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The AI Rush
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“We often have
no way of knowing
when and why people
are biased.”
- Sandra Wachter
Q&A: Should artificial intelligence be legally required to explain itself?
By Matthew Hutson, May. 31, 2017. Interview with Sandra Wachter, data ethics researcher at Univ. of Oxford and Alan Turing Institute.

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  • Exhibit intelligence
    Perceive their environment
    Take actions to maximize chance of success at a goal
  • Metropolis (1927), 2001 Space Odyssey (1968), War Games (1983), Blade Runner (1982), The Terminator (1984), Short Circuit (1986), The Matrix (1999), Ex Machina (2015),

    More recently,
    The Terminator, Short Circuit, 2001 Space Odyssey, The Matrix, Metropolis, Westworld
  • Take set of knowledge we give them and apply to new data
    Help humans discover patterns and find unknown
  • Provide body of knowledge for ground-truth
    used to compare further knowledge
  • Teaching
    Don’t learn like a typical human
    Only what they need to know
  • Consider a reverse card sorting exercise
    30 participants
    How important is it that they all get it right every time?
    Consider your industry
  • Government safety compliance
    Accidents related to this tire?
    Financial compliance
    Accounts with connections to this organization?
    Ecommerce chat bot
    Women’s pants with pockets?
  • When carefully (or not so carefully) piled books succumb to gravity
    Grew up with bookalanches occurring regularly
    Stepfather is an oncologist – would bring home piles of articles, papers, books and more.
    He reads everything he can get his hands on. He never stops trying to understand and fight cancer.
  • Late stage of disease at diagnosis and lack of treatment
  • Analyzes a patient’s medical information against a vast array of data and expertise to provide evidence-based treatment options.

    Saving some trees and reducing bookalanches
  • IBM’s Deep Blue beat world chess champion Garry Kasparov in a 6 game match

    Google's AlphaGo beat human world Go champion Lee Sedol, 4:1
  • Developed initially to answer Jeopardy! questions
    IBM's Watson named after IBM's first CEO, industrialist Thomas J. Watson.
  • “Comparison of machine learning methods applied to birdsong element classification” by David Nicholson. Proceedings of the 15th Python in Science Conference (SCIPY 2016). http://conference.scipy.org/proceedings/scipy2016/pdfs/david_nicholson.pdf

    “Analysis of birdsong (for neuroscience or the many other fields that study this behavior) typically focuses on "syllables" or "notes", recurring elements in the song… Each individual has a unique song that bears some similarity to the song of the bird that tutored it, but is not a direct copy. To analyze song, experimenters label syllables by hand. Typically the experimenter records one bird at a time while carrying out a behavioral experiment. However, each songbird produces thousands of songs a day, more than can be labeled. In order to deal with this mountain of data, some labs have developed automated analyses.”

    David Nicholson trained a classifier on syllables of one bird’s song to automate labeling of those syllables (same bird).
    This was not to train a classifier to distinguish the song of one bird from another.
  • Specialists spend more time on more complex patients

    IBM’s Avicenna software highlighted possible embolisms on this CT scan in green, finding mostly the same problems as a human radiologist who marked up the image in red.
  • IBM Research Australia is working to help stop this ‘silent thief of sight’ by teaching Watson to detect it. After learning from 88,000 retina images, Watson can understand what a healthy eye looks like, and identify abnormalities that indicate of the onset of eye diseases like glaucoma. In the future, this early detection technology could help keep glaucoma out of sight for millions.
  • Reorder
    Track shipments
    Chat with CSR
    “Simplifies the customers’ shopping experience, allowing them to quickly reorder supplies, track shipments or chat about customer service needs.”
    Staples “Easy Button” office supply reordering system which integrates IBM’s Watson technology to simplify office supply management for Staples Business Advantage Customers
  • teach to discern between right and wrong?
    letter vs. spirit of law?
  • The EU is more inclined to create hard laws that are enforceable.
    The EU General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which will come into force in May 2018, is an excellent example. This framework creates certain transparency rights and safeguards against automated decision-making. 
    Article 22, for example, grants individuals the right to contest a completely automated decision if it has legal or other significant effects on them. 
    Other articles require data collectors such as advertisers to provide people with access to the collectors’ data on them, and to inform people about the general functionality of the automated system when decisions are made using that data.
  • The Job: To read to large rooms of factory workers slaving away at remedial tasks for hours on end. Lectors were sometimes even hired with pooled money from the factory workers themselves for their entertainment.

    Who Did It: Well spoken gentlemen.

    Why It Went Away: A whole smorgasbord of reasons from the radio, to the Walk-Man, iPhones, iPods, podcasts...

    By Coy Jandreau - user uploaded image
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