocus along with the angle of the experience, filter, funnel, balancing thoughts with feelings and finally, speak. Within the process of thinking and speaking, learners might select and reselect words to describe the experience in the best suitable way according to their level of comprehension (based on background knowledge) and language (vocabulary). This process creates learners to reflect their own experience; listen, compare and categorize others‘ similar experiences to their own. As such, connections grow within their minds in terms of viewpoints or perspective on events and develop logical and moral meanings.
  52. 52. 52 Perspectives and interpretations of a general experience will vary accordingly, but such variances or versions are welcomed to elicit further understanding between learners (i.e. ‗shared values and opinions‘.) Beginnings: Theories & Models John Dewey wrote about on the process of experience, interaction and reflection: reflective practice. Researchers such as Jean Piaget and Kurt Lewin develop relevant theories of human development and learning. The reflective theory promotes the integration of theory and practice, the cyclical nature of experience and the conscious use of solutions gained from experience (i.e. ‗lessons learnt‘.) According to David Boud, a professor in adult education; ―Reflection is an important human activity in which people recapture their experience, think about it, mull it over and evaluate it. It is this working with experience that is important in learning. When a person is experiencing something, he or she may be implicitly learning; however, it can be difficult to put emotions, events, and thoughts into a coherent sequence of events. When a person rethinks or retells events, it is possible to categorize events, emotions, ideas, etc., and to compare the intended purpose of a past action with the results of the action. Stepping back from the action permits critical reflection on a sequence of events.‖
  53. 53. 53 Kolb (1975) reflective model is greatly influenced by Dewey and Piaget‘s research. His concept of experiential learning promotes the transformation of information into knowledge. He explains, ―This phenomena takes place after a situation or experience happened, whereby a person reflects on the experience, gain an understanding of concepts formed or faced during the experience, and tests the understanding in a new situation‖. So, knowledge attained through understanding can be applied and reapplied, building and connecting a person‘s prior knowledge and understanding. Schon (1978) reflective model of ‗reflection-on-action‘ describes the idea that post- experience, a person recalls and analyses their action, reaction and reasons to a situation, and the effects of it. He also notion the process of ‗responding to problematic situations, problem framing, problem solving, and the priority of practical knowledge over general theory or concepts‘ in connection to the model. ‗Gibbs cycle‘ (1988) by learning researcher Graham Gibbs connects his reflective model with Kolb‘s experiential learning cycle. It is adapted and presented as follows:
  54. 54. 54 Description What happened? Simply describe without judgments. Action Plan Feelings Do you react the same when What were your feelings? faced with a similar situation? Describe them. Apply learnt knowledge. Conclusion Evaluation What can be concluded, What was good or bad generally & specifically? about the experience? Put value to judgements. Analysis What was the cause & effect? Reflect other point of views. Figure 7.1: Adaptation of the Gibbs reflective model
  55. 55. 55 7.2 How to apply Reflective Discussion in Lesson? First, pose a question to initiate discussion. The question posed should be general, inferential or open-ended to which there is no definitive, ‗correct‘ answer. Two, learners initiate to recall a memory related to the question. Based on their sensory experience, learners express themselves within the boundary of their own point of view. Three, through the discussion, learners listen to other viewpoints. Inference or assumption and interpretation of logical and moral values are reflected upon own and others‘ viewpoints. Four, further questions elicited should serve to clarify, simplify or justify the viewpoints within the frame of understanding, meaning and knowing. Five, the discussion should reveal learners‘ meaning or purpose of their own experience and viewpoints of others. This can be measured through opinions or expressive behaviour of patience, acceptance, tolerance, empathy and sharing.
  56. 56. 56 7.3 Example One can use it in all subject or topic areas and conflict/problem solving. It can also be incorporated into other learning strategies such as book reviews, current issues talk, debates, cooperative learning, problem-based learning, literature study, reading sessions. Assessment and Evaluation Considerations A teacher must note learners‘ ability to orally express their thoughts, feelings and understandings. Also, note of learners‘ who pose questions to clarify their understandings. Do monitor learners‘ ability to turn-taking, listen to and respect others‘ viewpoints. And observe learners‘ interest and participation in sharing interpretations and responses. Purposes and Benefits:  Using questions to activate reflection and extend comprehension  To improve learners‘ thinking through communicating, inferring & evaluating  Elicit moral values such as patience, acceptance, tolerance and empathy  Identify skills and values, learning and extracting knowledge from experiences  A source of feedback to improve from comparing experiences
  57. 57. 57 Limitations:  Time constraint on large volume classes  Low self-esteem learners would struggle initially  Less communicative learners may feel uncomfortable  Requires maturity and good level of vocabulary for self-expression 7.4 References Dewey, John (1998) [1933]. How we think: a restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Boud, David; Keogh, Rosemary; Walker, David (1985). Reflection, turning experience into learning. London; New York: Kogan Page; Nichols. p. 19. Kolb, David A.; Fry, Ronald E. (1975). "Towards an applied theory of experiential learning". In Cooper, Cary L. Theories of group processes. Wiley series on individuals, groups, and organizations. London; New York: Wiley. pp. 33–58. Argyris, Chris; Schön, Donald A. (1996) [1978]. Organizational learning: a theory of action perspective. Addison-Wesley OD series 1. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Gibbs, Graham (1988). Learning by doing: a guide to teaching and learning methods. London: Further Education Unit.
  58. 58. 58 8.0 CLOZE PROCEDURE 8.1 What is cloze procedure? There are a few definitions of cloze procedure. Cloze as defined by Olter and Jonz (1994)‖ encompasses any procedure that monist portions of a text or discourse and asks reader or listeners to resupply the missing elements.‖ In the most typical cases of written applications of close procedure, single words are replaced with a standard length of blanks and the respondent attempts to fill in each blank. However, it is also possible in some cloze exercises to delete or omit larger or smaller segments than words such as phrases, clauses, syllables and single letters (Olter & Jonz, 1994). Schumm (2006) on the other hand proposed that ―cloze is a procedure that requires the reader to read a sentence and fill in a missing word or words.‖ According to Acantara, Espina, Villamin & Cabanilla(2003), cloze procedure is a technique which is very effective for the improvement of reading comprehension. It is based on the principal of closure in Gestalt psychology which asserts that an individual imposes a pattern on his environment in the process of learning. This pattern is that of relating parts to the whole, and filling in details where they are left out. In other words, readers have to rely on contextual clues to determine words to be inserted to complete the sentence. In this way, readers would learn to be more focused and aware of the essence and meaning of the sentence. There are two commonly distinguished classes of cloze exercises named fixed- ratio and variable- ratio. These two classes are determined by the distance between blanks which are measured in the number of words. In fixed- ratio type, every nth word is
  59. 59. 59 omitted. While for variable- ratio procedures, the words that are being deleted maybe determined randomly or on the basis of deliberate selections. 8.2 How to Apply Cloze Procedure in lesson? To apply cloze procedure in lesson, teachers are to first create a cloze passage to evaluate the readability level of students. In order to create this passage to test students‘ readability, these are the steps:- After students have filled in the blanks, scores of the students are recorded. Only the exact replacement word in the blanks is considered correct, but misspellings are allowed. Schumm (2006) explaines that teachers have to ―calculate the number of blanks the students filled in correctly, and divide by the number of total blanks to get a percentage.‖ Percentage below 40% means that the reading passage is too difficult for the student while score ranging from 40% and 59% indicate that the reading passage is
  60. 60. 60 at the student‘s instructional level where students are able to complete it with certain guidance provided. On the other hand, scores 60% and above signify that the reading passage is at student‘s independent reading level which the student is able to comprehend the reading passage without teacher support (Schumm, 2006). With the scores, teachers then can create cloze passages according to students‗readability levels. Acantara et al. (2006) mentioned that ―Richardson (1980) also suggested the following to prepare cloze materials in order to improve reading comprehension:- 1. Using a paragraph as a resource material for the cloze exercise: a. Delete systematically very n-th word, but leave either the vowels or the consonants. b. Delete every n-th words, but the the initial and final letter of each word. c. Delete every n-th word and provide three or four choices. 2. Using a long passage a. Delete every n-th word systematically but leave some letters.‖
  61. 61. 61 8.3 Example Below is a sample cloze passage retrieved from ReadWriteThink (2004), ―Sample Cloze Passage Directions: Read the following passage. As you read, ask yourself if you need a synonym for good, nice, or bad to fill in each blank. Then fill in the blanks with synonyms from your word web. Do not use the same word twice. Make sure the words you select make sense in the context of the passage. First Day of Work Saturday morning I felt _________________ because I was starting my first day of work as a cashier at Mr. Gordon‘s supermarket. I got dressed in the new outfit my mother bought me for work, and searched my closet for a pair of shoes that were _______________ for standing on my feet all day. I headed downstairs to eat the breakfast my little sister had prepared for me. The eggs tasted ________________, but I ate them anyway because I wanted her to feel _________________. After breakfast, I grabbed my jacket, dashed to the door, and kissed my mother goodbye. ―Have a ________________day,‖ my mother called to me as I headed down the porch stairs. The weather was ________________, especially after the ________________ storm the night before, so I decided to walk the seven blocks to the store. Turning the corner, I passed a construction crew repairing a(an) _______________ pothole in the street. One of the crew workers tipped his hat to me. I smiled at him just as a gust of wind blew dust from the construction onto my outfit. I tried to brush the dust away, and felt ________________that I didn‘t have to do such a(an) _________________ job like the construction workers. Halfway to the store, a man walked by with two
  62. 62. 62 ________________ dogs that kept growling at me and yanking their chains. ―Don‘t worry,‖ the man assured me. ―They won‘t hurt you; they‘re _________________ dogs.‖ I decided to cross to the other side of the street, just in case. I wasn‘t going to let anything ruin my _________________ day. Just as I reached the other side of the street, a bus roared by, splashing the water from a puddle onto my clothes. By the time I reached Mr. Gordon‘s store, my feet were aching and my clothes were ruined. I sat down on a bench outside the store to rub my feet. I felt so ___________________ that I almost cried. But I knew I had to keep going; Mr. Gordon was depending on me. I finally stood up and pulled on the door to the store, but it did not open. Then I noticed that it was dark inside the store, and a sign was posted on the door: CLOSED DUE TO POWER OUTAGE. I sat back down on the bench. What a(an) __________________ day!‖
  63. 63. 63 8.4 Reference Alcantara, R., Cabanilla, J., Espina, F., & Villamin, A. (2003). Teaching Strategies (3rd ed., Vol. 1). Makati City: Katha Publishing. Oller, J., & Jonz, J. (1994). Cloze and coherence. Lewisburg [Pa.: Bucknell University Press ;. Sample Cloze Message. (2004). Retrieved August 21, 2015, from http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/lesson_images/lesson282/ClozePas sage.pdf Schumm, J. (2006). Reading assessment and instruction for all learners. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  64. 64. 64 9.0 CASE STUDIES 9.1 What are Case Studies? Case Studies are scenarios that represent realistic and complex situations which needs to be solved in the classroom. There are a number of virtues of using case studies in the classroom, one of it is to ―bridge the gap between theory and practice and between the academy and the workplace‖ (Barkley, Cross, and Major 2005, p.182). According to Professor Paul Lawrence (quoted in Christensen, 1981), a good case study is: ―the vehicle by which a chunk of reality is brought into the classroom to be worked over by the class and the instructor. A good case keeps the class discussion grounded upon some of the stubborn facts that must be faced in real life situations.‖ There are a variety of case studies structure we can use. Here are some examples:  In the form of a few paragraphs, or a few pages.  Lecture-based or discussion based.  Based on real situations or fictional.  The case study require a full solution or just the parameters of the problem. Using Case Studies is part of the active learning process, which is proven to be an effective learning method in the classroom (Bonwell and Eison, 1991; Sivan et al, 2001).
  65. 65. 65 9.2 How to apply Case Studies in lesson? There are several ways on how case studies can be incorporated into the classroom. Among them are: 1. To test the validity of a theory When learning science, there are various theory that is being taught. One way to assist the students to validate the theory is through case studies. 2. To test the understanding of a concept. Case studies can be used to measure the understanding of a particular concept, for example in subject like geography and maths. 3. To explain the application of theories in real-life situations. Case studies can be used to show how theories, such as science theories, can be applied in real-life situation. 4. To reinforce understanding in a lecture. Case studies can be used as examples to make students understand the lecture better. Through case studies, the students are able to relate the lesson to a scenario they can relate to . 5. To facilitate group discussion. Case studies can be applied as a group exercise, where the input from each member is required to solve the problem given.
  66. 66. 66 9.3 Examples Here is one example of using case studies that can be applied in the classroom lessons for preschool children. Objective: To test the understanding on the importance of brushing our teeth to preschool children. Step 1: Show to the children on how to brush our teeth properly and the reason why we need to brush our teeth regularly. Image Source : clipartzebraz.com Step 2: Explain to them how food that gets stuck between our teeth will cause bacteria to form and cause cavity in our tooth. Image Source : Istockphoto.com
  67. 67. 67 Step 3: Show them this poster and tell them a scenario where a child is having a toothache. Use this scenario as a case study to test their understanding. Image source : ALIM Consultancy & Resources Ask them these questions: 1) Why is the tooth sad? 2) What was the cause of the toothache? 3) What should be done to avoid the toothache from happening? 4) What would they do in the same situation? 5) How would they feel if this happens to them? Through the use of case studies as above, the children are able to apply their knowledge to a possible scenario and reinforce their understanding of the concept.
  68. 68. 68 9.4 References Barkley, E. F, Cross, K. P. & Major, C. H. (2005) Collaborative Learning Techniques: A Handbook for College Faculty. San-Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Christensen, C. R. (1981) Teaching By the Case Method. Boston: Harvard Business School. Bonwell C C and Eison J A (1991) Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom, ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. The George Washington University, School of Education and Human Development, Washington, DC. Davis, C., & Wilcock, E. (n.d.). Teaching Materials Using Case Studies. Retrieved August 23, 2015, from http://www.materials.ac.uk/guides/casestudies.asp