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ABSTRACT Significantly, job satisfaction and motivation are very essential to the continuinggrowth of educational systems around the world and they rank alongside professionalknowledge and skills, centre competencies, educational resources as well as strategies, ingenuinely determining educational success and performance. This study‟s aim is to define thedifferences and relationship between the level of teachers‟ job satisfaction, motivation andtheir teaching performance and how to enhance professional development of teachers.Researches which were executed about these subjects before are searched and taken intoconsideration. Also articles which Professors have written are given importance. At the end ofthe literature review, the results are evaluated and it is deduced that teacher related sources ofjob satisfaction seem to have a greater impact on teaching performance, and teachers are alsodissatisfied with the educational policies and administration, pay and fringe benefits, materialrewards and advancement. To sum up, it is found that job satisfaction and motivation andperformance correlated significantly with responsibility levels, gender, subject, age, years ofteaching experience, activity, pay and fringe benefits 1
LITERATURE REVIEWJOB SATISFACTION Job satisfaction is simply defined as the affective orientation that an employee hastowards his or her work (Price, 2001 as cited by Andre Bishay, 1996 ). In other words, it is anaffective reaction to a job that results from the comparison of perceived outcomes with thosethat are desired (Kam, 1998). Shortly, job satisfaction describes the feelings, attitudes orpreferences of individuals regarding work (Chen, 2008). Furthermore, it is the degree towhich employees enjoy their jobs (McCloskey and McCain, 1987 as cited by AndreBıshay,1996). And also, it is possible to see a number of theories developed to understand itsnature in literature. Vroom (1964), need/value fulfilment theory, states that job satisfaction isnegatively related to the discrepancy between individual needs and the extent to which the jobsupplies these needs. On the other hand, Porter and Lawler (1968) collect the influences onjob satisfaction in two groups of internal and external satisfactory factors. According to them,internal satisfactory factors are related the work itself (such as feeling of independence,feeling of achievement, feeling of victory, self-esteem, feeling of control and other similarfeeling obtained from work), whereas external satisfactory factors are not directly related towork itself (such as good relationships with colleagues, high salary, good welfare andutilities). So, the influences on job satisfaction can be also divided into work-related andemployee-related factors (Glisson and Durick, 1988 as cited by Andre Bıshay,1996). On the other hand, Arvey and Dewhirst (1976), took 271 scientists as a study sample,and found that the degree of job-satisfaction of the workers with high achievement motivationexceeded that of workers with low achievement motivation. Also autonomy is an importantconcern for employees‟ job satisfaction. Additionally, administrative styles, professionalstatus and pay are known as important factors influencing job satisfaction. For example, Carrand Kazanowsky (1994) successfully showed that inadequate salary was very lelated to 2
employees‟ dissatisfaction. And recent studies showed that a participative (democratic)management style was mostly preferred by today‟s managers to increase their employees‟ jobsatisfaction (Dogan and İbicioglu, 2004; Knoop, 1991). Consequently, numerous researcheshave been going on job satisfaction for many years. And it is common thought that jobsatisfaction influences organizational behaviour, namely it positively affects employeeworking performance and organizational commitment, and negatively influences employeeturnover (Agarwal and Ferrat, 2001; Poulin, 1994; Chen, 2008).JOB SATISFACTION IN TEACHING PROFESSION Significantly, job satisfaction and motivation are very essential to the continuinggrowth of educational systems around the world and they rank alongside professionalknowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources as well as strategies, ingenuinely determining educational success and performance. Teachers are arguably the mostimportant group of professionals for our nation‟s future. Therefore, it is disturbing to find thatmany of today‟s teachers are dissatisfied with their jobs. It is crucial that we determine whatincreases teacher MOTİVATİON. An organization‟s liveliness, whether public or private,comes from the motivation of its employees, although their abilities play just as crucial a rolein determining their work performance their motivation (Lewis, Goodman & Fandt 1995).Golembiewski (1973,p. 597) refers to motivation as the degree of readiness of an organizationto pursue some designated goal and implies the determination of the nature and locus of theforces inducing the degree of readiness. To Kelly (1974, p. 279), motivation has to do withthe forces that maintain and alter the direction, quality and intensity of behavior. According toHoy and Miskel (1987, p.176), employee motivation is the complex forces, drives, needs,tension states, or other mechanisms that start and maintain voluntary activity directed towardsthe achievement of personal goals. In short, Dessler (2001) defined motivation as the intensityof a person‟s desire to engage in some activity. From the above definitions some issues are 3
brought to mind that deal with what starts and energizes human behaviour, how those forcesare directed and sustained as well as the outcomes they bring about (performance).It followstherefore that there is a relationship between motivation and job satisfaction, which isparamount in any organization‟s existence. Many factors have been examined in an attempt tofind which ones promote teacher motivation. Sylvia & Hutchinson (1985)concluded:“Teacher motivation is based in the freedom to try new ideas, achievement ofappropriate responsibility levels, and intrinsic work elements…. Based upon our findings,schemes such as merit pay were predicted to be counterproductive.” They explain that true jobsatisfaction is derived from the gratification of higher-order needs, “social relations, esteem,and actualization” rather than lower-order needs. Moreover teacher motivation is determined by both pecuniary and non-pecuniaryfactors. Pay levels and other material benefits must be sufficient to meet basic human needs(food, housing, clothing, transport, healthcare, education and training). However, overall jobsatisfaction among teachers is also strongly determined by higher order emotional and socialneeds, most notably professional self-esteem, job security, interpersonal relations at work(between teachers, education managers, pupils and parents/communities), opportunities forcareer progression, the working environment, the workload and productivity/learningoutcomes. Another key related issue is the level of accountability of teachers to their schoolmanagers, pupils, parents and wider community.ENHANCING EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH TEACHERS’PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Professional development is defined as activities that develop an individual‟s skills,knowledge, expertise and other characteristics as a teacher So it is important to see teachers‟professional development as a means of attaining the basic goals of the educational 4
endeavour. It also acknowledges the relevance of intermediary goals, such as enhancingteachers‟ job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is a multi-faceted construct. Three central components thought toaffect teacher satisfaction including the nature of the work (e.g. teaching responsibilities,students/parents, working conditions), the context of the job (e.g. physical environment), andthe consequences associated with teaching (e.g. remuneration, union, career development)(Black-Branch, 1996).Job satisfaction - performance linkage: Researchers have had difficulty determining therelationship between job satisfaction and performance. From the 1930s to the mid-1950s, theviews on the job satisfaction – performance relationship can be summarized in the statement“a happy worker is a productive worker”. As a result of the Hawthorne studies, managersgeneralized that if their employees were satisfied with their jobs, that satisfaction would betranslated into high productivity (Robbins & Coulter, 1999). However, by the mid-1950s, anumber of studies had failed to establish a clear link between job satisfaction andperformance. Researchers have started to assume an alternative view – performance leads tojob satisfaction. If employees do a good job, they intrinsically feel good about it (Lussier,1996). Some other researchers have suggested that the reason for the apparently uncertainrelationship between job satisfaction and performance is that other variables intervene, ofwhich rewards are the most prominent. Whether job satisfaction is going to be improveddepends on whether the rewards match the expectations, needs and desires of the employees(Werther, & Davis, 1996).Commitment: It has been a subject of interest for some time. The past decades have seen abroadening of the domain within which commitment is studied. Becker (1992) suggested thatthere are different foci of commitment. Individuals can feel committed to the organization, topmanagement, supervisors, or the work group. Some of the earliest work within the 5
organizational behaviour literature (Porter et al.,1974; Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1979)examined employees‟ commitment to their employers, commonly referred to asorganizational commitment. Then, there has been an increase in research examiningcommitment to unions (Fullagar & Barling, 1989), employment (Morrow & Wirth, 1989),careers (Blau, 1989).Organizational commitment has also been viewed as an attitude with three components: (a)Belief in and acceptance of organization‟s goals and values, (b) Willingness to exert effort onbehalf of the organization and (c) Strong desire to maintain organizational membership(Porter et al., 1974; Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1979, 1982; Johnston & Snizek, 1991;Gregson, 1992). More recently, Meyer & Allen (1991) described three forms oforganizational commitment: commitment as an affective attachment to the organization;commitment as a perceived cost associated with leaving the organization; and commitment asan obligation to remain in the organization. These three forms are termed as affective (i.e.individuals stay in the organization because they want to), continuance (i.e. individuals stay inthe organization because they need to), and normative commitment (i.e. individuals stay in theorganization because they feel they should), respectively.Job Performance is defined as a worker‟s effective execution of tasks or job and usefulcontribution to the social work environment (Abramis, 1994). There are three primarytheories of the mechanisms by which job stress may affect job performance, motivator theory,interference theory, and combination theory, each predicting a different type of relationship(Abramis, 1994).HYPOTHESES ACCORDING TO A RESEARCH ON TEACHERS’ PERFORMANCERelationship between Psychological Contract and Organizational Justice Teachers enter a school with certain expectations about the way things work. For example,they have certain perceptions of how their bosses treat them, how much is their salary, howdecisions are being made and how conflicts are being resolved. The school administrators may 6
explicitly or implicitly promise certain outcomes. These promises or the perceived promise wouldform the basis of a psychological contact. When these teachers start working in that school, theyget to see and feel the way things are done. They are exposed to the way their supervisors dealwith them; the ways decision-making and conflict-resolution take place. They also receive acertain amount of salary. If, for example, their supervisors practise favouritism to somecolleagues, or decisions are made in favour of certain people, or conflicts are being settled to theadvantage of certain people, or teachers receive a lower amount of salary compared to colleagueswho do the same work, or two teachers receive the same amount of salary but one does morework than the other, the individuals concerned may perceive that they are being treated unfairly.They experience dissonance because what they initially expect and what they encounter in realityis different. From the above reasoning, for our sample of teachers, we would like to test for arelationship between psychological contract and organisational justice. Hypothesis 1: Perceived fulfilment of psychological contract would lead to perceived distributive justice.Relationship between Organizational Justice and Organizational Commitment. Whenteachers perceive that they are being treated unfairly, for example, their supervisors practisefavouritism to some colleagues, or two teachers doing the same amount of work but receivingdifferent salaries, the teachers at a disadvantage are likely to be frustrated. They begin towonder why the school is treating them in this way. Did they do anything wrong to warrantsuch a treatment? These teachers tend to reduce their level of commitment to the school. Theysee no point in putting in so much effort for the school and strongly believing in the schooland accepting its goals, when the school does not appreciate their effort, commitment andloyalty. With reference to the above discussion, for our sample of teachers, we would like totest for a relationship between organisational justice and organisational commitment. Hypothesis2 : Perceived distributive justice would lead to higher levels of organisational commitment. 7
Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment.Teachers who experience satisfaction in the different facets of their work environment, forexample, their work itself, their colleagues and supervisors, their compensation andpromotion. As their work environment is contained in the larger context of the school, it islikely that the satisfaction employees get from their jobs and the work environment isextended to the school. Therefore, satisfied employees may feel committed to the school. Hypothesis 3: Higher levels of job satisfaction would lead to higher levels oforganisational commitment. Teachers who are committed demonstrate a strong acceptance of the school‟s values,tasks, and working manner. Teachers who firmly believe in these values are likely to manifestthem in the performance. They keep these values in mind when preparing their lesson plans,when giving students projects, when thinking of examination questions. These teachers arealso more conscious of their conduct and work attitudes, as they want to set good examplesfor their students. The above reasoning would support the following hypothesis: Hypothesis 4: Higher level of organizational commitment would lead to betterperformance.So To Enhance Teacher PerformanceAdministrators in education sector should pay more attention to strengthen teachers‟commitment to their schools. Findings from this research suggested a few factors to start with.These include the following.First, to improve perceived distributive justice. This will help toimprove both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This suggests schools to lookinto their reward-related evaluation and administrative systems and practices. Secondly, sincejustice is a subjectively perceived factor, good impression management helps.Thirdly, goodcommunication with teachers, particularly on what is to be expected by both schools andteachers. Good communication and mutual understanding will help to form an accurate and 8
realistic psychological contact. Forth, if, for unforeseeable reasons, the pre-establishedpsychological contract cannot be fulfilled, a candid explanation will help teachers tounderstand the situation, and to appreciate the admonitions effort to minimize or to haveminimized the gap and delivered the best it can. Built on a sound understanding of the causalrelationship among various factors leading to good teaching performance, the schooladministration will be able to forester a trust culture and build a committed teaching staff.(Aidong Zhang, and Yongqing FANG, no date) 9
REFERENCES1. Nazim Ali , Factors Affecting Overall Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention, Journal of Managerial Sciences,VOL.2,NO 2, ( pp239-252)2. Prakash Khanale, and Anil Vaingankar, 2006, Analyzing „Job Satisfaction‟ of a Teacher In an Institution, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology VOL.53. Tanya Khan,(no date) Teacher Job Satisfaction and Incentive (no publication)4. Andre Bıshay,1996, Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction: A Study Employing the Experience Sampling Method, J. Undergrad. Sci. (pp 147-154)5. Prof. Dr. Hulusi DOGAN, 2009, A Comparative Study for Employee Job Satisfaction in Aydın Municipality and Nazilli Municipality,Ege Academic Review (pp 423-433)6. (no name),(no date),Enhancing Educational Effectiveness Through Teachers‟ Professional Development (pp19-41)7. Karen S. Myers Giacometti,2005, Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction and Retention of Beginning Teachers8. Nwachukwu Prince Ololube,(no date) Teachers Job Satisfaction and Motivation for School Effectiveness: An Assessment9. Tanja Sargent and Emily Hannum,2003, Keeping Teachers Happy: Job Satisfaction among Primary School Teachers in Rural China10. Telef Bülent Baki, 2011,The Study of Teachers‟ Self-Efficacy, Job Satisfaction, Life Satisfaction and Burnout 10