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ANTIBIOTICS 
6th year - 2015 - D2 
Basel Abu Fares 
Bashar Mudallal
Empiric Antimicrobial Therapy 
• Choose antibiotic(s) to cover for most likely and 
lethal organisms for the type of infec...
Classification 
• Cell Wall Inhibitors 
• Glycopeptides 
• Protein Synthesis Inhibitors 
• Topoisomarase Inhibitors 
• Ant...
Cell Wall Inhibitors 
•Include : 
-penicillins 
-cephalosporins 
-carbapenems 
-glycopeptides
Penicillins
Cephalosporins (IV/PO) 
• 1st generation: cephalexin/cefazolin (mostly GP, 
some GN) 
• 2nd generation: cefuroxime/cefurox...
Carbapenems 
(broad coverage: GP, GN and 
anaerobes) 
•imipenem (+ Pseudomonas) 
•meropenem (+ Pseudomonas) 
•ertapenem
Glycopeptides 
(all GP and C. difficile– the 
oral form) 
• vancomycin
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors 
• 50S ribosome inhibitors 
-Macrolides 
-Lincosamides 
• 30S ribosome inhibitors 
-Aminoglyc...
Macrolides 
[GP, Hemophilus, and atypical bacteria 
(Legionella, Chlamydophila, 
Mycoplasma)] 
• erythromycin 
• clarithr...
Lincosamides 
•clindamycin (most GP, GN 
anaerobes) 
•chloramphenicol (broad-spectrum) 
•linezolid (for resistant GP infec...
Aminoglycosides 
(GN aerobic bacilli) 
•gentamicin 
•tobramycin 
•amikacin
Tetracyclines 
(GP, syphilis, 
Chlamydophila, Rickettsia, 
Mycoplasma) 
•doxycycline/tetracycline
Topoisomarase Inhibitors 
•Flouroquinolones 
•Rifampin 
•Metronidazole
Fluoroquinolones 
(GN – although resistance becoming a huge 
problem) 
• ciprofloxacin (+ Pseudomonas) 
• norfloxacin (fo...
Rifampin 
(GP mostly, H. Inf., N. 
meningitidis and mycobacteria)
Metronidazole 
(anaerobes incl. C. difficile; 
Trichomonas, Entamoeba)
Anti-metabolites 
•Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 
•Nitrofurantoin
TMP/SMX 
(GN bacilli, S. saprophyticus, 
Enterococcus)
Nitrofurantoin 
•(GN bacilli, S. saprophyticus, 
Enterococcus)
Anti-mycobacterials
Sulfones
Antibiotics for Selected 
Bacteria
Others 
• treatment for C. Difficile: 
metronidazole OR oral vancomycin; 
consider both in serious infection
Resources 
• Toronto Notes 2014
THANK YOU 
The End
Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action
Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action
Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action
Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action
Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action
Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action
Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action
Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action
Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action
Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action
Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action
Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action
Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action
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Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action

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Antibiotics presentation

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Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action

  1. 1. ANTIBIOTICS 6th year - 2015 - D2 Basel Abu Fares Bashar Mudallal
  2. 2. Empiric Antimicrobial Therapy • Choose antibiotic(s) to cover for most likely and lethal organisms for the type of infection • Prior to obtaining laboratory results (usually reserved for serious infections) • Adjust antibiotic(s) based on C&S  if causative organism identified, use antibiotic to which organism is sensitive  if causative organism not identified, re-evaluate need for ongoing antimicrobial therapy (and continue with empiric antibiotic(s) if indicated)
  3. 3. Classification • Cell Wall Inhibitors • Glycopeptides • Protein Synthesis Inhibitors • Topoisomarase Inhibitors • Anti-metabolites • Anti-mycobacterials • Sulfones
  4. 4. Cell Wall Inhibitors •Include : -penicillins -cephalosporins -carbapenems -glycopeptides
  5. 5. Penicillins
  6. 6. Cephalosporins (IV/PO) • 1st generation: cephalexin/cefazolin (mostly GP, some GN) • 2nd generation: cefuroxime/cefuroxime (some GP and some GN, *anaerobes) • 3rd generation: cefixime/cefotaxime, ceftriaxone (good Streptococcalcoverage, mostly GN) and ceftazidime (no GP, mostly GN, Pseudomonas) • 4th generation: --/cefepime (most GP, most GN, Pseudomonas)
  7. 7. Carbapenems (broad coverage: GP, GN and anaerobes) •imipenem (+ Pseudomonas) •meropenem (+ Pseudomonas) •ertapenem
  8. 8. Glycopeptides (all GP and C. difficile– the oral form) • vancomycin
  9. 9. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors • 50S ribosome inhibitors -Macrolides -Lincosamides • 30S ribosome inhibitors -Aminoglycosides -Tetracyclines
  10. 10. Macrolides [GP, Hemophilus, and atypical bacteria (Legionella, Chlamydophila, Mycoplasma)] • erythromycin • clarithromycin • azithromycin
  11. 11. Lincosamides •clindamycin (most GP, GN anaerobes) •chloramphenicol (broad-spectrum) •linezolid (for resistant GP infections)
  12. 12. Aminoglycosides (GN aerobic bacilli) •gentamicin •tobramycin •amikacin
  13. 13. Tetracyclines (GP, syphilis, Chlamydophila, Rickettsia, Mycoplasma) •doxycycline/tetracycline
  14. 14. Topoisomarase Inhibitors •Flouroquinolones •Rifampin •Metronidazole
  15. 15. Fluoroquinolones (GN – although resistance becoming a huge problem) • ciprofloxacin (+ Pseudomonas) • norfloxacin (for UTI only) • respiratory fluoroquinolones (some GP, GN, "atypicals", Legionella, Mycoplasma, Chlamydophila) • levofloxacin • moxifloxacin (+ anaerobes)
  16. 16. Rifampin (GP mostly, H. Inf., N. meningitidis and mycobacteria)
  17. 17. Metronidazole (anaerobes incl. C. difficile; Trichomonas, Entamoeba)
  18. 18. Anti-metabolites •Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole •Nitrofurantoin
  19. 19. TMP/SMX (GN bacilli, S. saprophyticus, Enterococcus)
  20. 20. Nitrofurantoin •(GN bacilli, S. saprophyticus, Enterococcus)
  21. 21. Anti-mycobacterials
  22. 22. Sulfones
  23. 23. Antibiotics for Selected Bacteria
  24. 24. Others • treatment for C. Difficile: metronidazole OR oral vancomycin; consider both in serious infection
  25. 25. Resources • Toronto Notes 2014
  26. 26. THANK YOU The End

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