into Teaching and
Prepared by Carla Piper, Ed. D.
What is Teaching?
Curriculum - What do you teach?
Instruction - How should you teach it?
• How do you determine if you’ve
taught it successfully?
• How do you know students learned
the academic content?
• If learning is not the result, adjust
What is Curriculum?
“Curriculum is what happens.”
What the student experiences and
perceives during the day
Planned or unplanned
Planned learning experiences
Know what to teach – CONTENT
Know how to teach it - PEDAGOGY
Feeny, Christensen, Moravick
Three Elements of
The Process of Instruction
Kinds of Planned Learning Opportunities
From “Who Am I in the Lives of Children?”
Feeny, Christensen, Moravick
What do we teach?
Educational Values Based on Vision of Society
What do you believe is worth knowing?
What do you know about the learners and
What do you know about subject matter
What are the academic standards that
need to be met with this lesson?
What is the best way to promote student
learning? Feeny, Christensen, Moravick
Steps to Lesson Planning
What academic standard will be met?
What are your learning objectives?
What is the activity?
What is the sequence or timing?
What technology will you use, when and
Who will participate?
What is the overall purpose of the lesson?
How will you measure student learning?
What do you need to teach this
Materials (including digital media)
Resources (including technology/app/device)
What do you do? How? When?
Introduction – How do you get them interested?
Procedure – What will you do and say (step-by-step
Closure – How will you help students make a transition
to the next activity?
Why Teach with
Do we really need to know how to use
What was good enough for me ought to be good
enough for my students!
Teacher dispenses knowledge
Students work individually
Students grouped by ability
Students assessed on
knowledge of facts
Students memorize and test
Students read and answer
questions at the end of the
Every student learns the same materials
Teachers use the identical instructional
Students learn by listening and reading
– and very little by doing authentic tasks
Lecture based method does not
accommodate all learners. Aimed at:
Students work collaboratively
Students assessed on
performance according to
standards - criterion based
Students complete authentic tasks
Students solve problems and
Stage 1: Use technology to do things
we can already do but more convenient:
Typing vs. word processing
Calculator vs. spreadsheets
Stage 2: Use technology to improve on
tasks we already do:
Track student progress
Create more professional looking products
How do Teachers Decide
to Use New Technologies?
Use technology to do things that
were not previously possible
manipulation of data
Help with students
who have special
Used as a tutor - Student answers questions
or solves problems in sequenced learning
Used to explore - Student discovers through
interactive information, demonstration, or
Applied as a tool for accomplishing tasks and
Used to communicate - Student retrieves
and sends information electronically
Traditional 5-Step Lesson
1. Anticipatory Set
• “The Hook” to get students interested, curious,
• Setting the stage - providing frame of reference
• Scaffolding – tapping in to previous knowledge
2. The Instruction – Step by Step Learning of
3. Guided Practice – Individualized? Drill?
4. Part of Assessment Process
5. Closure – Transition to New Topic
Questions for Planning
Lesson with Technology
How will you structure your class so students can use this
technology effectively? (Classroom Management,
Schedule, Time Frame)
Whole class? One computer displayed on LCD or TV?
Computer lab or library?
Small computer learning center?
Work on computer at home?
Is using this technology a good use of instructional time?
Will using this technology result in improved student
Is there a better way to teach these concepts than through
Planning for Technology
Technology - Knowledge about certain ways of thinking
about, and working with technology, tools and resources.
and working with technology can apply to all technology
tools and resources.
Pedagogy- Teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes
and practices or methods of teaching and learning.
Content Knowledge - Knowledge of concepts, theories,
ideas, organizational frameworks, knowledge of evidence
and proof, as well as established practices and approaches
toward developing such knowledge (Koehler & Mishra,
TPACK Activity Types
Knowledge Building Activity Types
• How will this use of technology build students’ knowledge
and understanding of this content, concept, or process?
Knowledge Expression Activity Types
• How will you determine what students have learned by
reviewing their “performances of understanding?”
• How will this technology allow students to express their
knowledge related to the standards and learning goals of
• How will the students use this technology to express their
• Is your use of technology utilizing written, visual,
conceptual, product-oriented, or participatory activity types?
TPACK Activity Types
Click on Links for Examples
Secondary English Language Arts
What are TPACK
Using Technology to
Learning objectives connect instructional
planning with curriculum content as
measured by assessment.
By participating in this activity students
Gain greater understanding of…?
Develop an awareness of…?
Express understanding of…?
Develop skill in…?
Begin to be able to…
How will you measure learning outcomes?
A measurable verb
The important condition (if any) under
which the performance is to occur and
The criterion of acceptable performance.
ABCD's of Learning
Audience - Who will be doing the
Behavior - What should the learner be
able to do?
Condition - Under what conditions do
you want the learner to be able to do it?
Degree - How well must it be done?
Writing Learning Objectives
for your Lesson Plan
Audience: The learners
Who is doing the performance? (not the instructor).
What the learner will be able to do?
Can this performance be seen or heard?
Condition: The conditions under which the learners must
demonstrate their mastery of the objective:
What will the learners be allowed to use?
What won't the learners be allowed to use?
Degree (or criterion): Common degrees include: Speed,
HOW WELL the behavior must be done?
Taxonomy of Educational
Learning outcomes within
the cognitive domain
Objectives reflect learner
Lower to Higher Level
Kinds of Lesson
Cognitive Thought or knowledge
Objectives describe: "what the student is
able to do" (an observable)
Affective Feelings or choices
Objectives describe: "how the student
chooses to act"
Psychomotor Physical skills
Objectives describe: "what the student can
Higher order thinking – critical thinking
Three overlapping domains
Cognitive – Knowledge, recall,
comprehension, analyzing/synthesizing data,
problem solving, etc.
Psychomotor – physical skills, fine or gross
motor skills, coordination, dexterity
Affective – attitudes of awareness, interest,
attention, concern, responsibility, respect,
enjoyment, appreciation, motivation
Ask Students to:
Know - recall information in original form
Comprehend - show understanding
Apply - use learning in a new situation
Analyze - show s/he can see relationships
Synthesize - combine and integrate parts of prior
knowledge into a product, plan, or proposal that is
Evaluate - assess and criticize on basis of
standards and criteria
Assessment and Reflection
What will students say or do to show you objectives were met?
What will you collect to show student’s learning (portfolios,
observations, work samples, photographs, etc.)
What technology products will students produce that can be used
as an assessment?
Reflection on your teaching
How will your assessment guide your teaching practice?
What needs to be “re-taught” and how can you teach it differently
when assessment demonstrates that some students did not learn
Is there a better way to teach this material?
What will you do differently next time?
How could you extend this activity for another lesson?
Was your instruction effective in promoting student learning?
TPACK.org - http://www.tpack.org/
TPACK Activity Types - http://activitytypes.wm.edu/
“Pedagogy: A Primer on Education Theory for Technical
Professionals” – Brahler & Johnson. Washington State
University – Download from Microsoft Higher Education
“Multiple Intelligences and Technology” – Edwards (no
Bloom’s Digital Technology -
Bloom’s Taxonomy -
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