• They are animals with backbone. They possess complicated body parts
• These animals were classified as cold-blooded animals or
ectothermic vertebrates and warm-blooded animals or
• The vertebrates belong to one of the phyla of the animal kingdom
called Phylum chordata.
• This phyla is further divided into five classes; fish, birds, amphibians,
reptiles, and mammals.
• Vertebrates reproduce sexually, and almost all of them have separate
male and female sexes. Aquatic species have external fertilization,
whereas terrestrial species have internal fertilization.
• Fishes are water animals that have tails,
paired fins that enables it to swim, scales, and
• Fish are a paraphyletic group: that is,
any clade containing all fish also contains
the tetrapods, which are not fish.
• There are two kinds of fish: bony and
Bony (Class Osteichthyes)
• The largest group of fish.
• Members of this group have bony skeletons,
paired fins, and protective overlapping
• They are found both in fresh and saltwater
• Most bony fishes have a gas-filled sac called
the swim bladder or air bladder.
Cartilaginous (Class Chondrichthyes)
• These fishes have flexible skeletons made up
of cartilage tissue.
• Almost all members of this group are found
• They have movable upper and lower jaws
equipped with several rows of sharp teeth.
Importance of Fishes
•Source of income
•Protect our environment
Bird (Class Aves)
• The bird is a very successful animal
• Members of this class are found in almost
all types of environments.
• The single characteristic that
distinguishes birds from all other animals
from reptiles is the presence of feathers.
Some Common Characteristics of Birds:
1. The body is usually spindle shaped and divided
into head, neck, trunk, and tail.
2. There are two pairs of limbs. The forelimbs are
wings which, in most birds are used for flying.
The hind limbs are legs that are used for
perching, walking, swimming, or prey catching.
3. Their bones are strong and light, and many are
filled with air spaces.
4. The mouth is in the form of a horn-covered
beak or bill. There are no teeth.
Amphibians (Class Amphibia)
• Amphibians are cold-blooded animals
that spend their lives in water and
part on land.
• They have smooth, moist, and
• There are two major groups of
amphibians: the tailed amphibians and
the tailless amphibians.
• These animals have long bodies, long
tails, and two pairs of short legs.
• Some are entirely aquatic while others
live under rocks or logs or in other
• They are active only at night.
• They have short, squat bodies and lack
• Their large powerful hind legs are
modified for jumping.
• They do the process of hibernation
and estivation where they sleep
during winter and summer.
Importance of Amphibians
• Best biological pest controllers
• Prey items for both vertebrates
• Good ecological indicators
Reptiles (Class Reptilia)
• They are cold- blooded animals.
• They regulate their body temperature using
• They can survive both on land and in water.
• Most lay eggs.
• They have scales but unlike amphibians,
reptiles do not have gills at any stage in their
• They do not undergo metamorphosis.
Four Main Group of Reptiles:
1. Crocodile/ Alligator
• The largest living reptiles.
• They have long snouts, powerful jaws
with large teeth and long muscular tails
that enables them to swim.
• These two types look very much alike
but the arrangement of their teeth and
their snouts are slightly different.
• Turtles are found both on land and in saltwater.
• Land- dwelling turtles are sometimes called
tortoise. They have protective shells. The upper
shell is called carapace while the lower shell is
• Marine or sea turtles have long flippers that
making them in excellent swimming but poor
for walking in land.
• They have also shell namely streamlined
carapace that covered in hard scales called
• Some snakes eat only living animals,
swallowing them alive, while other kill their
prey before they swallow it.
• Large snakes coil their body around their
victims and crush or strangle them to death.
• Poisonous snakes have a pair of specialized
teeth called fangs.
• Venoms are neutroxins, which attack nervous
• Lizards and snakes belong to the same
order, but there are many differences
• They are extremely diverse.
• Many lizards can shed their tail if seized
by an enemy.
• A new tail is regenerated in a short time.
Importance of Reptiles
• Predator and prey species
• Control the numbers of serious
Mammals (Class Mammalia)
• Members of this group are found all over the
earth in both cold and warm climates.
• Most are land dwelling, but a few, are found in
• They are warm-blooded.
• They produce milk for their babies form
• The bodies of mammals are partly or completely
covered with hair or fur.
• They have a muscle called the diaphragm that
helps them to breathe.
• There re three kinds of mammals: the
monotremes, marsupials and placental.
1. Monotremes are the egg- laying
mammals. They are the most primitive
and reptile- like of the mammals.
2. Marsupial are the pouched
mammals. They are born at a very tiny,
immature stage and complete their
development in their mother’s pouched.
3. Placentals are the largest and most
succesful groups of mammals. The
developing young are retained within
the uterus of the female until embryonic
development is completed. The young
are born in a more advamced stage of
development than the marsupials.
Kinds of Placental Mammals
1. Insect-eating Mammals
Members of the order insectivores are generally
small, mouse like animals. Many live underground.
They feed on ants, grub, beetles, and other insects.
2. Flying Mammals
Mammals that capable of flying. Bats are the
representative animal of this group. At rest, bats
hang upside down from a perch using their hind legs.
They are generally active at night.
Also known as gnawing mammals, which is the
largest order of placental mammals. Their sharp.
Chisel- like incisor teeth are used for gnawing. These
teeth grow continuously to replace the ends that wear
away. They reproduce rapidly.
4. Aquatic Mammals
These animals are well- adapted to life in the
ocean. Although they breathe air, they can remain
underwater for long periods of time by holding their
breathe. Blue whales are the largest animals that
have ever lived and feed on plankton. Plankton
strained from the water by the series of horny plates
5. Hoofed Mammals
Mammals with feet in the form of hoofs are called
ungulates. The ungulates are divided into two
orders depending on whether the hoofs have an odd
or even number of toes: artiodactyla and
perissodactyla. All ungulates are herbivores.
6. Meat- eating Mammals
Most carnivores are strong and fast moving, and
have sharp claws. Their powerful jaws and large
teeth are specialized for grasping, cutting, and
tearing meat. They have a well- developed sense of
These mammals can walk using their hind legs.
They have well- developed grasping hands and their
fingers and toes have flat nails instead of claws.
Primates are omnivores. They are the most
Importance of Mammals
•Source of income
•Grazer and predators
Offenbar haben Sie einen Ad-Blocker installiert. Wenn Sie SlideShare auf die Whitelist für Ihren Werbeblocker setzen, helfen Sie unserer Gemeinschaft von Inhaltserstellern.
Sie hassen Werbung?
Wir haben unsere Datenschutzbestimmungen aktualisiert.
Wir haben unsere Datenschutzbestimmungen aktualisiert, um den neuen globalen Regeln zum Thema Datenschutzbestimmungen gerecht zu werden und dir einen Einblick in die begrenzten Möglichkeiten zu geben, wie wir deine Daten nutzen.
Die Einzelheiten findest du unten. Indem du sie akzeptierst, erklärst du dich mit den aktualisierten Datenschutzbestimmungen einverstanden.