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Representation of the
Data Documentation Initiative using
   Semantic Web Technologies

                        IASSIST 2011
                             02.06.2011




                          Thomas Bosch
 (research associate, GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences)
Agenda

• What is the Semantic Web (SW)?



• Why should the SW be applied in the context of DDI?



• Take-aways and Discussion


                                                        2
RDF Triples

          Age
Subject
                            references

                Predicate
                                     What age?

                            Object
                                                 3
Ontologies
class                        property                       class
                   domain                range
        Variable            references           Question




            type                 type                 type

          Age                                    What age?
                            references
resource                     resource                 resource

                                                                    4
Agenda

• What is the Semantic Web (SW)?



• Why should the SW be applied in the context of DDI?



• Take-aways and Discussion


                                                        5
Publish and Link DDI Data and Metadata




 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/   6
Semantic Queries
• What kinds of problems can be solved?
• Queries on multiple, distributed and merged DDI instances
• Formulation using DDI domain concepts
                                               ?question

                                   contains
  questionScheme                               ?question


SELECT ?question                               ?question
WHERE { questionScheme contains ?question. }                  7
Integration of Other Ontologies
• Ontology domain classes can relate to
  similar concepts of external ontologies
• Reasoner may use additional
  semantic information
                                              DDI          Other
                                            Ontology     Ontologies


                                            (Question)   (Question)




                                                                      8
DDI Consistency Check
•   Definition of 'consistency'
•   OWL reasoning techniques
•   Class consistency
•   Global consistency
•   Global consistency of DDI ontology
      Global consistency of DDI data model




                                             9
Concept Hierarchy
Variable            Concept          Concept




 Concept
                 SimilarConcept
Reference



                                  SimilarConcept
                   Difference
                                    Reference



                   text + html
                 (superClassOf)
                                                   10
Concept Hierarchy



                  Concept      subConceptOf



            hasConcept

Variable

                                          11
DDI Elements‘ Comparability
                  Grade_USA
                                    hasCode
  subClassOf
                                              A         subClassOf

Variable                                                       Code

                                                        subClassOf
                                              1.0
  subClassOf
                                    hasCode
                 Grade_Germany

• Necessary conditions (equality, inequality, similarity, …)
                                                                      12
References
                                 OtherMaterial   type



                                 ExternalURL
         Citation                                       Relationship
                                  Reference


                                                         RelatedTo
        DCElements                    ...
                                                         Reference



Title                Creator                               URN



 …                     …                                    ...
                                                                       13
References
                           OtherMaterial   type

                                                              Drawbacks:
                           ExternalURL
         Citation                           Relationship
                            Reference
                                                           • Complex data model
                                                           • No intuitive semantics
                                             RelatedTo
        DCElements              ...                        • Bibliographic citation
                                             Reference
                                                             limits
                                                           • Ensure reusability?
Title                Creator                      URN



 …                     …                          ...
                                                                                 14
Semantic References



                    referencesPublication
Referencing
                                                  Publication     ID
Publication

      subClassOf
                            X
                   publicationReferencedBy




 Variable                     Title          Creator       Date   URL

                                                                        15
Agenda

• What is the Semantic Web (SW)?



• Why should the SW be applied in the context of DDI?



• Take-aways and Discussion


                                                        16
http://ddiandsemanticweb.blogspot.com
 Subject
                Predicate                    Assertional


    RDFTriple
                    Ontology


                            Terminological
 Object

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Representation of DDI using Semantic Web Technologies

  • 1. Representation of the Data Documentation Initiative using Semantic Web Technologies IASSIST 2011 02.06.2011 Thomas Bosch (research associate, GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences)
  • 2. Agenda • What is the Semantic Web (SW)? • Why should the SW be applied in the context of DDI? • Take-aways and Discussion 2
  • 3. RDF Triples Age Subject references Predicate What age? Object 3
  • 4. Ontologies class property class domain range Variable references Question type type type Age What age? references resource resource resource 4
  • 5. Agenda • What is the Semantic Web (SW)? • Why should the SW be applied in the context of DDI? • Take-aways and Discussion 5
  • 6. Publish and Link DDI Data and Metadata Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ 6
  • 7. Semantic Queries • What kinds of problems can be solved? • Queries on multiple, distributed and merged DDI instances • Formulation using DDI domain concepts ?question contains questionScheme ?question SELECT ?question ?question WHERE { questionScheme contains ?question. } 7
  • 8. Integration of Other Ontologies • Ontology domain classes can relate to similar concepts of external ontologies • Reasoner may use additional semantic information DDI Other Ontology Ontologies (Question) (Question) 8
  • 9. DDI Consistency Check • Definition of 'consistency' • OWL reasoning techniques • Class consistency • Global consistency • Global consistency of DDI ontology Global consistency of DDI data model 9
  • 10. Concept Hierarchy Variable Concept Concept Concept SimilarConcept Reference SimilarConcept Difference Reference text + html (superClassOf) 10
  • 11. Concept Hierarchy Concept subConceptOf hasConcept Variable 11
  • 12. DDI Elements‘ Comparability Grade_USA hasCode subClassOf A subClassOf Variable Code subClassOf 1.0 subClassOf hasCode Grade_Germany • Necessary conditions (equality, inequality, similarity, …) 12
  • 13. References OtherMaterial type ExternalURL Citation Relationship Reference RelatedTo DCElements ... Reference Title Creator URN … … ... 13
  • 14. References OtherMaterial type Drawbacks: ExternalURL Citation Relationship Reference • Complex data model • No intuitive semantics RelatedTo DCElements ... • Bibliographic citation Reference limits • Ensure reusability? Title Creator URN … … ... 14
  • 15. Semantic References referencesPublication Referencing Publication ID Publication subClassOf X publicationReferencedBy Variable Title Creator Date URL 15
  • 16. Agenda • What is the Semantic Web (SW)? • Why should the SW be applied in the context of DDI? • Take-aways and Discussion 16
  • 17. http://ddiandsemanticweb.blogspot.com Subject Predicate Assertional RDFTriple Ontology Terminological Object