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Christina A. / 1213013008 Ivena M. A. / 1213013010 Paulin K. G. / 1213013018
• Families
• Peer Relations, Play, and Television
• The Self, Gender, and Moral
Development
What influences it?
Families
• Parenting styles
• Adapting parenting to developmental changes in the
child
• Cultural, ethnic, and social clas...
Parenting Styles
Three parenting styles by Diana Baumrind:
1. Authoritarian
Is a restrictive style in which parents exhort the child to follow
instruction and to respect their work ...
Adapting Parenting to Developmental
Changes in the Child
Parents need to adapt their behavior to their
children based on t...
Cultural, Ethnic, and Social Class
Variations in Family
Different culture, different ethnic, different
social class
Differ...
Siblings Relationship and Birth Order
Actions Parents Siblings
Interaction More Less
Following dictates More Less
Behave p...
Birth order effects suggest that birth order might
be a strong predictor of behavior. However, we
must remember that there...
The Changing Family in a Changing
Society
• Working Mothers
Maternal employment is a part of modern life.
Many working mot...
• Effects of divorce on children
Two main models to explain how explain how divorce
affects children’s development:
Multip...
• Family structure model
Any differences in children from different family structures
are due to the family structure vari...
Most children initially experience considerable
stress when their parents divorce, and they are
at risk for developing pro...
Depressed Parents
Research shows that depression in parents is
associated with problem of adjustment and
disorders, especi...
Peer Relations, Play,
and Television
Peer Relations
• Peer group function
to provide a source of
information and comparison
about the world outside the
family
...
The Distinct but
Coordinated Worlds of
Parent-Child and Peer
Relations
1. bullies ⇒ their parent
rejected, were
authoritia...
Play
Play’s Functions
• Freud and Erikson
Play help child master
anxieties and conflicts.
• Piaget
Play advance children's...
Play
• Unoccupied play
• Solitary play
• Onlooker play
• Parallel play
• Associative play
• Cooperative play
Parten's Clas...
Unoccupied play
the child is not playing but occupies herself with
watching anything that happend to be of
momentary inter...
Solitary play
The children are
play alone and
independently of
others.
Onlooker play
Occurs when the child watches other children
play.
Parallel play
Occurs when the child plays separately from
others but with the tpys like those the others are
using.
Associative play
when the child is interested in the people playing
but not in coordinating their activities with those
pe...
Cooperative play
involves social interaction in a group with a
sense of group identity and organized activity
Play
Types of Play
• Sensorimotor /
Practice Play
• Pretense / Symbolic
Play
• Social Play
• Constructive Play
• Games
Television
• Television's roles
• Effect of television
on children
• Aggression and
Prosocial Behavior
Strategies for Enriching the
Quality of Children's Play
1. Time = give 30- to 50- minute at
least several times a week.
2....
Amount of television watching by
children
The Self, Gender, and
Moral Development
The Self
Initiative vs. Guilt
As preschool, children
encounter a widening social
world, they are challenge more
& need to ...
The Self
Self-Understanding
is the child’s cognitive
representation of self,
the substance & content
of the child’s self-
...
Gender
Gender refers to the social
dimension of being male or
female.
Gender identity is the sense of
being male or female...
Gender
Biological Influences
Sigmund Freud
Human behavior and history are
directly influenced by sexual drives.
Erik Eriks...
Gender
Social Influences
Identification theory
The preschool child develops a sexual
attraction to the opposite-sex parent...
Social learning theory of
gender
Children’s gender development
occurs through observation and
imitation of gender behavior...
Gender
• Parental Influences
Mother are more consistently
given responsibility for nurture
& physical care.
Father are mor...
Gender
• Peer Influences
Boys teach one another need
masculine behavior and do that
strictly.
Girls mainly congregate with...
Gender
• School & Teacher
Influences
• Girls’ learning problems are
not identified as often as boys’
are.
• Boys are given...
Gender
• Boys are most often at the top
of their classes, but they are also
are most often at the bottom.
•Pressure to ach...
Gender
• Television was portraying
females as less competent than
males.
•In the print media
Females are shown more often
...
Gender
Cognitive Influences
• Cognitive Developmental
Theory
Children’s gender typing
occurs after they have
developed a c...
Gender
• Gender Schema Theory
states that an individual‘s
attention & behavior are
guided by an internal
motivation to con...
Gender
• The Role of Language in
Gender Development
The language that children
hear most of the time is
sexist.
Moral Development
Concerns rules and
conventions about
what people should
do in their
interactions with
other people.
Behave
Reason or
Think
Feel
Moral Development
• Piaget’s View of How
children’s moral
Reasoning Develops
Heteronomous morality
The first stage of mora...
Moral Development
Autonomous morality
The second stage of moral
development in Piaget’s
theory, displayed by older
childre...
Moral Development
Immanent justice the concept
that if the rule is broken,
punishment will be meted
out immediately.
Moral
Behavior
Social Learning
Theory
Processes of
Reinforcement
Imitation
Punishment
Situation
Moral Development
• Moral Feelings
• Superego as the
main structure of
personality.
• Child’s superego
develop when the
ch...
Moral Development
• Self-punitiveness of
guilt
• Empathy
• The cognitive
component
Developmental Psychology Presentation (socioemotional development)
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Developmental Psychology Presentation (socioemotional development)

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Families
Peer Relations, Play, and Television
The Self, Gender, and Moral Development
Parenting styles
Adapting parenting to developmental changes in the child
Cultural, ethnic, and social class variations in family
Siblings relationship and birth order
The changing family in a changing society
Depressed parents
Adapting Parenting to Developmental Changes in the Child

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Developmental Psychology Presentation (socioemotional development)

  1. 1. Christina A. / 1213013008 Ivena M. A. / 1213013010 Paulin K. G. / 1213013018
  2. 2. • Families • Peer Relations, Play, and Television • The Self, Gender, and Moral Development What influences it?
  3. 3. Families • Parenting styles • Adapting parenting to developmental changes in the child • Cultural, ethnic, and social class variations in family • Siblings relationship and birth order • The changing family in a changing society • Depressed parents
  4. 4. Parenting Styles Three parenting styles by Diana Baumrind:
  5. 5. 1. Authoritarian Is a restrictive style in which parents exhort the child to follow instruction and to respect their work and effort. This style has a firm limit and controls on the child 2. Authoritative This style encourages children to be independent but parents still place limit and controls on the children’s actions 3. Permissive Neglectful parents are uninvolved in the child’s life. Indulgent parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or control on them.
  6. 6. Adapting Parenting to Developmental Changes in the Child Parents need to adapt their behavior to their children based on their children’s developmental maturity. As the child grow older, parents increasingly to reasoning, moral exhortation and giving or withholding special privileges, give less physical affection.
  7. 7. Cultural, Ethnic, and Social Class Variations in Family Different culture, different ethnic, different social class Different values, different parenting behaviors
  8. 8. Siblings Relationship and Birth Order Actions Parents Siblings Interaction More Less Following dictates More Less Behave punitively and negatively Less More Understand the child’s problem Less More
  9. 9. Birth order effects suggest that birth order might be a strong predictor of behavior. However, we must remember that there are so many other complex influences on a child’s behavior.
  10. 10. The Changing Family in a Changing Society • Working Mothers Maternal employment is a part of modern life. Many working mothers are feeling guilty about being away from their children. Working parents’ guilt can be reduced if they begin paying closer attention to how their children are doing.
  11. 11. • Effects of divorce on children Two main models to explain how explain how divorce affects children’s development: Multiple factor model of divorce
  12. 12. • Family structure model Any differences in children from different family structures are due to the family structure variations, such as the father’s being absent in one set of the families. • Multiple factor model of divorce Takes into account the complexity of the divorce context and examines a number of influences on the child’s development. Such as: age and developmental changes; conflict; sex of the child and custody arrangements; income and economic stress.
  13. 13. Most children initially experience considerable stress when their parents divorce, and they are at risk for developing problem behaviors.
  14. 14. Depressed Parents Research shows that depression in parents is associated with problem of adjustment and disorders, especially depression, in their children.
  15. 15. Peer Relations, Play, and Television
  16. 16. Peer Relations • Peer group function to provide a source of information and comparison about the world outside the family • Two kinds relations Poor peer relations and Harmonious peer relations • The Distinct but Coordinated Worlds of Parent-Child and Peer Relations
  17. 17. The Distinct but Coordinated Worlds of Parent-Child and Peer Relations 1. bullies ⇒ their parent rejected, were authoritian permissiviness toward aggresion discord 2. whipping boys ⇒ their parent were anxious and over protective. Peer Relations
  18. 18. Play Play’s Functions • Freud and Erikson Play help child master anxieties and conflicts. • Piaget Play advance children's cognitive development. • Vigotsky Belives that play advance children's cognitive development. • Daniel Berlyne Describes play as being exciting and pleasurable.
  19. 19. Play • Unoccupied play • Solitary play • Onlooker play • Parallel play • Associative play • Cooperative play Parten's Classic Study of Play
  20. 20. Unoccupied play the child is not playing but occupies herself with watching anything that happend to be of momentary interest.
  21. 21. Solitary play The children are play alone and independently of others.
  22. 22. Onlooker play Occurs when the child watches other children play.
  23. 23. Parallel play Occurs when the child plays separately from others but with the tpys like those the others are using.
  24. 24. Associative play when the child is interested in the people playing but not in coordinating their activities with those people, or when there is no organized activity at all. There is a substantial amount of interaction involved, but the activities are not in sync.
  25. 25. Cooperative play involves social interaction in a group with a sense of group identity and organized activity
  26. 26. Play Types of Play • Sensorimotor / Practice Play • Pretense / Symbolic Play • Social Play • Constructive Play • Games
  27. 27. Television • Television's roles • Effect of television on children • Aggression and Prosocial Behavior
  28. 28. Strategies for Enriching the Quality of Children's Play 1. Time = give 30- to 50- minute at least several times a week. 2. Space = at least 25 to 30 square feet 3. Experience = field trip 4. Play Materials
  29. 29. Amount of television watching by children
  30. 30. The Self, Gender, and Moral Development
  31. 31. The Self Initiative vs. Guilt As preschool, children encounter a widening social world, they are challenge more & need to develop more purposeful behavior to cope with these challenges. Children are asked to assume more responsibility. Uncomfortable guilt feelings may arise, though, if the children irresponsible & are made to feel too anxious.
  32. 32. The Self Self-Understanding is the child’s cognitive representation of self, the substance & content of the child’s self- conception.
  33. 33. Gender Gender refers to the social dimension of being male or female. Gender identity is the sense of being male or female, which most of children acquire by the time they are 3 years old. Gender role is a set of expectation that prescribe how males and females should think, act, and feel.
  34. 34. Gender Biological Influences Sigmund Freud Human behavior and history are directly influenced by sexual drives. Erik Erikson Because of genital structure, males are more intrusive and aggressive, females more inclusive and passive.
  35. 35. Gender Social Influences Identification theory The preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent. By approximately 5 or 6 years of age the child renounces this attraction because of anxious feelings. Then, the child identifies with the same-sex parent, unconsciously adopting the same-sex parent’s characteristics.
  36. 36. Social learning theory of gender Children’s gender development occurs through observation and imitation of gender behavior, and through the rewards &punishments children experience for gender appropriate and inappropriate behavior. Gender
  37. 37. Gender • Parental Influences Mother are more consistently given responsibility for nurture & physical care. Father are more likely to engage in playful interaction & be given responsibility for ensuring that boys & girls conform to existing cultural form.
  38. 38. Gender • Peer Influences Boys teach one another need masculine behavior and do that strictly. Girls mainly congregate with one another.
  39. 39. Gender • School & Teacher Influences • Girls’ learning problems are not identified as often as boys’ are. • Boys are given the lion’s share of attention in school. • Girls start school testing higher in every academic subject than boys, yet graduate from high school scoring lower on the SAT exam.
  40. 40. Gender • Boys are most often at the top of their classes, but they are also are most often at the bottom. •Pressure to achieve is more likely to be heaped on boys than on girls.
  41. 41. Gender • Television was portraying females as less competent than males. •In the print media Females are shown more often in beauty products, cleaning products, and home appliances advertisements. Males are shown more often in car, liquor, and travel advertisements. • Media Influences
  42. 42. Gender Cognitive Influences • Cognitive Developmental Theory Children’s gender typing occurs after they have developed a concept of gender. Once they consistently conceive of themselves as male or female, children often organize their world on the basis of gender.
  43. 43. Gender • Gender Schema Theory states that an individual‘s attention & behavior are guided by an internal motivation to conform to gender-based sociocultural standards and stereotypes.
  44. 44. Gender • The Role of Language in Gender Development The language that children hear most of the time is sexist.
  45. 45. Moral Development Concerns rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people.
  46. 46. Behave Reason or Think Feel
  47. 47. Moral Development • Piaget’s View of How children’s moral Reasoning Develops Heteronomous morality The first stage of moral development in Piaget’s theory, occurring approximately 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people.
  48. 48. Moral Development Autonomous morality The second stage of moral development in Piaget’s theory, displayed by older children (about 1o years of age and older]. The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that, in judging an action, one should consider the actor’s intentions as well consequences.
  49. 49. Moral Development Immanent justice the concept that if the rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately.
  50. 50. Moral Behavior Social Learning Theory Processes of Reinforcement Imitation Punishment Situation
  51. 51. Moral Development • Moral Feelings • Superego as the main structure of personality. • Child’s superego develop when the child resolves the Oedipus Complex conflict.
  52. 52. Moral Development • Self-punitiveness of guilt • Empathy • The cognitive component

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