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DDI-RDF Discovery Vocabulary
A Metadata Vocabulary for Documenting Research and Survey Data
Linked Data on the Web (LDOW 2013)
14.05.2013
Thomas Bosch
GESIS, Germany
thomas.bosch@gesis.org
Richard Cyganiak
DERI, Ireland
richard.cyganiak@deri.org
Arofan Gregory
Open Data Foundation, USA
agregory@opendatafoundation.org
Joachim Wackerow
GESIS, Germany
joachim.wackerow@gesis.org
Outline
• What is DDI?
• Motivation
• Relationships to Vocabularies
• DDI-RDF Discovery Vocabulary
• Conceptual Model
2
What is DDI?
• DDI (Data Documentation Initiative)
• DDI is an established international standard for the documentation
and management of data from the social, behavioral, and economic
sciences
• DDI is a data model for describing statistical data
• data collected for research and official statistics
• The DDI Alliance
• International consortium of > 35 member institutions
• produces and maintaines the DDI
3
What is DDI?
• DDI supports the entire research data lifecycle
 Secondary analysis results can be reproduced
4
What is DDI?
• DDI focuses on the documentation of microdata
• DDI also supports aggregated data
• DDI-C (Codebook)
• general information about a study
• data dictionary
• DDI-L (Lifecycle)
• description of more complex multi-wave studies
• throughout the data lifecycle
5
What is DDI?
• Structured high quality metadata enable secondary analysis without
the need to contact the primary researcher
• DDI enables the reuse of metadata of existing studies for designing
new studies
• DDI is currently specified using XML Schemas
• XML Schemas are organized in multiple modules corresponding to the
individual stages of the research data lifecycle
• XML Schemas comprehend over 800 XML elements
6
Motivation for the DDI Community
• publish microdata (data sets representing microdata)
• increase visibility of microdata
• increase use of microdata
• discover microdata
• enable inferencing on microdata
• harmonize microdata (make microdata comparable)
• RDF tools can process DDI-RDF
7
Motivation for the LD Community
• an ontology describing the statistical domain is now available
• publish microdata
• publish metadata on microdata
• metadata about already published but under-documented
microdata can be published
• RDF tools can process DDI-RDF
• to link microdata to other microdata
making the data and the results of research (e.g. publications) more closely
connected
8
Relationships to Vocabularies
• DCMI Metadata Terms
• are used for citation purposes
• Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS)
• is used for creating hierarchies of concepts similar to thesauri and
classification systems
• SKOS Extension (XKOS)
• a vocabulary which extends SKOS to allow for a more complete description of
formal statistical classifications
• planned for publication 2013 by the DDI Alliance
• reference: https://github.com/linked-statistics/xkos
9
Relationships to Vocabularies
• Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT)
• W3C standard for describing catalogs of data sets
• disco:LogicalDataSet ⊑ dcat:Dataset
• disco: DataFile ⊑ dcat:Distribution
• RDF Data Cube Vocabulary
• W3C standard for representing data cubes, i.e. multidimensional aggregate
data
• disco:aggregation (disco:LogicalDataSet, qb:DataSet)
• disco:inputVariable (qb:DataSet, disco:Variable)
• reference: http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-data-cube/
10
DDI-RDF Discovery Vocabulary
• contains only a small subset of DDI-XML + additional axioms
• The conceptual model is derived from use cases which are typical in
the statistical community
• Statistical domain experts have formulated these use cases which
are seen as most significant to solve frequent problems
• enables to
• publish
• discover
microdata and metadata about microdata (research and survey
data) in the Web of Linked Data
11
DDI-RDF Discovery Vocabulary
• Availability of (meta)data
• Microdata may be available (typically as CSV files)
• In most cases, metadata about microdata is NOT available
• contains major types of metadata of DDI-C and DDI-L
• Mappings from DDI-XML to DDI-RDF
• No straightforward Mapping from DDI-RDF to DDI-XML
• enables better support for the LD community
• partly no corresponding constructs in DDI-XML
• 26 experts from the statistics and the Linked Data community of
12 different countries have contributed
12
Conceptual Model
class overview
«union»
VariableQuestion
Instrument
Questionnaire
dcat:Dataset
LogicalDataSet
skos:Concept
AnalysisUnit
skos:Concept
Universe
Study
StudyGroup
1..* product
0..*
0..*
inGroup
0..1
1..*
variable 0..*
0..*universe1
1..*
containsVariable
0..*
0..*
question
1..*0..*
universe
1
0..*
analysisUnit
0..1
0..*
universe
1
0..*question0..*
0..*
analysisUnit
0..1
0..*
universe
1..*
13
class study-universe
Study
- owl:versionInfo
StudyGroup
skos:Concept
Universe
- skos:definition :rdf:langString
skos:Concept
AnalysisUnit
«union»
- dcterms:abstract :rdf:langString
- dcterms:alternative :rdf:langString
- dcterms:available :xsd:dateTime
- dcterms:title :rdf:langString
- purpose :rdf:langString
- subtitle :rdf:langString
0..*
analysisUnit
0..1
0..*
universe
1..*
0..*
inGroup
0..1
14
class variable
Variable
- dcterms:description :rdf:langString
+ skos:notation :rdfs:Literal
- skos:prefLabel :rdf:langString
VariableDefinition
+ dcterms:description :rdf:langString
- skos:prefLabel :rdf:langString
skos:Concept
- skos:definition :rdf:langString
- skos:notation :rdfs:Literal
- skos:prefLabel :rdf:langString
Representation
0..*
skos:narrower
0..*
0..*
skos:broader
0..*
0..*
representation
0..*
0..*
concept
1
0..*
representation
1
0..*
basedOn
0..1
0..*
concept
1
15
class representation
skos:Concept
- skos:definition :rdf:langString
- skos:notation :rdfs:Literal
- skos:prefLabel :rdf:langString
«union»
rdfs:Datatype
skos:ConceptScheme
Representation
0..*
skos:hasTopConcept
0..*0..*
skos:inScheme
0..*
0..*
skos:narrower
0..*0..*
skos:broader
0..*
16
class overview-data-set
dcat:Dataset
LogicalDataSet
- dcterms:title :rdf:langString
- isPublic :xsd:boolean
dcat:Distribution
dcterms:Dataset
DataFile
- caseQuantity :xsd:nonNegativeInteger
- dcterms:description :rdf:langString
- owl:versionInfo :string
DescriptiveStatistics
CategoryStatistics
- cumulativePercentage :xsd:decimal
- frequency :xsd:nonNegativeInteger
- percentage :xsd:decimal
- weightedCumulativePercentage :xsd:decimal
- weightedFrequency :xsd:nonNegativeInteger
- weightedPercentage :xsd:decimal
SummaryStatistics
- invalidCases :xsd:nonNegativeInteger
- maximum :xsd:decimal
- mean :xsd:decimal
- median :xsd:decimal
- minimum :xsd:decimal
- mode :xsd:decimal
- standardDeviation :xsd:decimal
- validCases :xsd:nonNegativeInteger
- weightedInvalidCases :xsd:nonNegativeInteger
- weightedMean :xsd:decimal
- weightedMedian :xsd:decimal
- weightedMode :xsd:decimal
- weightedValidCases :xsd:nonNegativeInteger
0..*
statisticsDataFile
0..*
0..*
dataFile
0..*
17
18
class Data Collection
Question
- questionText :rdf:langString
- skos:prefLabel :rdf:langString
Questionnaire
Instrument
- dcterms:description :rdf:langString
- skos:prefLabel :rdf:langString
foaf:Document
Representation
0..*
externalDocumentation
0..*
0..*
question
1..*
0..*
responseDomain
1..*
Thank you for your attention…
• Unofficial draft [planned as specification by DDI Alliance by 2013]
http://rdf-vocabulary.ddialliance.org/discovery
• Specification (current state) on GitHub repository
https://github.com/linked-statistics/disco-spec
• Scenarios for the DDI-RDF Discovery Vocabulary [in preparation]
http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/DDISemanticWeb02
19
Thomas Bosch
GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences
thomas.bosch@gesis.org
boschthomas.blogspot.com
https://github.com/boschthomas/PhD
Acknowledgements
26 experts from the statistical community and the Linked Data community coming
from 12 different countries contributed to this work. They were participating in
the events mentioned below.
• 1st workshop on 'Semantic Statistics for Social, Behavioural, and Economic
Sciences: Leveraging the DDI Model for the Linked Data Web' at Schloss
Dagstuhl - Leibniz Center for Informatics, Germany in September 2011
• Working meeting in the course of the 3rd Annual European DDI Users Group
Meeting (EDDI11) in Gothenburg, Sweden in December 2011
• 2nd workshop on 'Semantic Statistics for Social, Behavioural, and Economic
Sciences: Leveraging the DDI Model for the Linked Data Web' at Schloss
Dagstuhl - Leibniz Center for Informatics, Germany in October 2012
• Working meeting at GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences in
Mannheim, Germany in February 2013
20

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2013.05 - LDOW 2013 @ WWW 2013

  • 1. DDI-RDF Discovery Vocabulary A Metadata Vocabulary for Documenting Research and Survey Data Linked Data on the Web (LDOW 2013) 14.05.2013 Thomas Bosch GESIS, Germany thomas.bosch@gesis.org Richard Cyganiak DERI, Ireland richard.cyganiak@deri.org Arofan Gregory Open Data Foundation, USA agregory@opendatafoundation.org Joachim Wackerow GESIS, Germany joachim.wackerow@gesis.org
  • 2. Outline • What is DDI? • Motivation • Relationships to Vocabularies • DDI-RDF Discovery Vocabulary • Conceptual Model 2
  • 3. What is DDI? • DDI (Data Documentation Initiative) • DDI is an established international standard for the documentation and management of data from the social, behavioral, and economic sciences • DDI is a data model for describing statistical data • data collected for research and official statistics • The DDI Alliance • International consortium of > 35 member institutions • produces and maintaines the DDI 3
  • 4. What is DDI? • DDI supports the entire research data lifecycle  Secondary analysis results can be reproduced 4
  • 5. What is DDI? • DDI focuses on the documentation of microdata • DDI also supports aggregated data • DDI-C (Codebook) • general information about a study • data dictionary • DDI-L (Lifecycle) • description of more complex multi-wave studies • throughout the data lifecycle 5
  • 6. What is DDI? • Structured high quality metadata enable secondary analysis without the need to contact the primary researcher • DDI enables the reuse of metadata of existing studies for designing new studies • DDI is currently specified using XML Schemas • XML Schemas are organized in multiple modules corresponding to the individual stages of the research data lifecycle • XML Schemas comprehend over 800 XML elements 6
  • 7. Motivation for the DDI Community • publish microdata (data sets representing microdata) • increase visibility of microdata • increase use of microdata • discover microdata • enable inferencing on microdata • harmonize microdata (make microdata comparable) • RDF tools can process DDI-RDF 7
  • 8. Motivation for the LD Community • an ontology describing the statistical domain is now available • publish microdata • publish metadata on microdata • metadata about already published but under-documented microdata can be published • RDF tools can process DDI-RDF • to link microdata to other microdata making the data and the results of research (e.g. publications) more closely connected 8
  • 9. Relationships to Vocabularies • DCMI Metadata Terms • are used for citation purposes • Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) • is used for creating hierarchies of concepts similar to thesauri and classification systems • SKOS Extension (XKOS) • a vocabulary which extends SKOS to allow for a more complete description of formal statistical classifications • planned for publication 2013 by the DDI Alliance • reference: https://github.com/linked-statistics/xkos 9
  • 10. Relationships to Vocabularies • Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT) • W3C standard for describing catalogs of data sets • disco:LogicalDataSet ⊑ dcat:Dataset • disco: DataFile ⊑ dcat:Distribution • RDF Data Cube Vocabulary • W3C standard for representing data cubes, i.e. multidimensional aggregate data • disco:aggregation (disco:LogicalDataSet, qb:DataSet) • disco:inputVariable (qb:DataSet, disco:Variable) • reference: http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-data-cube/ 10
  • 11. DDI-RDF Discovery Vocabulary • contains only a small subset of DDI-XML + additional axioms • The conceptual model is derived from use cases which are typical in the statistical community • Statistical domain experts have formulated these use cases which are seen as most significant to solve frequent problems • enables to • publish • discover microdata and metadata about microdata (research and survey data) in the Web of Linked Data 11
  • 12. DDI-RDF Discovery Vocabulary • Availability of (meta)data • Microdata may be available (typically as CSV files) • In most cases, metadata about microdata is NOT available • contains major types of metadata of DDI-C and DDI-L • Mappings from DDI-XML to DDI-RDF • No straightforward Mapping from DDI-RDF to DDI-XML • enables better support for the LD community • partly no corresponding constructs in DDI-XML • 26 experts from the statistics and the Linked Data community of 12 different countries have contributed 12
  • 13. Conceptual Model class overview «union» VariableQuestion Instrument Questionnaire dcat:Dataset LogicalDataSet skos:Concept AnalysisUnit skos:Concept Universe Study StudyGroup 1..* product 0..* 0..* inGroup 0..1 1..* variable 0..* 0..*universe1 1..* containsVariable 0..* 0..* question 1..*0..* universe 1 0..* analysisUnit 0..1 0..* universe 1 0..*question0..* 0..* analysisUnit 0..1 0..* universe 1..* 13
  • 14. class study-universe Study - owl:versionInfo StudyGroup skos:Concept Universe - skos:definition :rdf:langString skos:Concept AnalysisUnit «union» - dcterms:abstract :rdf:langString - dcterms:alternative :rdf:langString - dcterms:available :xsd:dateTime - dcterms:title :rdf:langString - purpose :rdf:langString - subtitle :rdf:langString 0..* analysisUnit 0..1 0..* universe 1..* 0..* inGroup 0..1 14
  • 15. class variable Variable - dcterms:description :rdf:langString + skos:notation :rdfs:Literal - skos:prefLabel :rdf:langString VariableDefinition + dcterms:description :rdf:langString - skos:prefLabel :rdf:langString skos:Concept - skos:definition :rdf:langString - skos:notation :rdfs:Literal - skos:prefLabel :rdf:langString Representation 0..* skos:narrower 0..* 0..* skos:broader 0..* 0..* representation 0..* 0..* concept 1 0..* representation 1 0..* basedOn 0..1 0..* concept 1 15
  • 16. class representation skos:Concept - skos:definition :rdf:langString - skos:notation :rdfs:Literal - skos:prefLabel :rdf:langString «union» rdfs:Datatype skos:ConceptScheme Representation 0..* skos:hasTopConcept 0..*0..* skos:inScheme 0..* 0..* skos:narrower 0..*0..* skos:broader 0..* 16
  • 17. class overview-data-set dcat:Dataset LogicalDataSet - dcterms:title :rdf:langString - isPublic :xsd:boolean dcat:Distribution dcterms:Dataset DataFile - caseQuantity :xsd:nonNegativeInteger - dcterms:description :rdf:langString - owl:versionInfo :string DescriptiveStatistics CategoryStatistics - cumulativePercentage :xsd:decimal - frequency :xsd:nonNegativeInteger - percentage :xsd:decimal - weightedCumulativePercentage :xsd:decimal - weightedFrequency :xsd:nonNegativeInteger - weightedPercentage :xsd:decimal SummaryStatistics - invalidCases :xsd:nonNegativeInteger - maximum :xsd:decimal - mean :xsd:decimal - median :xsd:decimal - minimum :xsd:decimal - mode :xsd:decimal - standardDeviation :xsd:decimal - validCases :xsd:nonNegativeInteger - weightedInvalidCases :xsd:nonNegativeInteger - weightedMean :xsd:decimal - weightedMedian :xsd:decimal - weightedMode :xsd:decimal - weightedValidCases :xsd:nonNegativeInteger 0..* statisticsDataFile 0..* 0..* dataFile 0..* 17
  • 18. 18 class Data Collection Question - questionText :rdf:langString - skos:prefLabel :rdf:langString Questionnaire Instrument - dcterms:description :rdf:langString - skos:prefLabel :rdf:langString foaf:Document Representation 0..* externalDocumentation 0..* 0..* question 1..* 0..* responseDomain 1..*
  • 19. Thank you for your attention… • Unofficial draft [planned as specification by DDI Alliance by 2013] http://rdf-vocabulary.ddialliance.org/discovery • Specification (current state) on GitHub repository https://github.com/linked-statistics/disco-spec • Scenarios for the DDI-RDF Discovery Vocabulary [in preparation] http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/DDISemanticWeb02 19 Thomas Bosch GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences thomas.bosch@gesis.org boschthomas.blogspot.com https://github.com/boschthomas/PhD
  • 20. Acknowledgements 26 experts from the statistical community and the Linked Data community coming from 12 different countries contributed to this work. They were participating in the events mentioned below. • 1st workshop on 'Semantic Statistics for Social, Behavioural, and Economic Sciences: Leveraging the DDI Model for the Linked Data Web' at Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz Center for Informatics, Germany in September 2011 • Working meeting in the course of the 3rd Annual European DDI Users Group Meeting (EDDI11) in Gothenburg, Sweden in December 2011 • 2nd workshop on 'Semantic Statistics for Social, Behavioural, and Economic Sciences: Leveraging the DDI Model for the Linked Data Web' at Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz Center for Informatics, Germany in October 2012 • Working meeting at GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences in Mannheim, Germany in February 2013 20