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Physical Disabilities and
Health Problems
Chapter 7 – The Exceptional Child: Inclusion in Early Childhood
Education; Allen...
Health and Physical Activity
• Important for overall optimal development
• Children with physical and/or health impairment...
Physical Disabilities
• Physical disabilities – “conditions that interfere with the normal
functioning of bones, joints, a...
Types of Muscle Problems for Classifying
CP
• Spasticity – hypertonic muscle tone; joints do not have the range of
motion ...
Challenges for Children with CP
• Lack of motor control and failure to meet physical development
milestones
• Lack of moto...
Spinal Cord Injuries
• Unlike with CP, the brain is not affected. The muscles below the
spinal cord injury no longer recei...
Muscular Dystrophy
• Characterized by a progressive weakening of the muscles
• Duchenne’s disease is the most common and a...
Program Implications
• Interdisciplinary team requires a variety of professionals
• Both commercial and creative adaptive ...
Adaptive Equipment
• Mobility devices
• Helmets, rails, etc. may be needed for safety
• Braces, walkers, wheelchairs, scoo...
Adaptive Materials and Equipment (cont.)
• Pp. 157 – 159 in your text describe manipulatives, creative materials,
self-hel...
Health Problems
• Asthma – common, but very serious health problem for children
• Know what to do in the event of an asthm...
Health Problems (cont.)
• Heart problems –
• Diabetes
• Type 1 – is caused by an autoimmune disorder; the rarer type of di...
Health Problems (cont.)
• AIDS
• Obesity – causes various health problems; may cause social and
emotional problems; encour...
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Physical disabilities and health problems ch 7

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EDU 221, chapter 7, 2014sp, CCC, physical disabilities and health problems

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Physical disabilities and health problems ch 7

  1. 1. Physical Disabilities and Health Problems Chapter 7 – The Exceptional Child: Inclusion in Early Childhood Education; Allen, K. Eileen and Cowdery, Glynnis E.; 2012
  2. 2. Health and Physical Activity • Important for overall optimal development • Children with physical and/or health impairments cannot explore the environment in ways that maximize their development • Physical impairments impact skeleton, joints, and muscles • Health impairments may be chronic or acute • Overlapping condition are common
  3. 3. Physical Disabilities • Physical disabilities – “conditions that interfere with the normal functioning of bones, joints, and muscles” (Allen & Cowdery, 2014) • Cerebral Palsy – the most common physical disability ; caused by neurological problems that impact muscle control. • Problems are not progressive • CP may range from mild to severe physical impairments
  4. 4. Types of Muscle Problems for Classifying CP • Spasticity – hypertonic muscle tone; joints do not have the range of motion they should have • Hypotonicity – “floppy” baby syndrome; child has too little muscle tone; impacts head and posture control. • Athetosis – children with this tend to keep primitive reflexes and have problems with voluntary muscle control • Ataxia – a lack of motor coordination that affects balance and makes fine motor coordination difficult • Other classifications according to affected body parts - Diplegia, hemiplegia, paraplegia, quadriplegia
  5. 5. Challenges for Children with CP • Lack of motor control and failure to meet physical development milestones • Lack of motor control may impact eating and ability to speak, even if there is no intellectual impairment • Physical and occupational therapists are important team members for the interdisciplinary team for a child with CP
  6. 6. Spinal Cord Injuries • Unlike with CP, the brain is not affected. The muscles below the spinal cord injury no longer receive signals from the brain. • Children with spinal cord injuries do no have any sensation below the injury • Spina bifida occurs in the first 30 days of fetal development and is a neural tube defect. • Children with spina bifida may be hydrocephalic and may have incontinence.
  7. 7. Muscular Dystrophy • Characterized by a progressive weakening of the muscles • Duchenne’s disease is the most common and affects only boys. • Children with MD are encouraged to use muscles as much as possible • Other impairments • Hip dysplasia – occurs in girls more often than in boys; requires treatment for child to learn to walk properly • Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis – characterized by inflammation of the joints and surrounding tissue; symptoms may disappear as child gets older.
  8. 8. Program Implications • Interdisciplinary team requires a variety of professionals • Both commercial and creative adaptive equipment may be needed • Environment will need to be adapted to support all children in the program, including the child with physical disabilities • Prospective interdisciplinary team members: • Physical and occupational therapists • Speech and language therapist • Psychologist or other behavior specialist • Consistent implementation of therapy goals important • All therapeutic activity must be supervised by appropriate specialist
  9. 9. Adaptive Equipment • Mobility devices • Helmets, rails, etc. may be needed for safety • Braces, walkers, wheelchairs, scooters • Avoid learned helplessness • Positioning devices • Universal Design for Learning (UDL) – grew out of architecture and making space available for all people; for children, it is to provide learners with materials that can be accessed and used in a variety of ways; further information available online at the National Center on Universal Design for Learning
  10. 10. Adaptive Materials and Equipment (cont.) • Pp. 157 – 159 in your text describe manipulatives, creative materials, self-help devices and environmental barriers that can be adapted for use with children both with and without disabilities (think UDL) • All of these suggestions may be useful for your final Environment Key Assessment 
  11. 11. Health Problems • Asthma – common, but very serious health problem for children • Know what to do in the event of an asthma attach • Cystic fibrosis – most common inherited chronic disease among Caucasian children; incurable; people may now live into their 30s and 40s with this disease; causes respiratory and digestive problems. • Hemophilia – rare inherited blood clotting disorder • Leukemia – most common cancer among children; much higher survival rate than in the past • Sickle-Cell Anemia – incurable disease found among African American children, but is decreasing in the U.S.
  12. 12. Health Problems (cont.) • Heart problems – • Diabetes • Type 1 – is caused by an autoimmune disorder; the rarer type of diabetes • Type 2 – the body fails to use insulin efficiently; may cause hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia • Seizure disorders • • • • Febrile seizures – these are not harmful and are brought on by a high fever “Generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures” Absence seizures (petit mal) – may be more difficult to recognize Partial psychomotor seizures
  13. 13. Health Problems (cont.) • AIDS • Obesity – causes various health problems; may cause social and emotional problems; encourage healthy eating and appropriate exercise for all children in your care • Health Problems and Classroom Practices • • • • Maintaining health records; see required records from NC DCDEE Administer medications as permitted by NC DCDEE Emergencies – have emergency plans that are practiced Maintain confidentiality

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