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Lp 16a reproductive system

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Male reproductive system 1
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Lp 16a reproductive system

  1. 1. Reproductive System VTT 235/245
  3. 3. Structures  Testes-  Male gonad that produces both testosterone and germ cells (which become sperm).  Contained in the scrotum.  Scrotum- pouch containing the testicles and epididymis.  Seminiferous Tubules-  Hollow structures where germ cells differentiate into spermatozoa.
  4. 4. Structures  Epididymis-  Structure adjacent to the testicle.  3 parts: head, body, and tail.  Spermatozoa mature in the head and body of the epididymis.  Ductus Deferens (Vas Deferens)-  The continuation of the epididymal duct at the tail of the epididymis.  It travels up the spermatic cord and through the inguinal canal to reach the abdomen.
  5. 5. Structures  The Spermatic Cord consists of-  Vas deferens  Testicular artery, vein, nerve, and lymphatics
  6. 6. Accessory Sex Glands  Prostate  Seminal vesicles  Bulbourethral glands
  7. 7. Penis  The male copulatory organ.  Provides a passage way for semen and urine to the outside of the body.  Prepuce- the cutaneous sheath around the free part of the penis when it is not erect.  Preputial Orifice- the external opening of the prepuce to the outside environment.
  8. 8. Penis  Contains the glans penis (head of the penis)  Bulbus Glandis- the caudal part of the penis.  Swells to lock the male into the female during copulation.  +/- Os penis
  10. 10. Testosterone  Produced by the testes.  Responsible for secondary sex characteristics and sex drive.  An androgen or anabolic steroid.  Production is stimulated by LH.
  11. 11. Sperm  Spermatogenesis is stimulated by FSH.  Head-  Contains the nucleus and haploid chromosomes.  Acrosome- a “cap” which contains enzymes to permit penetration into the ovum.  Midpiece-  “Power plant”  Numerous mitochondria carry-out metabolism that provides ATP for sperm locomotion.  Tail- consists of flagellum for propulsion.
  12. 12. Seminal Fluid  Produced by accessory sex organs.  The medium for survival of the sperm.  Prostatic secretion- alkalinizes the vaginal environment to prevent sperm death.
  14. 14. Prostatic Disease  Common in dogs  Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  Prostatic adenocarcinoma  Bacterial  All cause enlargement or inflammation
  15. 15. Orchitis & Epididymitis  Acute-  Caused by trauma, infection, or testicular torsion  Chronic-  Immune-mediated or neoplastic  Testicular atrophy and fibrosis
  16. 16. Phimosis  The inability to extrude the penis through an abnormally small preputial orifice  Congenital or it develops due to inflammation, neoplasia, edema, or fibrosis after trauma, irritation or infection
  17. 17. Paraphimosis  The inability to completely retract the penis  Usually occurs after an erection  The preputial orifice skin becomes inverted and impairs venous drainage  A medical emergency!!!
  18. 18. Pathologies…  Inguinal Hernia-  The protrusion of a loop of organ or tissue through the inguinal canal.  Cryptorchidism-  Failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum.  The retained testicle can be anywhere between the scrotum and the caudal pole of the kidney.
  19. 19. FEMALE ANATOMY Structures
  20. 20. Structures  Ovaries  Oviducts (uterine tubes)  Uterus- horns and body  Cervix- a heavy, smooth muscle sphincter that is kept tightly closed except during estrus and parturition.  Vagina- glandless mucosa located within the pelvic canal.  Vulva- consists of the vestibule and labia.
  21. 21. Ovaries  Ovaries- both endocrine (hormone producing) and cytogenic (cell producing).  Medulla- vascular center of the ovary.  Cortex- where follicles can be found, both developing and atrophying.  Functions-  To produce ova or eggs ready for fertilization.  Acts as an endocrine gland.
  22. 22. Oviducts  Oviduct- the open end of the uterine tube (fallopian tube)  Functions-  Collects ova as they are released.  Conveys ova from the ovaries to the uterine horns.  Infundibulum- funnel-shaped ovarian end of the oviduct.
  23. 23. Uterus  Highly expandable, tubular organ where the embryo/fetus develops.  A hollow structure with 3 parts- neck (where the cervix is located), body, and horns.  Function-  Provides a receptacle for embryos to develop.  Provides nutrients via the PLACENTA.
  24. 24. Uterus  Uterine Walls- 3 layers
  25. 25. Vagina  The part of the reproductive tract between the cervix and the vulva.  Along with the vestibule and vulva, it is the females copulatory organ and birth canal.  The hymen is the poorly developed, vestigial, mucosal folds at the junction of the vagina and vestibule.
  26. 26. Other Structures…  Vulva- the external orifice that terminates the genital tract.  Labia- the Ⓡ and Ⓛ lips of the vulva.
  28. 28. Types  Monestrous- usually one cycle per year, usually seasonal breeders. (mink)  Polyestrous- more than one cycle per year, continuous. (swine)  Seasonally Polyestrous- cycles continuously in specific seasons.  Induced Ovulators- requires copulation to ovulate.  Spontaneous Ovulators- ovulation occurs naturally, with or without copulation.
  29. 29. Estrous Cycle  The onset of the estrous cycle begins at puberty.  The purpose is to prepare the uterus to receive fertilized ovum.  Sexual maturity brings about-  ovarian development, which includes the production of ova,  ovulation,  and the production of the corpus luteum.  The estrous cycle is under the control of hormones produced by the ovaries and the pituitary gland.  Animals do not undergo menopause.
  30. 30. Estrous Cycle  At the beginning of each cycle, ova within the follicles in the ovaries begin to develop.  One or more follicles (depending on the species) continue to develop until they reach a ripened follicle  One or more follicles rupture, (ovulation, usually occurs during estrus.)  Then the ovum is expelled from the ovary to the oviduct (uterine tube).
  31. 31. Estrous Cycle  The ruptured follicle grows larger, filling with a yellow, lipoid material and becomes the CORPUS LUTEUM (“yellow body”).  The corpus luteum secretes progesterone.  If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum continues to secrete progesterone and prevents future estrous cycles during pregnancy.
  32. 32. Estrous Cycle  Without fertilization, the corpus luteum and its secretions diminish, forming a CORPUS ALBICANS (“white body”).  The reduced levels of hormone production lead to a new estrous cycle.
  33. 33. Stages of the Estrous Cycle
  34. 34. 1. Proestrus  Period of preparation.  **FSH & LH cause the development of the follicle.  The follicle starts producing ESTROGEN.  Estrogen stimulates the vagina and uterus for copulation and pregnancy.
  35. 35. 2. Estrus  Period of female sexual receptivity.  Uterus and uterine horns are ready to receive an embryo.  Release of LH causes ovulation.  Dogs may have bloody discharge, cats may exhibit behavioral changes.
  36. 36. 3. Diestrus & Metestrus  Post-ovulating phase.  Each ruptured follicle develops into a corpus luteum (CL).  The CL starts to secrete PROGESTERONE which inhibits the development of new follicles.  The CL is also responsible for maintaining the uterine lining to support the fetus during pregnancy.
  37. 37. 3. Diestrus & Metestrus  If pregnancy does not occur, the CL degenerates.  If pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained and continues to secrete hormones for:  The entire pregnancy or,  Until the placenta develops.  Depends on the species.
  38. 38. 4. Anestrus  Periods of no estrous cycles  a. Pregnancy  b. Nursing  c. Season of year  d. Poor Nutrition  e. Pathological Conditions
  39. 39. PREGNANCY
  40. 40. Gestation Periods  **Dog-  Pig-  57-63 days  114 days  **Cat-  Sheep & Goats-  65 days  150 days  Horse-  Mice-  330 days  19-21 days  Cow-  Rats-  283 days  21-23 days  Rabbits-  Hamsters-  30-33 days  15-18 days  Guinea pigs-  Gerbils-  59-72 days  23-26 days
  41. 41. Terms  Gestation- the interval between fertilization of the ovum and the birth of the offspring.  Mitosis- cell division, one cell divides into 2, 2 into 4…  Zygote- fertilized ovum  Embryo- stage at which major organs are developing.  Fetus- stage where formation of major internal and external structures is complete until the time of parturition.
  42. 42. Fertilization & Cell Division  Ova enter the infundibulum and are transported down by muscular contractions.  Sperm travels up the female tract and fertilization takes place in the upper part of the uterine tube.  Each ovum is penetrated by one sperm which results in a fertilization reaction (preventing fertilization by any other sperm).  The fertilized ovum is now a zygote, and cell division begins via mitosis.
  43. 43. The Placenta  A membranous structure that obtains nutrients and oxygen from the mother to deliver to the fetus.  Attaches to the endometrial lining of the uterus.  Chorion- outer layer in contact with the maternal uterus.  Amnion- innermost membrane closest to the fetus.  Amnionic Sac- sac in which the fetus is located.
  44. 44. Hormones  Oxytocin-  **Produced by the Posterior pituitary  Stimulates milk let-down.  In the presence of Estrogen, it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition.  Stimulates the oviducts to help move spermatozoa.
  45. 45. Hormones  Prolactin-  **From the Anterior pituitary  Helps maintain the CL during pregnancy.  Stimulates the mammary glands to fill with milk at parturition.  Stimulates the replenishment of milk via neonatal suckling.
  47. 47. Uterine Infection  Infection of the uterus.  Endometritis- inflammation of the endometrium.  Metritis- inflammation of all layers.  Pyometra- accumulation of pus in the uterus.
  48. 48. Pyometra  A hormonally mediated disorder.  An abnormal uterine endometrium combined with a secondary bacterial infection.  Often occurs when progestational compounds are administered to delay or suppress estrus.
  49. 49. Uterine Prolapse  The turning inside-out of the uterus and vagina causing it to project through the vulva.  Most common in the cow and sow.  The prolapsed uterus can often be pushed back in and sutured in place until it heals.
  50. 50. Pseudocyesis  False pregnancy  Common in dogs  Occurs at the end of diestrus, characterized by hyperplasia of the mammary glands, lactation, and behavioral changes  Falling progesterone and increasing prolactin are believed to be the cause
  52. 52. Anestrus  Predominantly non-cornified squamous epithelial cells  Lg nucleus and rounded edges
  53. 53. Proestrus  Above- early proestrus, below- late proestrus  Cornified squamous epithelial cells  Angular with jagged borders  Segs(neutraphils) decrease, RBC’s increase
  54. 54. Estrus  All squamous cells are cornified  Segs- absent, RBC’s present
  55. 55. Diestrus  Non-cornified squamous and abundant cytologic debris  Segs increase, RBC’s are absent  Similar to anestrus
  57. 57. Semen Collection
  58. 58. Semen Analysis  Sample Handling-  Avoid exposure to marked changes in temperature  Supplies-  Slides, coverslips, pipettes, stains and diluents
  59. 59. Semen Analysis  Evaluation-  Morphology-  Volume  Head  Appearance  Midpiece  Motility  Tail  Concentration  Live:Dead Ratio
  60. 60. Primary Abnormalities
  61. 61. Primary Abnormalities
  62. 62. Secondary Abnormalities
  63. 63. Semen Analysis
  64. 64. The End!!

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