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Venice: Rise and Fall of a Great City State History of Venice Rise of Venice Fall of Venice Lessons Learnt
History of Venice <ul><li>Group of islands made Venice </li></ul><ul><li>Venetians were expert sailors and shipbuilders </...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exemplary political system </li></u...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade monopoly </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Social Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracting foreign talents </li></ul><...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exemplary political system </li></u...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair electoral system </li></ul></u...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable and Committed Leadership </...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective system of checks on power...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical Policies </li></ul></ul><...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Navy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens’ involvement in ensuring p...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade Monopoly </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An adventurous Spirit </li></ul></ul...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of Trade Services </li></u...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversify into Manufacturing </li></...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Social Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracting Foreign Talents </li></ul><...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Social Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty to Venice </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Rise of Venice: 9 th  – 15 th  century <ul><li>Venice as a Centre of the Arts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth from trade led ...
Decline of Venice <ul><li>External Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wars with the Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R...
Decline of Venice <ul><li>External Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wars with the Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Decline of Venice <ul><li>External Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of Large States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Franc...
Decline of Venice <ul><li>External Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of new sea route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
Decline of Venice <ul><li>External Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition from New Trade Rivals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Decline of Venice <ul><li>Internal Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corruption in the Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Decline of Venice <ul><li>Internal Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complacency of Venetian Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
Decline of Venice <ul><li>Internal Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompetent Military Leaders </li></ul></ul>
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The rise and fall of Venice

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The rise and fall of Venice

  1. 1. Venice: Rise and Fall of a Great City State History of Venice Rise of Venice Fall of Venice Lessons Learnt
  2. 2. History of Venice <ul><li>Group of islands made Venice </li></ul><ul><li>Venetians were expert sailors and shipbuilders </li></ul><ul><li>Venetians monopolized in salt trading by capturing salt producing areas (Adriatic Sea) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exemplary political system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair electoral system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable and committed leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective system of checks on power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong navy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens’ involvement in ensuring public peace </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade monopoly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An adventurous spirit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of trade services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversifying into manufacturing </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Social Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracting foreign talents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty to Venice </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exemplary political system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong government – Aristocratic Republic (leaders elected from nobles) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No dominance of power by families </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyramidal structure (see pg 152) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair electoral system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nominating committee formed by Great Council (balloting) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevented dominance of power by a family/ individual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No election campaigns = no rivalries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voting by Great Council to prevent incompetent officers from holding office </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short term (6 mths – 2 yrs) = no individual has too much power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No more than one member allowed from a noble family in the Ducal Council = spread power, prevent nepotism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable and Committed Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forward looking, capable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fine those who refused to take up office </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective system of checks on power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signoria made crucial decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Close checks on election process and officers’ performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Council of Ten looked out for any possible attempts at monopolizing power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Membership at the council limited to 1 yr; no more than 1 member from the same family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elected leaders could not abuse their power </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical Policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paid pirates to stop harassing trading ships until navy was strong enough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish friendly relations with Muslim traders despite war (preserve trading opportunities) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Captured weak trading ports in Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, captured important ports like Cyprus and Crete </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Navy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Captured trading ports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enforce maritime laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protected Venice from attacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forced ships to call at Venice ports = collect taxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control trade routes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different ships for different purpose </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens’ involvement in ensuring public peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory service in the navy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Close checks on foreigners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serve the district – District Head </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of belonging to Venice </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade Monopoly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hanseatic League** unable to compete with Venice in the eastern trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venice dominated the Mediterranean Sea, used Arab ports where spices can be found (using land and sea routes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brought variety of goods from East and sold them to European states at large profits. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venetians acted as middlemen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central and Southern Europe dependant on Venice for goods (spices, fragrant woods, sugar, diamonds, iron, glassware, wool) from the East </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled Adriatic Sea and monopolized the salt trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>**Association of trading states in Northern Europe using overland route (cumbersome) through Russia** </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An adventurous Spirit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sailed and traveled over land in search of business, fortune and adventure (Eg. Polo Family, Marco Polo) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Went as far as China, east of Indian Ocean, south of Africa, Arab states and the Far East to trade </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of Trade Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Banking, insurance, money exchange services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Credit banking facilities, use of cheques, charged interest for lending money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insurers to bear risks involved in shipping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government established state bank to guarantee stability and reliability of banking system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides confidence to foreign traders </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversify into Manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set up factories to manufacture goods for export (glass, soap, textiles, book-printing) at affordable prices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many foreigners came to look for jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled craftsmen not allowed to leave the city state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government controlled export of raw materials </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Social Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracting Foreign Talents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks, Jews, Turks considered Venice their homeland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of faith, respecting one another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Welcomed competitors as they contributed to centre of arts and trade (artisans, scholars) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Privileged memberships at guild houses for skilled artisans (to attract them to Venice) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equal opportunities given to foreigners </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Social Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty to Venice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal sacrifices to raise funds for defense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rallied to Venice’s defense when Genoa threatened Venice’s existence in the late 14 th century </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Rise of Venice: 9 th – 15 th century <ul><li>Venice as a Centre of the Arts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth from trade led to development and flourishing of the arts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Famous for architecture, paintings and mosaic </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Decline of Venice <ul><li>External Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wars with the Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of Large States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of new sea route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition from trade rivals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corruption in the government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complacency of Venetian society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imcompetent military leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-dependence on mercenaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insensitivity towards neighbouring states </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Decline of Venice <ul><li>External Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wars with the Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ottomans captured many overseas colonies and sea routes from Venice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled many coastal territories along the trade routes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Decline of Venice <ul><li>External Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of Large States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>France, Spain, England had more resources and manpower than Venice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venice sandwiched and had no overlord – left to defend itself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Italy threatened by France in 15 th century; coastal territories attacked by Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venice safeguarded mainland territories and was defeated by the Ottoman Empire – Peace treaty 1503 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Decline of Venice <ul><li>External Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of new sea route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short cut to India via Cape of Good Hope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bypass Venetian traders and traded directly with the East </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed Venice monopoly and reduced profits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese captured Malacca in 1511 shipped spices from SEA to Portugal – Venetians must stop at Portugal port on the way to the East in the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to cut a canal through Suez but too costly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Decline of Venice <ul><li>External Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition from New Trade Rivals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More interest from other states to trade in the East </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traveled directly to the East to trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1600, EIC (East India Company) specialized in trading of tea and porcelain from China, cotton and pepper from India => bypassing Venice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1602, Dutch EIC formed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>richer and better ships than Portugual and Venice </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Well-organized system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30 years War in Europe saw greater involvement from Netherlands in trading activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed trading centres </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States preferred trading with Netherlands than Venice </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Decline of Venice <ul><li>Internal Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corruption in the Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High taxes imposed; salaries of civil servants suspended to finance the Ottoman war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led to unhappiness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Senate chose candidate who paid highest price for the post; candidate bribed the Great Council to vote for him </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small group of nobles controlling major political posts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moved from one office to another (not allowed to hold the same office for more than a year) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor and not well-educated nobles were not given a chance to hold important post => Vote for candidates who paid them well </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse their power, share no common goal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Decline of Venice <ul><li>Internal Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complacency of Venetian Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distracted from duties because of indulgence in gambling and parties (despite laws) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By 16 th century, not enough volunteers to serve the navy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Decline of Venice <ul><li>Internal Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompetent Military Leaders </li></ul></ul>

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