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University climate change preparedness

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Governments around the world are starting to mandate that government funded organizations such as universities and NRENs develop Climate Change Preparedness plans. This is in recognition that we are already committed to a 2C average temperature increase and given the lack of any international agreement on curbing GHG emissions we may be headed to a 6C global average temperature increase. More severe weather patterns are expected which will cause severe disruption to our energy and physical infrastructure. Resilient networks, new network architectures and tools such as distance education and remote collaborative research will be required by our universities and schools to survive and endure periods of such extreme weather. A well designed and thought out Climate Change Preparedness plan can also help higher-ed and NRENs increase their operational resiliency, as well as significantly reduce their current electrical energy costs. In addition a good Climate Change Preparedness plan can also be an excellent way for higher-ed and NRENs to reduce their existing GHG footprint.

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University climate change preparedness

  1. 1. Developing a NREN and Higher-Ed Network architecture for upcoming winter blackouts EU 2014 Brussels Bill St. Arnaud Bill.st.arnaud@gmail.com
  2. 2. Executive Summary • This winter’s possible power blackouts because of shut down of reactors is a precursor of future challenges with Climate Change. We need to start to prepare for many more significant power outages in the coming years • Climate Change Preparedness or Adaptation is recognition that we are already committed to at least average 2°C temperature increase and if we continue business as usual we will 6°C temperature increase • Rather than thinking about how to prevent climate change we need to face reality and develop plans to adapt to a much warmer world with more severe weather and greater probability of power outages and flooding • R&E sector is the largest consumer of electricity in most countries. ICT consumes 20-40% of electrical power at R&E institutions. Easy target for regulators in event of rolling blackouts. • NRENs and higher ed institutions need to develop climate change preparedness plans in line with national or regional climate change preparedness initiatives in anticipation of frequent power outages and flooding • New Internet and Energy network architectures will be required using local highly resilient distributed solar panels 2
  3. 3. Nuclear Shutdowns Put Belgians and Britons on Blackout Alert this winter • 3 of Belgium’s nuclear reactors out of commission because of defects in pressure vessels • UK has found cracks in 4 of its reactors • Rolling blackouts planned for both countries this winter 3 http://spectrum.ieee.org/energywise/energy/nuclear/nuclear-vulnerability-sends-belgians- scrambling-for-winter-power-supplies
  4. 4. R&E biggest consumer!! Per employee Per sector Australian Computer Society Study http://www.acs.org.au/attachments/ICFACSV4100412.pdf
  5. 5. The ICT energy consumption in higher-ed • Campus computing 20-40% electrical energy consumption on most campuses – Studies in UK and The Netherlands – http://goo.gl/k9Kib • Closet clusters represent up to 15% of electrical consumption – http://isis.sauder.ubc.ca/research/clean-technology-and-energy/ green-it/ • Campus data center alone represents 8-20% of electrical consumption – http://www.iisd.org/publications/pub.aspx?pno=1341
  6. 6. Impact of ICT sector According to IEA ICT will represent 40% of all energy consumption by 2030 https://www.eiseverywhere.com/file_uploads/fc2e1a5cac349cb69baa4fee4f656697_ITR_Dallas_Keynote_- _Frederic_Chanfrau_Schneider_Electric.pdf ICT represent 8% of global electricity consumption 74Tw of electricity consumed by Internet alone in USA Future Broadband- Internet alone is expected to consume 5% of all electricity http://www.ee.unimelb.edu.au/people/rst/talks/files/Tucker_Green_Plenary.pdf
  7. 7. Digital vs Traditional appliances IEA Gadgets and Gigawatts http://www.iea.org/Textbase/nptoc/Gigawatts2009TOC.pdf
  8. 8. Biggest threat to NRENs and Higher-Ed • Reliability of the Electrical Grid – Extreme weather outages of power grid have escalated dramatically • Flooding from Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) – North Atlantic ARs are projected to double and become stronger 8
  9. 9. Scary reading • “US Energy sector vulnerabilities to climate change and extreme weather” US Department of Energy July 2013 – http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/07/f2/20130716- Energy%20Sector%20Vulnerabilities%20Report.pdf 9 Recent Sample outages • Rising water temps forcing power plant shutdowns • Coal and nuclear power generating capacity will decrease by between 4 and 16 percent in the United States and a 6 to 19 percent decline in Europe due to lack of cooling water. • http://www.reuters.com/artic le/2012/06/04/climate-water-energy-idUSL3E8H41SO20120604
  10. 10. Atmospheric Rivers • Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are the key synoptic features which deliver the majority of pole-ward water vapour transport. • Associated with episodes of heavy and prolonged rainfall. • ARs are responsible for many of the largest winter floods in the mid-latitudes resulting in major socioeconomic losses; Source Lavers et al 2013 Environmental Research Letters
  11. 11. Climate Forecasts • MIT report predicts median temperature forecast of 5.2°C – 11°C increase in Northern Canada & Europe – http://globalchange.mit.edu/ pubs/abstract.php?publicatio n_id=990 • Nearly 90 per cent of new scientific findings reveal global climate disruption to be worse, and progressing more rapidly, than expected. • http://www.skepticalscience.c om/pics/Freudenburg_2010_ ASC.pdf Currently we are on track for worst case scenario
  12. 12. What does 1C average temperature mean? • In the 1700s – when global average temperature was .8C colder than now, New Yorkers could walk from Manhattan to Staten Island on ice as thick as 8 feet – http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/31 /in-the-little-ice-age-lessons-for-today/ 12
  13. 13. Why focus on preparedness and not prevention? 13 Equivalent to one new nuclear power plant per day for next 50 years!!
  14. 14. Government Mandated Climate Preparation Plans • USA: President Obama’s Executive Order on Climate Change Preparedness – All US government departments, agencies, data centers, etc must develop climate change preparedness plans – States, municipalities, universities and other institutions are also encouraged to develop similar plans – Disaster preparedness plans must cover range of scenarios of severe flooding, droughts, hurricanes, long term power outages, etc – http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/11/01/executive-order-preparing-united-states- impacts-climate-change • Europe: EU Adaptation Strategy Package – http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/adaptation/what/documentation_en.htm • UK Government has developed a risk assessment and national adaptation program for all sectors including Telecom and Higher Ed – Distance education and Telecoms a critical component • Belgian National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy – http://www.lne.be/themas/klimaatverandering/adaptatie/nationale-adaptatie-strategie/ Belgian%20National%20Adaptation%20Strategy.pdf Presentation title
  15. 15. Lessons from Hurricane Sandy • Many classrooms and research facilities at NYU and Polytechs were flooded • It took months to restore and repair facilities to remove mold and other damage • Distance education and remote research critical for surviving climate change severe weather – Distance education has been identified as a key element in any national climate change preparedness framework • But need a reliable and robust network to sustain reliable distance education – Flooding also took out campus network gear, but core optical NREN network continued to function 15
  16. 16. Lessons from Sandy about backup diesels • Make sure fuel is changed every year – Diesel fuel deteriorates much faster than gasoline • Arrange for long term, high priority fuel contracts from a number of refineries • Make sure IT staff know how to change fuel and air filters • Make sure fuel pumps are self priming, collocated with diesel and connected to UPS • Make sure all electrical cabling, transformers and switch gear are in water tight compartments – Double check all egress and ingress ports through walls 16
  17. 17. First step • NREN and/or institution should determine if there already exists a national or regional preparedness framework, and how they fit within those plans • Measure your institution’s readiness with Notre Dame Adaptation Index • Some national preparedness plans expect tools such as distance education and NREN networks to serve as critical services during severe weather events 17 http://gain.org/
  18. 18. Possible Solutions • There are a range of outcomes and solutions to climate change risk due to weather extremes – Decision factors include degree of risk, tolerance to risk, etc • The simplest is to deploy local independent sources of electricity (e.g. micro grids) that are not dependent on fossil fuel deliveries and are loosely coupled to electrical grid such as solar panels and windmills – Many companies will pay for capital cost in return for guaranteed purchase of power – Power from local renewable power sources can be sold to grid under Feed In Tariff (FIT) programs – UCSD saves $850K per month because they deployed their own micro grid • http://mobile.bloomberg.com/news/2013-10-17/ebay-to-ellison-embrace-microgrids-in-threat- to-utilities.html • Next step is to develop an energy routing architecture and policy – Local independent renewable power will unlikely be sufficient for most institutions so power will need to be routed in a priority basis – Using SDN-P to integrate micro grids with data networks on campus and NRENs http://goo.gl/SFaW6p 18
  19. 19. Why de-couple from the Grid? 1. It saves money – Cost of solar power cheaper than grid power 2. It provides for greater resiliency of electricity supply (see Belgium) 3. It reduces GHG emissions 4. May be forced to use solar power if governments get serious about global GHG treaty • Biggest challenge (and opportunity) is unreliability of solar power 19 3 hours of sunshine hitting the plant equals our total annual energy consumption
  20. 20. ITU recommendations • Decouple communication infrastructure from electric grid infrastructure to the extent possible, and make both more robust, resilient, and redundant. • Minimize the effects of power outages on telecommunications services by providing backup power at cell towers, such as solar-powered battery banks, and “cells on wheels” that can replace disabled towers. Extend the fuel storage capacity needed to run backup generators for longer times. • Assess, develop, and expand alternative telecommunication technologies if they promise to increase redundancy and/or reliability, including free-space optics (which transmits data with light rather than physical connections • Develop high-speed broadband and wireless services in low-density rural areas to increase redundancy and diversity in vulnerable remote regions. • Perform a comprehensive assessment of the entire telecommunications sector’s current resiliency to existing climate perils, in all of their complexities. Extend this assessment to future climate projections and • etc • Resilient pathways: the adaptation of the ICT sector to climate change – http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/climatechange/Documents/Publications/Resilient_Pathways-E.PDF 20
  21. 21. ITU Preparedness Checklist -1 21 Source: Resilient pathways: the adaptation of the ICT sector to climate change
  22. 22. 22 ITU Preparedness Checklist -2 Source: Resilient pathways: the adaptation of the ICT sector to climate change
  23. 23. MIT to build data center independent of the grid • The data center will be managed and funded by the four main partners in the facility: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cisco Systems, the University of Massachusetts and EMC. • It will be a high-performance computing environment that will help expand the research and development capabilities of the companies and schools in Holyoke MA – http://www.greenercomputing.com/news/2009/06/11/ci sco-emc-team-mit-launch-100m-green-data-center –
  24. 24. Solar powered student cell phone and computer charging stations 24 Street-charge.com
  25. 25. eVehicle energy storage and micro grids for university 25 UCSD 2nd life battery program University Delaware use of eVehicles for power
  26. 26. Grand Challenge – Building networks and services using renewable energy only • How do you provide mission critical services when energy source is unreliable? – Ebbing wind or setting sun • Back up diesel are not an option because they are not zero carbon and power outages can last for days or weeks • Need new energy delivery architectures and business models to ensure reliable service delivery – R&E networks and clouds can play a critical role – Not so much in energy efficiency, but building smart solutions that adapt to availability of renewable power
  27. 27. Research Initiatives- Self Reliant Internet • Building an Internet architecture powered solely with renewable power • Virtually all routing and forwarding done at edge using local solar panels – E.g. aBitCool • RPON – reverse passive optical networks, distributed FIBs http://www.slideshare.net/apnic/a bitcool-a-vast-array-of-smallscale-service- providers-with-gigabit-access- by-tony-hain-apnic-38- 27 apops-3
  28. 28. Internet Powered at the Edge Only the contracted SP provides return signal Passive Optical Splitter TDM or WDM return Aggregator (AOL or RBOC)) Google Neighborhood Colo Node OXC Customer Controlled or Owned Fiber Active laser & optional CWDM at customer premises Yahoo Service provider can be several km away Active laser and CWDM at customer premises. Customer controls routing of lambdas Neighbourho od Colo OXC Service Provider A Service Provider B Edge router with distributed FIB
  29. 29. GreenStar Network World’s First Cloud/Internet Powered solely by renewable energy independent of the electrical grid Cloud Manager Host Resource Cloud Manager Network Manager VM Mantychore2 Host Resource Canadian GSN Domain European GSN Domain Dynamically Configure IP Tunnel • Shudown VM • Copy Image • Update VM Context • Start VM Export VM VM Internet Notify EU Cloud Manager Cloud Proxy Host Cloud Proxy Lightpath Optical switch Optical switch Shared storage Shared storage Host INTEC UGhent
  30. 30. Virtualisation Applied to Networks i) Path of Traffic before Virtual Router Migration ii) Path of Traffic after Virtual Router Migration VR2 A B C D Host A Host B VR1 VR3 VR4 Virtual Router Migration Sleeping Router VR2 A B C D Host A Host B VR1 VR3 VR4 Optical Transport Switch Physical Router Platform Virtual Router (VR) Instance Host Optical Lightpath (A  D) Physical Link Y. Wang, E. Keller, B. Biskeborn, J. van der Merwe, and J. Rexford, “Virtual routers on the move: live router migration as a networkmanagement primitive” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2008 A key constraint is to maintain the logical IP topology Use a combination of virtual router migration, infrastructure sleeping together with traffic grooming in the optical layer
  31. 31. Research Initiatives-Energy Internet • With SDN-P it is assumed that many energy consuming devices power have their own local power source e.g: – WiFi spot with its own solar panel – Backup battery power on computer – Electric vehicle with its own battery bank • Many possible virtual and real power circuits. – PoE, USB, Traditional 110/220, 48V Dc,Pulse power over Cat 5 – Power routing across devices following path of virtual power circuit • Ideal for existing intelligent networked devices like computers, switches, routers, servers, Wifi hot spots , electric vehicle charging stations, etc – Most of these devices have their own on board storage and so techniques such as round-robin power distribution are possible • Network engineers & researchers have to start thinking how to deploy networks that are powered solely by solar power – http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/rob-commentary/rob-insight/ an-earth-day-look-at-the-sunny-state-of-solar/ article18101176/#dashboard/follows/ … 31
  32. 32. The benefits of challenges of SDN-P for NRENs and data centers • The Benefits: – Providing dynamic workload redistribution – Providing dynamic reallocation of resources to optimize the use of power and finding the least costly power – Providing resource-consumption planning, allowing for bulk purchases of power and demand planning – Automating responses to environmental changes or other trigger events – Adjusting to changing power needs based on application demands • Key takeaways from this report include: – Because of software-defined power’s ROI and reliability benefits, it can pay for itself in a short time. – Innovative companies are leveraging software-defined power to increase reliability and reduce costs. 32 The benefits and challenges of software-defined power SDN-P http://dlvr.it/5TGrR5
  33. 33. The role of eVehicle in Future Network Architectures • With dynamic mobile charging, the eVehicle can be charged as it is travelling along the highway using power from roadside solar panels and/or windmills – Technology already in use for public bus transportation in various cities • eVehicle can then be used to deliver this energy as a backup or primary power source to the network, rather than consuming electricity at destination • eVehicle becomes competitor to electrical grid for delivery of renewable power to homes and business
  34. 34. The Future – “Energy Internet” • eVehicle becomes more than a human transportation system – it also becomes an energy transport system to transfer renewable energy between dynamic charging stations – E.g. power from under utilized charging stations can be delivered by eVehicle to charging stations that are heavily used – Or power can be brought to the home to provide backup power to the home • Dynamic charging station becomes energy packet router/switch! • Rather than eVehicle coming home with depleted batteries, instead it comes home fully charged in order to provide power to the home • eVehicle becomes competitive alternative to the electrical grid • http://Green-broadband.blogspot.com 34
  35. 35. EU Funded Program • Project addresses directly the technological feasibility, economic viability and socio-environmental of dynamic on-road charging of electric vehicles • Advanced solutions, conceived to enable full integration in the grid and road infrastructure within urban- and extra-urban environments for a wide range of future electric vehicles, will be implemented and tested. • http://www.fabric-project.eu/
  36. 36. Cyber-infrastructure in a Carbon Constrained World http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0960.pdf
  37. 37. Let’s Keep The Conversation Going E-mail Bill St. Arnaud is a R&E Network and Green IT consultant who works with clients on a variety of subjects such as green data centers and networks. He also works with clients to develop practical solutions to reduce GHG emissions from ICT (See http://green-broadband. Bill.St.Arnaud@gmail.com Blogs http://green-broadband.blogspot.com Twitter http://twitter.com/BillStArnaud blogspot.com/) .