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Ergonomics
Ergon (Work and Strength)
Nomos (Law or Rule)
 Understand the definition, purpose of ergonomics.
 Understand Primary Causes of Musculoskeletal
Disorders (MSDs)
 Understand ways to prevent MSDs
 Ergonomics is the study of
work in relation to the
environment in which it is
performed (the workplace) and
those who perform it (workers).
 It is used to determine how the
workplace can be designed or
adapted to the worker in order
to prevent a variety of health
problems and to increase
efficiency; in other words, to
make the job fit the worker,
instead of forcing the worker to
conform to the job.
Introduction
 MSDs (Musculoskeletal disorders) are injuries and
disorders of the muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, and
spinal discs that supports limbs, neck & back. They don't
includes injuries resulting from slips, trips, falls or similar
accidents.
 MSDs can arise from a sudden exertion (e.g., lifting a
heavy object), or they can arise from making the same
motions repeatedly or from repeated exposure to force,
vibration, or awkward posture
 MSDs are the problem and ergonomics is the solution.
Examples of specific MSD disorders are
 Carpal tunnel syndrome {A painful disorder caused by compression
of a nerve in the carpal tunnel (A passageway in the wrist through
which nerves and the flexor muscles of the hands pass); characterized
by discomfort and weakness in the hands and fingers and by
sensations of tingling, burning or numbness}
 Epicondylitis (Painful inflammation of the muscles and soft tissues
around an epicondyle)
 Tendinitis -Abrasions, contusions (an injury that doesn't break the
skin but results in some discolouration)
Facts:
 Injuries usually develop slowly
 Injuries are costly
 Injuries are preventable
 Prevention is always better than treatment –
 Repetitive work is the most common cause of MSD
 Mismatch between the physical requirements of the
job and the physical capacity of the worker
 Prolonged exposure to Ergonomic Risk Factors,
 Pre-existing MSD
 Force
 Repetition
 Awkward postures
 Static postures
 Vibration
 Tasks requiring twisting of hand or joint movement
Posture
 Relaxed posture
 Wrists flat and straight
 Elbow angle > 90 o
 Upper Arms and elbow close to body
 User sit back in the chair
 Good back support
 Head and neck straight
Wrong
Right
Distribute your
weight evenly and
use the entire seat
and backrest to
support your body.
Don't slouch
forward.
1
2
Eye
 Working at your computer for long periods can
be a visually demanding task and may cause
your eyes to become irritated and fatigued.
Therefore, you should give special attention to
vision care, including the following
recommendations:
 Resting Your Eyes
 Cleaning Your Monitor and Glasses
 Having Your Eyes Examined regularly
(Vision test)
Legs, Feet
Rest your feet firmly on
the floor or a footrest.
Don't dangle your
feet and compress
your thighs
Wrong
Right
1
2
Arms, Hand
Hold a straight,
neutral wrist
position while
typing.
Don't rest your palms on
a work surface while
typing
Wrong
Right
1
2
COMPUTER WORKSTATION
SITTING POSTURE
The Forces Involved
The amount of force you place on your back in
lifting may surprise you!
Think of your back as a lever,
with the fulcrum in
the center, it only
takes ten pounds of
pressure to lift a ten
pound object.
The Forces Involved
If you shift the fulcrum to one side, it takes much
more force to lift the same object. Your waist acts
like the fulcrum in a lever system, on a 10:1 ratio.
Lifting a
ten pound
object puts
100 pounds
of pressure
on your
lower back.
The Forces Involved
When you add in the
105 pounds of the
average human upper
torso, you see that
lifting a ten pound
object actually puts
1,150 pounds of
pressure on the
lower back.
 Back Injuries are the 2nd-most common
workplace problem
 Most back injuries can be prevented
Use Your Head and Hips Save Your Back!
Stand
close to
the load
Bend
your
knees -
not your
back!
Let
your
legs do
the
lifting
Get Help
with heavy
or awkward
loads!
Use
the
right
tools!
Carrying the load…
• Hold the load close so you can see over
it.
• Keep the load balanced.
• Avoid twisting the body
• Watch out for pinch points -- doorways,
etc.
• Face the way you will be moving.
If you must lift or lower from a high place:
• Stand on a platform instead of a ladder
• Lift the load in smaller pieces if possible
• Push the load to see how heavy and stable
it is.
• Slide the load as close to yourself as
possible before lifting up or down.
• Get help when needed to avoid an injury.
From hard-to-get-at places...
• Get as close to the load as
possible
• Keep back straight, stomach
muscles tight
• Push your hips out behind
you.
• Bend your knees
• Use leg, stomach, and hips
muscles to lift – NOT YOUR
BACK
Lift by using your Legs, stomach and hips muscles NOT YOUR BACK
General lifting rules.
• Prepare to lift by warming up the muscles.
• Stand close to the load, facing the way you
intend to move.
• Use a wide stance to gain balance.
• Ensure a good grip on the load.
• Keep arms straight.
• Tighten abdominal muscles.
• Initiate the lift with body weight.
• Lift the load close to the body.
General lifting rules.
• Lift smoothly without jerking.
• Avoid twisting and side bending while lifting.
• Do not lift if you are not convinced that you
can handle the load safely.
• It is also important that workers:
Take advantage of rest periods to relax
tired muscles; this prevents fatigue from
building up
Report discomforts experienced during
work; this may help to identify hazards and
correct working conditions.
WISHA
If the job is a hazard
• Reduce weight of load
• Increase weight of load so that it
requires mechanical assistance.
• Reduce the capacity of the
container, etc.
DRIVING
Here are some easy things to look for
before you start your drive:
1. Remove items from your pockets, such as a wallet or
keys, which may press on soft tissue as you sit down.
This compression can reduce circulation or press on
nerves and other soft tissues.
2. Position items that you may need during your drive :
sunglasses, tissue, if you have allergies, mints, etc.
Place these in a location so you do not have to reach for
them while driving. If you have to reach for an item, take
the time to pull over in a safe place instead of risking an
accident and/or injury due to awkward reaching.
DRIVING
3. Buckle up! If the seat belt strap is uncomfortable, take
a short piece of foam and place it on the part of the
strap that is not comfortable against your body. If you
like to spend money, purchase a shoulder strap
cushion at your favourite store where car accessories
are sold.
4. Adjust your mirrors so that you do not have to
crane your neck to see. If you have a blind spot in
your car you can attach a small mirror on your
dashboard to improve your view.
5. Back tilt – The least amount of pressure on the back
occurs when your seat back is at 100-110 degrees so
that you are slightly reclined. The seat back should fully
support your back.
DRIVING
6. Seat pan tilt – the seat of your car should allow for
your knees to be slightly lower than your hips. This
opens up your hip flexors and increases circulation to
the back and decreases pressure on the lower back.
DRIVING
There are common postures that should be avoided :
 The death grip – This grip results in decreased
circulation and muscle tension. Your grip should be light.
If your knuckles are white, you are gripping too hard!
 The one arm cool dude - The wrist rests at 12 o’clock
on the steering wheel and the fingers flop over the top,
this cause compression of soft tissue of the wrist.
 Arms straight out in front to reach the steering wheel
- You should be able to drive with your shoulders relaxed
and your arms close to the sides of your body.

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Ergonomics

  • 1. Made by: Chetan Chauhan
  • 2. Ergonomics Ergon (Work and Strength) Nomos (Law or Rule)
  • 3.  Understand the definition, purpose of ergonomics.  Understand Primary Causes of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)  Understand ways to prevent MSDs
  • 4.  Ergonomics is the study of work in relation to the environment in which it is performed (the workplace) and those who perform it (workers).  It is used to determine how the workplace can be designed or adapted to the worker in order to prevent a variety of health problems and to increase efficiency; in other words, to make the job fit the worker, instead of forcing the worker to conform to the job.
  • 5. Introduction  MSDs (Musculoskeletal disorders) are injuries and disorders of the muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, and spinal discs that supports limbs, neck & back. They don't includes injuries resulting from slips, trips, falls or similar accidents.  MSDs can arise from a sudden exertion (e.g., lifting a heavy object), or they can arise from making the same motions repeatedly or from repeated exposure to force, vibration, or awkward posture  MSDs are the problem and ergonomics is the solution.
  • 6. Examples of specific MSD disorders are  Carpal tunnel syndrome {A painful disorder caused by compression of a nerve in the carpal tunnel (A passageway in the wrist through which nerves and the flexor muscles of the hands pass); characterized by discomfort and weakness in the hands and fingers and by sensations of tingling, burning or numbness}  Epicondylitis (Painful inflammation of the muscles and soft tissues around an epicondyle)  Tendinitis -Abrasions, contusions (an injury that doesn't break the skin but results in some discolouration)
  • 7. Facts:  Injuries usually develop slowly  Injuries are costly  Injuries are preventable  Prevention is always better than treatment –  Repetitive work is the most common cause of MSD
  • 8.  Mismatch between the physical requirements of the job and the physical capacity of the worker  Prolonged exposure to Ergonomic Risk Factors,  Pre-existing MSD
  • 9.  Force  Repetition  Awkward postures  Static postures  Vibration  Tasks requiring twisting of hand or joint movement
  • 10. Posture  Relaxed posture  Wrists flat and straight  Elbow angle > 90 o  Upper Arms and elbow close to body  User sit back in the chair  Good back support  Head and neck straight
  • 11. Wrong Right Distribute your weight evenly and use the entire seat and backrest to support your body. Don't slouch forward. 1 2
  • 12. Eye  Working at your computer for long periods can be a visually demanding task and may cause your eyes to become irritated and fatigued. Therefore, you should give special attention to vision care, including the following recommendations:  Resting Your Eyes  Cleaning Your Monitor and Glasses  Having Your Eyes Examined regularly (Vision test)
  • 13. Legs, Feet Rest your feet firmly on the floor or a footrest. Don't dangle your feet and compress your thighs Wrong Right 1 2
  • 14. Arms, Hand Hold a straight, neutral wrist position while typing. Don't rest your palms on a work surface while typing Wrong Right 1 2
  • 17.
  • 18. The Forces Involved The amount of force you place on your back in lifting may surprise you! Think of your back as a lever, with the fulcrum in the center, it only takes ten pounds of pressure to lift a ten pound object.
  • 19. The Forces Involved If you shift the fulcrum to one side, it takes much more force to lift the same object. Your waist acts like the fulcrum in a lever system, on a 10:1 ratio. Lifting a ten pound object puts 100 pounds of pressure on your lower back.
  • 20. The Forces Involved When you add in the 105 pounds of the average human upper torso, you see that lifting a ten pound object actually puts 1,150 pounds of pressure on the lower back.
  • 21.  Back Injuries are the 2nd-most common workplace problem  Most back injuries can be prevented
  • 22. Use Your Head and Hips Save Your Back! Stand close to the load Bend your knees - not your back! Let your legs do the lifting Get Help with heavy or awkward loads! Use the right tools!
  • 23. Carrying the load… • Hold the load close so you can see over it. • Keep the load balanced. • Avoid twisting the body • Watch out for pinch points -- doorways, etc. • Face the way you will be moving.
  • 24. If you must lift or lower from a high place: • Stand on a platform instead of a ladder • Lift the load in smaller pieces if possible • Push the load to see how heavy and stable it is. • Slide the load as close to yourself as possible before lifting up or down. • Get help when needed to avoid an injury.
  • 25. From hard-to-get-at places... • Get as close to the load as possible • Keep back straight, stomach muscles tight • Push your hips out behind you. • Bend your knees • Use leg, stomach, and hips muscles to lift – NOT YOUR BACK
  • 26. Lift by using your Legs, stomach and hips muscles NOT YOUR BACK
  • 27. General lifting rules. • Prepare to lift by warming up the muscles. • Stand close to the load, facing the way you intend to move. • Use a wide stance to gain balance. • Ensure a good grip on the load. • Keep arms straight. • Tighten abdominal muscles. • Initiate the lift with body weight. • Lift the load close to the body.
  • 28. General lifting rules. • Lift smoothly without jerking. • Avoid twisting and side bending while lifting. • Do not lift if you are not convinced that you can handle the load safely. • It is also important that workers: Take advantage of rest periods to relax tired muscles; this prevents fatigue from building up Report discomforts experienced during work; this may help to identify hazards and correct working conditions.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31. WISHA If the job is a hazard • Reduce weight of load • Increase weight of load so that it requires mechanical assistance. • Reduce the capacity of the container, etc.
  • 32. DRIVING Here are some easy things to look for before you start your drive: 1. Remove items from your pockets, such as a wallet or keys, which may press on soft tissue as you sit down. This compression can reduce circulation or press on nerves and other soft tissues. 2. Position items that you may need during your drive : sunglasses, tissue, if you have allergies, mints, etc. Place these in a location so you do not have to reach for them while driving. If you have to reach for an item, take the time to pull over in a safe place instead of risking an accident and/or injury due to awkward reaching.
  • 33. DRIVING 3. Buckle up! If the seat belt strap is uncomfortable, take a short piece of foam and place it on the part of the strap that is not comfortable against your body. If you like to spend money, purchase a shoulder strap cushion at your favourite store where car accessories are sold. 4. Adjust your mirrors so that you do not have to crane your neck to see. If you have a blind spot in your car you can attach a small mirror on your dashboard to improve your view. 5. Back tilt – The least amount of pressure on the back occurs when your seat back is at 100-110 degrees so that you are slightly reclined. The seat back should fully support your back.
  • 34. DRIVING 6. Seat pan tilt – the seat of your car should allow for your knees to be slightly lower than your hips. This opens up your hip flexors and increases circulation to the back and decreases pressure on the lower back.
  • 35. DRIVING There are common postures that should be avoided :  The death grip – This grip results in decreased circulation and muscle tension. Your grip should be light. If your knuckles are white, you are gripping too hard!  The one arm cool dude - The wrist rests at 12 o’clock on the steering wheel and the fingers flop over the top, this cause compression of soft tissue of the wrist.  Arms straight out in front to reach the steering wheel - You should be able to drive with your shoulders relaxed and your arms close to the sides of your body.