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The vertebrates
The vertebrates
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  1. 1. Prepared by: Group IV 8- Aguinaldo
  2. 2. Starfish Shark
  3. 3. Turtle Shrimp
  4. 4. Vertebrates • They are animals with backbone. They possess complicated body parts and functions. • These animals were classified as cold-blooded animals or ectothermic vertebrates and warm-blooded animals or endothermic vertebrates. • The vertebrates belong to one of the phyla of the animal kingdom called Phylum chordata. • This phyla is further divided into five classes; fish, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. • Vertebrates reproduce sexually, and almost all of them have separate male and female sexes. Aquatic species have external fertilization, whereas terrestrial species have internal fertilization.
  5. 5. Fish • Fishes are water animals that have tails, paired fins that enables it to swim, scales, and gills. • Fish are a paraphyletic group: that is, any clade containing all fish also contains the tetrapods, which are not fish. • There are two kinds of fish: bony and cartilaginous.
  6. 6. Bony (Class Osteichthyes) • The largest group of fish. • Members of this group have bony skeletons, paired fins, and protective overlapping scales. • They are found both in fresh and saltwater habitats. • Most bony fishes have a gas-filled sac called the swim bladder or air bladder.
  7. 7. Milkfish Catfish Electric Eel
  8. 8. Cartilaginous (Class Chondrichthyes) • These fishes have flexible skeletons made up of cartilage tissue. • Almost all members of this group are found in saltwater. • They have movable upper and lower jaws equipped with several rows of sharp teeth.
  9. 9. Shark Rays Skates
  10. 10. Importance of Fishes •Source of income •Food •Protect our environment
  11. 11. Bird (Class Aves) • The bird is a very successful animal group. • Members of this class are found in almost all types of environments. • The single characteristic that distinguishes birds from all other animals from reptiles is the presence of feathers.
  12. 12. Some Common Characteristics of Birds: 1. The body is usually spindle shaped and divided into head, neck, trunk, and tail. 2. There are two pairs of limbs. The forelimbs are wings which, in most birds are used for flying. The hind limbs are legs that are used for perching, walking, swimming, or prey catching. 3. Their bones are strong and light, and many are filled with air spaces. 4. The mouth is in the form of a horn-covered beak or bill. There are no teeth.
  13. 13. Pelican Cardinal Hawk
  14. 14. Woodpecker Ostrich Duck
  15. 15. Amphibians (Class Amphibia) • Amphibians are cold-blooded animals that spend their lives in water and part on land. • They have smooth, moist, and scaleless skins. • There are two major groups of amphibians: the tailed amphibians and the tailless amphibians.
  16. 16. Tailed Amphibians • These animals have long bodies, long tails, and two pairs of short legs. • Some are entirely aquatic while others live under rocks or logs or in other moist places. • They are active only at night.
  17. 17. Salamander Newt Hellbender
  18. 18. Tailless Amphibians • They have short, squat bodies and lack tails. • Their large powerful hind legs are modified for jumping. • They do the process of hibernation and estivation where they sleep during winter and summer.
  19. 19. Frog Toad Red Eye Tree Frog
  20. 20. Importance of Amphibians • Best biological pest controllers • Prey items for both vertebrates and invertebrates • Good ecological indicators
  21. 21. Reptiles (Class Reptilia) • They are cold- blooded animals. • They regulate their body temperature using the environment. • They can survive both on land and in water. • Most lay eggs. • They have scales but unlike amphibians, reptiles do not have gills at any stage in their life cycle. • They do not undergo metamorphosis.
  22. 22. Four Main Group of Reptiles: 1. Crocodile/ Alligator • The largest living reptiles. • They have long snouts, powerful jaws with large teeth and long muscular tails that enables them to swim. • These two types look very much alike but the arrangement of their teeth and their snouts are slightly different.
  23. 23. 2. Turtles • Turtles are found both on land and in saltwater. • Land- dwelling turtles are sometimes called tortoise. They have protective shells. The upper shell is called carapace while the lower shell is called plastron. • Marine or sea turtles have long flippers that making them in excellent swimming but poor for walking in land. • They have also shell namely streamlined carapace that covered in hard scales called scutes.
  24. 24. 3. Snakes • Some snakes eat only living animals, swallowing them alive, while other kill their prey before they swallow it. • Large snakes coil their body around their victims and crush or strangle them to death. • Poisonous snakes have a pair of specialized teeth called fangs. • Venoms are neutroxins, which attack nervous tissues.
  25. 25. 4. Lizards • Lizards and snakes belong to the same order, but there are many differences between them. • They are extremely diverse. • Many lizards can shed their tail if seized by an enemy. • A new tail is regenerated in a short time.
  26. 26. Importance of Reptiles • Predator and prey species • Pollinators • Control the numbers of serious agricultural pests
  27. 27. Mammals (Class Mammalia) • Members of this group are found all over the earth in both cold and warm climates. • Most are land dwelling, but a few, are found in the oceans. • They are warm-blooded. • They produce milk for their babies form mammary glands. • The bodies of mammals are partly or completely covered with hair or fur. • They have a muscle called the diaphragm that helps them to breathe. • There re three kinds of mammals: the monotremes, marsupials and placental.
  28. 28. 1. Monotremes are the egg- laying mammals. They are the most primitive and reptile- like of the mammals. Duckbill Platypus Spiny Anteater
  29. 29. 2. Marsupial are the pouched mammals. They are born at a very tiny, immature stage and complete their development in their mother’s pouched. Kangaroo Opossum Koala
  30. 30. 3. Placentals are the largest and most succesful groups of mammals. The developing young are retained within the uterus of the female until embryonic development is completed. The young are born in a more advamced stage of development than the marsupials.
  31. 31. Kinds of Placental Mammals 1. Insect-eating Mammals Members of the order insectivores are generally small, mouse like animals. Many live underground. They feed on ants, grub, beetles, and other insects. Moles Shrew Hedgehog
  32. 32. 2. Flying Mammals Mammals that capable of flying. Bats are the representative animal of this group. At rest, bats hang upside down from a perch using their hind legs. They are generally active at night. Bat
  33. 33. 3. Rodents Also known as gnawing mammals, which is the largest order of placental mammals. Their sharp. Chisel- like incisor teeth are used for gnawing. These teeth grow continuously to replace the ends that wear away. They reproduce rapidly. Mice Beaver Porcupine
  34. 34. 4. Aquatic Mammals These animals are well- adapted to life in the ocean. Although they breathe air, they can remain underwater for long periods of time by holding their breathe. Blue whales are the largest animals that have ever lived and feed on plankton. Plankton strained from the water by the series of horny plates called whalebone. Blue Whale Porpoises Dolphin
  35. 35. 5. Hoofed Mammals Mammals with feet in the form of hoofs are called ungulates. The ungulates are divided into two orders depending on whether the hoofs have an odd or even number of toes: artiodactyla and perissodactyla. All ungulates are herbivores. Pigs Horses
  36. 36. 6. Meat- eating Mammals Most carnivores are strong and fast moving, and have sharp claws. Their powerful jaws and large teeth are specialized for grasping, cutting, and tearing meat. They have a well- developed sense of smell. Wolf Bear Seal
  37. 37. 7. Primates These mammals can walk using their hind legs. They have well- developed grasping hands and their fingers and toes have flat nails instead of claws. Primates are omnivores. They are the most intelligent mammals. Monkeys Humans
  38. 38. Importance of Mammals •Pollinators •Source of income •Food •Grazer and predators
  39. 39. Evaluation 1.Tortoise 2.Snake 3.Squirrels 4.Salamander 5.Woodpecker 6.Beaver 7.Electric eel 8.Frog 9.Human 10.Lizard
  40. 40. Thank you for