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Sloans Chimatiro: Drivers of success in aquaculture across Africa

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The presentation was part of the Brussels Development Briefing on the topic of fish-farming, organized by the Technical Centre for Agriculture (CTA), the European Commission, and the African, Carribean, and Pacific (ACP) Secretariat on 3rd of July 2013 in Brussels.
More on: http://brusselsbriefings.net/

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Sloans Chimatiro: Drivers of success in aquaculture across Africa

  1. 1. Brussels Development Briefing n.32 Fish-farming the new driver of the blue economy? 3rd July 2013 http://brusselsbriefings.net Fish-Farming: The drivers of success for Blue economy across Africa. Sloans Chimatiro, NEPAD
  2. 2. Fish-Farming: The Drivers of Success for Blue Economy Across Africa Sloans Chimatiro Senior Fisheries Advisor, NEPAD Agency, Johannesburg, South Africa Brussels Policy Briefing no. 32 ACP Secretariat, 3rd July 2013
  3. 3. Outline of Presentation • History of aquaculture in Africa • Current production • Challenges and opportunities • Potential of aquaculture in terms of food and nutrition security as well as local employment • Key drivers of successful and lessons for scaling up
  4. 4. History of Aquaculture in Africa Phase 1: 1950–1970. The introductory phase, during which the sector was popularized but with limited knowledge and understanding. Most government stations were built during this era. Phase 2: 1970–1995. The expansion phase, significant donor support, active R&D, government involvement in seed supply and extension. Commercialization of the sector in some countries (e.g. Nigeria, Madagascar, Côte d’Ivoire, Zambia, South Africa). Phase 3: 1995 to present (2006). Reduced donor support, re- orientation of public support towards facilitation, emergence of the commercial sector. Source: Hecht et. Al (2006) Phase 4: 2005 – present. The Pan-African focus of fisheries and aquaculture, increased awareness by governments of the development potential of aquaculture and increased private sector
  5. 5. Aquaculture production in Sub-Saharan Africa (excluding aquatic plants) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 Thousandtonnes Volume Source: FAO 2012.
  6. 6. Table 1 Top ten African aquaculture producers in 2010 Country Tonnes Percent increase (since 2009) Percent increase (since 2003) Egypt 919585 71.38 - Nigeria 200535 15.57 84.70 Uganda 95000 7.37 94.21 Kenya 12154 0.94 91.80 Zambia 10290 0.80 56.26 Ghana 10200 0.79 90.80 Madagascar 6886 0.53 -37.44 Tunisia 5424 0.42 - Malawi 3163 0.25 78.94 South Africa 3133 0.24 -20.59 Source: FAO (2012) MALDECO cage farm, Lake Malawi S Chimatiro
  7. 7. Challenges as the sector grows • Increasing the contribution of aquaculture to food security, employment and economic development, • Meeting the growing demand for capital, as well as, seed and feeds in terms of quantities and quality, • Strengthening the base for aquaculture management (knowledge and information, including trade), • Increasingly severe competition with other resource (land/water/feed) users, • Successful integration of aquaculture with other farming activities, • improving the overall governance of the sector (environmental management, biodiversity, food safety) Women waiting for buyers in Cameroon R. Brummet
  8. 8. Opportunities for sector growth Women digging ponds in Malawi S. Chimatiro • Reduced catches from capture fisheries • Increased demand and rising prices of aquaculture products • Increased awareness of the potential of aquaculture in SSA following the AU-NEPAD Fish for All Summit of 2005 and adoption of the AU-NEPAD Abuja Declaration on Sustainable Aquaculture in Africa • Increasing awareness of aquaculture as a viable commercial venture • The Agreement by AU Head of States at the Food Security Summit in December 2006 in Abuja, Nigeria designating fisheries and aquaculture as strategic commodity alongside rice, maize and other strategic food products • Adoption of fisheries and aquaculture as key drivers of 6% CAADP growth target • Complementary efforts by FAO (Special Programme for Aquaculture Development in Africa (SPADA), Aquaculture Network for Africa (ANAF)
  9. 9. Key Drivers of Aquaculture Growth • Increasing demand for fish (rise of African middle-class, and urban population; dwindling natural sources) • Improved environment for investments (rising demand and prices make investments more profitable); and • Reduced risk of production (enhanced research and scientific knowledge of major commercially farmed fish species such as tilapia and catfish)
  10. 10. Potential of Aquaculture in terms of food and local employment • Fish consumption or demand is affected by (income, prices of fish, prices of fish competitors and complements and non-price factors) • FAO estimated that by 2015 total annual fish consumption in SSA could be 1.5 -2.0 million tonnes higher than in 2005 or annual increase in demand of 3% • Delgado a et al (2003) reported 2.7% per cent per year or an additional 1.6 million tonnes of fish a year by 2015 just to maintain current consumption of 7.8 kg per person per year. • Therefore, by 2015, neither domestic production from capture fisheries (marine and freshwater) nor current local aquaculture will be able to provide the increased quantities of fish needed for human consumption. Processing trout for export. Highland Trout, Lesotho (2013)
  11. 11. Potential of Aquaculture in terms of food and local employment • Given the rise in overall fish consumption, and stagnation in capture fisheries the question is not what would be the demand but where could supply come from to fill the gap. • Therefore, demand will be satisfied through increased imports and/or expansion of aquaculture • FAO’ estimates that by 2015 and assuming the SPADA initiative is fully embraced by the countries aquaculture production from SSA would be more than 400 000 tonnes a year, • But even this will be little in comparison to demand. • Therefore, aquaculture production may be expanded even more
  12. 12. Lessons learned from the top African Producing Countries and opportunities to scale up (NEPAD 2012) • Legislation, Policies and plans: All top producers have strong policies, strategies and implementation , although some don’t have policies • Land and water rights: All top ten performing countries had strong water and land rights in their statutes. • Mainstreaming of aquaculture into national development plans : All top producers have aquaculture strongly mainstreamed into national development plans e.g. Poverty Reduction Strategic Plans and National Development Strategies, CAADPs. • Commercial and food security orientation: All countries except a few have strong commercial/market-led and food security objectives for the aquaculture sector • Privatized services: Most of the top producers have aquaculture services strongly privatized.
  13. 13. Potential Models to be Up-scaled (NEPAD 2012) • Egypt Commercial Tilapia Model: – Interventionist investments by government (research stations, public hatcheries) – Market-driven development of aquaculture (immanent development) – Anchored by good infrastructure and the existence of a pool of highly qualified aquaculturists who act as investors or managers. – Comprehensive strategic and implementation plans and legal framework available to guide and protect investments. • Nigeria Commercial Catfish Model. – Market-driven commercial aquaculture development built on a foundation of aquaculture infrastructure developed through interventionist programmes. – Human capacity gaps filled by international experts and technologies required for effective and efficient commercial aquaculture brought in from outside the country. – Existing subsistence aquaculture infrastructure transformed for commercial aquaculture production by entrepreneurs. – Sector policies and strategies developed after take-off of commercial catfish – farming support equitable participation of all citizens by focusing on the inclusion of youth and development of village centers.
  14. 14. Potential Models to be Up-scaled (NEPAD 2012) • Malawi Evolutionary Approach Model – Evolutionary interventionist approach (gradual evolution towards high productivity and commercialization) – Increased levels of sustainability in tandem with increased farmer capacity, new technologies and changing market demands. – Centralized planning – Aquaculture development funding mainly dependent on donor resources. • Kenya High Input Interventionist Model – Home-grown interventionist approach focused on achieving rapid increases in aquaculture production – Large public sector funding to support development of aquaculture value chain. – Political will and good organizational and implementation capacity to support effective and efficient roll-out of programme – Promotion of equitable participation of socio-economic groups, creation of employment and input and output markets for aquaculture products and services.
  15. 15. Conclusion • Rapid aquaculture development is occurring in countries where market, governance and investment conditions are conducive; • Market-led aquaculture development approaches offer the best options for accelerating aquaculture growth in Africa; • NEPAD Agency is setting up an Impact Investment Fund for Small & Medium Enterprises in Fisheries & aquaculture (NEST) of US$150 million to support aquaculture investments in Africa • Aquaculture is one of the most environmentally sustainable ways of producing protein at scale:  16,000 litres of water are needed to produce 1 kg of beef (Grace Communications Foundation, 2011)  The only net water use in fish farming is water lost through evaporation.  Therefore, while Africa might have missed out of Green Revolution, there is a chance for “Blue Revolution”
  16. 16. Thank you! Merci! Obrigado! Fish vendors on Chia Lagoon, Lake Malawi S. Chimatiro