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SILICONE FAÇADE ENGINEERING:
PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE
Valérie Hayez, DOW SILICONES
Delft 11-02-2020
1940
ONE SMALL ELEMENT…
2000 1990 1970
1950 1960
… BUT A GIANT IMPACT FOR BUILDINGS
3
Sealing to ensure
Weathertightness
Sealing to deliver Acoustic
Insulation
Sealing to ensure continuity
of the Fire Rating of the
Building and its envelope
Sealing IGU,
providing Energy Efficiency and
Comfort
Bonding glass to frames:
acting as a « structural »
element
In a Sustainable way
Enabling full glass façade
designs
SILICONE?
4
Quartz /Sand SiO2 Coal : C
CO
SiO2 + 2 C Si + 2 CO
High Temp.
Electrical Arc Oven
Si
From sand (SiO2) to Silicon Metal (Si)
SILICONE?
5
Silicon Metal
Grinder
Reactor
Distillation
Silicone Oil
Methyl Chloride
Methanol
Water
Me2SiCl2
Me3SiCl
MeSiCl3
Me2SiCl2
Mixture
…
MeOH
MeCl
HCl
H2O
Si
(Me2SiO)n
In Out
Silicone polymer
Polymer Unit
From Silicon Metal To Silicone polymer
SILICONE
6
Si O Si XSi O
C H
H
H C H
H
H C H
H
H
C HH
H
C HH
H
C HH
H
n
X
Silicone ≈ siloxane
• Polymer – Helicoidal Si polymer chain
• Crosslinker – Links polymer chains to form a solid rubber after
cure. Different crosslinkers are used for different cure systems
(acetoxy, methoxy, oxime, etc.)
• Catalyst – Affects the rate of reaction
• Filler – Reinforcement that provides strength to sealant
• Plasticizer – Non-reactive fluid that can add elasticity (and
potentially staining).
▪ Adhesion Promoters – Link polymer network to the substrates
• Additives – Fungicides, pigments, etc.
to provide additional function in sealant
SILICONE SEALANT
7
Catalyst Water
Methanol Acetic Acid
or Oxime
Substrate
SILICONE FUNCTIONALITIES
8
Si O Si XSi O
C H
H
H C H
H
H C H
H
H
C HH
H
C HH
H
C HH
H
n
X
2 Methyl groups
=
Hydrophobicity
Strong Si-O bond
=
Thermal and UV resistance
Wide O-Si-O angle
=
vapor permeable
Low rotation energy
=
flexibility
• 1964: Two-sided SSG in
shear
• Oaklawn Jockey Club,
Alabama, USA
• Total Vision System
EVOLUTION OF SILICONE STRUCTURAL GLAZING (SSG): FIRST STEPS
• 1971: 1st four-sided SSG
• 455 W. Fort St. in Detroit, Michigan, USA
• One-part silicone
EVOLUTION OF SILICONE STRUCTURAL GLAZING (SSG): FIRST STEPS
European Parliament,
Belgium, 1994-1995
▪ DOWSIL™ 993, SSG
▪ Bis-annual evaluation
of performance of
representative small units exposed to similar
climatic conditions
EVOLUTION OF SILICONE STRUCTURAL GLAZING (SSG): PROVEN PERFORMANCE
IFT Rosenheim,
Germany, 1985
▪ DOWSIL™ 983,
4-sided IGU toggle
system without
deadload support
▪ Full evaluation
(ETAG002) after 25
years service life
▪ 50+
Optimal results at -50°C
Princess Elisabeth Station, Antarctic
PROVEN PERFORMANCE IN EXTREME CLIMATE
Optimal results at +50 ° C
Burj Khalifa, UAE
In both climates, high UV radiation
©2010EmaarPropertiesPJSC
▪ Gas-filled insulating glass under extreme temperatures
Architect:PalmerandTurner
Curtainwallcontractor:GartnerandBuildersFederalHK
35 years and +100 cyclones
2sided SSG , 40mm DOWSIL™ 795,
1600 x 1280 mm, 5.1 kPa
EVOLUTION OF SILICONE STRUCTURAL GLAZING (SSG): EXTREME LOADING
Exchange Square, Hong Kong, 1984
2 sided SSG 25mm
DOWSIL™ 983,
1500mm*3035mm, 3820Pa
Two Harbourfront, Hung Hom, 1993
Damage due to unlocked
openable windows, Debris
impact, Glass thickness but not
due to the SSG
Cyclone
resistance
EVOLUTION OF SILICONE STRUCTURAL GLAZING (SSG): EXTREME LOADING
14
Blast
resistance
EVOLUTION OF SILICONE STRUCTURAL GLAZING (SSG): EXTREME LOADING
•Besserud, K., Bergers, M., Black, A. J., Carbary,
L. D., Mazurek, A., Misson, D., and Rubis, K.,
“Durability of Cold-Bent Insulating-Glass Units,”
Journal of ASTM International, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2012,
pp. 1-26, https://doi.org/10.1520/JAI104120. ISSN
1546-962X
•2019 GPD: durability of SSG sealant in cold bent
glazing design
•2020: challenging glass conference
▪ Analytical equations
AllianztowerinMilan,
Italy,Isozaki+Maffei
USAInteractiveFrank
Gehry
▪ Knowledge sharing
▪ Experimental validation
▪ Modeling/ FEA
▪ Case studies
Cold-bent Glass
ENABLE TRANSPARENCY
PhotoScagliola/Brakkee/NeutelingsRiedijkArchitects
Museum aan de Stroom, Antwerpen, Belgium
ENABLE TRANSPARENCY: DOWSILTM CRYSTAL CLEAR SILICONES
Photo: PressGlass
Field of rods by Eric Owen Moss Architects, California
ENABLE TRANSPARENCY
Bonding on hot bent glass: Press Glass
Photo: PressGlass
DEFINE ENGINEERS / CARPENTER LOWINGS / seele / sedak/ DOWSIL TSSABonding on thin glass
ENABLE TRANSPARENCY
GRAVITY
21August 2019
ENABLE TRANSPARENCY…
What’s next?
FUTURE TRANSPARENCY: DOWSIL™ CRYSTAL CLEAR SILICONE SPACER
© THERM-IS BIZZOTTO
Photo: PressGlass
▪ A FULLY cured product, having the unique capability to be reactive towards a
primed surface
23
FUTURE TRANSPARENCY: DOWSIL™ CRYSTAL CLEAR SILICONE SPACER
<5min
Glass
Primer
Primer has to react with
substrate first
Glass
Crystal clear spacer
Spacer has to
react with primed
surface
Crystal clear spacer
Glass
• Durable chemical adhesion,
• Cannot be peeled off (cohesive failure)
• Adhesion on glass, stainless steel, mill
finish/anodized aluminum, PVC, PC, PMMA, PET,
polystyrene
Prime substrate
<5min
Assembly finished
Apply spacer
•Easy
mixing
and
dispensing
•Dam & fill
Silicone
mixing and
dispensing
•Long pot
life
•Low voids
•No heat
Vacuum
lamination
•Cure at RT
•Voids
disappear
on cure
Cure
24
FUTURE TRANSPARENCY: DOWSIL™ CRYSTAL CLEAR SILICONE FOR ENCAPSULATION
▪ 2-Component, self leveling, room temperature curing transparent silicone
▪ Develops room temperature adhesion on glass and metals without primer
▪ No bubble generation even in confined area
▪ Stable properties over wide Temperature range -40°C to 150°C
▪ Durable properties upon heat and UV exposure
▪ Compatible with DOWSIL™ silicones
▪ High Clarity
▪ Impact resistance: up to 3B3
Room temperature silicone lamination for decorative glazing
25
FUTURE TRANSPARENCY: DOWSIL™ CRYSTAL CLEAR SILICONE FOR ENCAPSULATION
26
FUTURE TRANSPARENCY: 3D PRINTING WITH CLEAR SILICONE
ConsumerGoods
Consumer&
Communication
3DP silicone products are used for applications requiring high precision such as seals or connectors
Transportation
▪ 3DP silicones can be used in construction, at the Intersection of Design
and Performance where Every Node is Geometrically Unique
FUTURE TRANSPARENCY: 3D PRINTING WITH CLEAR SILICONE
The information contained in this communication does not constitute an offer, does not give rise to binding
obligations, and is subject to change without notice to you. The creation of binding obligations will occur
only if an agreement is signed by authorized representatives of Dow and your company. Any reference to
competitor materials contained in this communication is not an endorsement of those materials by Dow or
an endorsement by the competitor of Dow materials.
To the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, Dow disclaims any and all liability with respect to your use
or reliance upon the information. DOW DOES NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THE UTILITY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE
INFORMATION AND DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. DOW DISCLAIMS LIABILITY FOR ANY INCIDENTAL
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.
®™Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company ("Dow") or an affiliated company of Dow
© 2019 The Dow Chemical Company. All rights reserved.
XXXXX Form No. 00-0000-01 X
THANK YOU

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200211 Booosting @Co-Creation Centre - Dow Silicones

  • 1. SILICONE FAÇADE ENGINEERING: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE Valérie Hayez, DOW SILICONES Delft 11-02-2020
  • 2. 1940 ONE SMALL ELEMENT… 2000 1990 1970 1950 1960
  • 3. … BUT A GIANT IMPACT FOR BUILDINGS 3 Sealing to ensure Weathertightness Sealing to deliver Acoustic Insulation Sealing to ensure continuity of the Fire Rating of the Building and its envelope Sealing IGU, providing Energy Efficiency and Comfort Bonding glass to frames: acting as a « structural » element In a Sustainable way Enabling full glass façade designs
  • 4. SILICONE? 4 Quartz /Sand SiO2 Coal : C CO SiO2 + 2 C Si + 2 CO High Temp. Electrical Arc Oven Si From sand (SiO2) to Silicon Metal (Si)
  • 5. SILICONE? 5 Silicon Metal Grinder Reactor Distillation Silicone Oil Methyl Chloride Methanol Water Me2SiCl2 Me3SiCl MeSiCl3 Me2SiCl2 Mixture … MeOH MeCl HCl H2O Si (Me2SiO)n In Out Silicone polymer Polymer Unit From Silicon Metal To Silicone polymer
  • 6. SILICONE 6 Si O Si XSi O C H H H C H H H C H H H C HH H C HH H C HH H n X Silicone ≈ siloxane
  • 7. • Polymer – Helicoidal Si polymer chain • Crosslinker – Links polymer chains to form a solid rubber after cure. Different crosslinkers are used for different cure systems (acetoxy, methoxy, oxime, etc.) • Catalyst – Affects the rate of reaction • Filler – Reinforcement that provides strength to sealant • Plasticizer – Non-reactive fluid that can add elasticity (and potentially staining). ▪ Adhesion Promoters – Link polymer network to the substrates • Additives – Fungicides, pigments, etc. to provide additional function in sealant SILICONE SEALANT 7 Catalyst Water Methanol Acetic Acid or Oxime Substrate
  • 8. SILICONE FUNCTIONALITIES 8 Si O Si XSi O C H H H C H H H C H H H C HH H C HH H C HH H n X 2 Methyl groups = Hydrophobicity Strong Si-O bond = Thermal and UV resistance Wide O-Si-O angle = vapor permeable Low rotation energy = flexibility
  • 9. • 1964: Two-sided SSG in shear • Oaklawn Jockey Club, Alabama, USA • Total Vision System EVOLUTION OF SILICONE STRUCTURAL GLAZING (SSG): FIRST STEPS
  • 10. • 1971: 1st four-sided SSG • 455 W. Fort St. in Detroit, Michigan, USA • One-part silicone EVOLUTION OF SILICONE STRUCTURAL GLAZING (SSG): FIRST STEPS
  • 11. European Parliament, Belgium, 1994-1995 ▪ DOWSIL™ 993, SSG ▪ Bis-annual evaluation of performance of representative small units exposed to similar climatic conditions EVOLUTION OF SILICONE STRUCTURAL GLAZING (SSG): PROVEN PERFORMANCE IFT Rosenheim, Germany, 1985 ▪ DOWSIL™ 983, 4-sided IGU toggle system without deadload support ▪ Full evaluation (ETAG002) after 25 years service life ▪ 50+
  • 12. Optimal results at -50°C Princess Elisabeth Station, Antarctic PROVEN PERFORMANCE IN EXTREME CLIMATE Optimal results at +50 ° C Burj Khalifa, UAE In both climates, high UV radiation ©2010EmaarPropertiesPJSC ▪ Gas-filled insulating glass under extreme temperatures
  • 13. Architect:PalmerandTurner Curtainwallcontractor:GartnerandBuildersFederalHK 35 years and +100 cyclones 2sided SSG , 40mm DOWSIL™ 795, 1600 x 1280 mm, 5.1 kPa EVOLUTION OF SILICONE STRUCTURAL GLAZING (SSG): EXTREME LOADING Exchange Square, Hong Kong, 1984 2 sided SSG 25mm DOWSIL™ 983, 1500mm*3035mm, 3820Pa Two Harbourfront, Hung Hom, 1993 Damage due to unlocked openable windows, Debris impact, Glass thickness but not due to the SSG Cyclone resistance
  • 14. EVOLUTION OF SILICONE STRUCTURAL GLAZING (SSG): EXTREME LOADING 14 Blast resistance
  • 15. EVOLUTION OF SILICONE STRUCTURAL GLAZING (SSG): EXTREME LOADING •Besserud, K., Bergers, M., Black, A. J., Carbary, L. D., Mazurek, A., Misson, D., and Rubis, K., “Durability of Cold-Bent Insulating-Glass Units,” Journal of ASTM International, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2012, pp. 1-26, https://doi.org/10.1520/JAI104120. ISSN 1546-962X •2019 GPD: durability of SSG sealant in cold bent glazing design •2020: challenging glass conference ▪ Analytical equations AllianztowerinMilan, Italy,Isozaki+Maffei USAInteractiveFrank Gehry ▪ Knowledge sharing ▪ Experimental validation ▪ Modeling/ FEA ▪ Case studies Cold-bent Glass
  • 17. ENABLE TRANSPARENCY: DOWSILTM CRYSTAL CLEAR SILICONES Photo: PressGlass Field of rods by Eric Owen Moss Architects, California
  • 18. ENABLE TRANSPARENCY Bonding on hot bent glass: Press Glass Photo: PressGlass
  • 19. DEFINE ENGINEERS / CARPENTER LOWINGS / seele / sedak/ DOWSIL TSSABonding on thin glass ENABLE TRANSPARENCY GRAVITY
  • 21. FUTURE TRANSPARENCY: DOWSIL™ CRYSTAL CLEAR SILICONE SPACER © THERM-IS BIZZOTTO Photo: PressGlass
  • 22. ▪ A FULLY cured product, having the unique capability to be reactive towards a primed surface 23 FUTURE TRANSPARENCY: DOWSIL™ CRYSTAL CLEAR SILICONE SPACER <5min Glass Primer Primer has to react with substrate first Glass Crystal clear spacer Spacer has to react with primed surface Crystal clear spacer Glass • Durable chemical adhesion, • Cannot be peeled off (cohesive failure) • Adhesion on glass, stainless steel, mill finish/anodized aluminum, PVC, PC, PMMA, PET, polystyrene Prime substrate <5min Assembly finished Apply spacer
  • 23. •Easy mixing and dispensing •Dam & fill Silicone mixing and dispensing •Long pot life •Low voids •No heat Vacuum lamination •Cure at RT •Voids disappear on cure Cure 24 FUTURE TRANSPARENCY: DOWSIL™ CRYSTAL CLEAR SILICONE FOR ENCAPSULATION ▪ 2-Component, self leveling, room temperature curing transparent silicone ▪ Develops room temperature adhesion on glass and metals without primer ▪ No bubble generation even in confined area ▪ Stable properties over wide Temperature range -40°C to 150°C ▪ Durable properties upon heat and UV exposure ▪ Compatible with DOWSIL™ silicones ▪ High Clarity ▪ Impact resistance: up to 3B3 Room temperature silicone lamination for decorative glazing
  • 24. 25 FUTURE TRANSPARENCY: DOWSIL™ CRYSTAL CLEAR SILICONE FOR ENCAPSULATION
  • 25. 26 FUTURE TRANSPARENCY: 3D PRINTING WITH CLEAR SILICONE ConsumerGoods Consumer& Communication 3DP silicone products are used for applications requiring high precision such as seals or connectors Transportation
  • 26. ▪ 3DP silicones can be used in construction, at the Intersection of Design and Performance where Every Node is Geometrically Unique FUTURE TRANSPARENCY: 3D PRINTING WITH CLEAR SILICONE
  • 27. The information contained in this communication does not constitute an offer, does not give rise to binding obligations, and is subject to change without notice to you. The creation of binding obligations will occur only if an agreement is signed by authorized representatives of Dow and your company. Any reference to competitor materials contained in this communication is not an endorsement of those materials by Dow or an endorsement by the competitor of Dow materials. To the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, Dow disclaims any and all liability with respect to your use or reliance upon the information. DOW DOES NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THE UTILITY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE INFORMATION AND DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. DOW DISCLAIMS LIABILITY FOR ANY INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. ®™Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company ("Dow") or an affiliated company of Dow © 2019 The Dow Chemical Company. All rights reserved. XXXXX Form No. 00-0000-01 X THANK YOU