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Learning, Storytelling & Digital Media

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Presentation delivered at an Erasmus+ Intensive Programme session. Venue: Universidade Aberta, Lisbon, Portugal.

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Learning, Storytelling & Digital Media

  1. 1. Learning, Storytelling & Digital Media José Bidarra | Universidade Aberta | Portugal
  2. 2. The classroom today… José Bidarra, 2018
  3. 3. • 8 AM • 12 AM • 2 PM • 4 PM • 7 PM “ICTs are not mere tools but rather environmental forces that are increasingly affecting us. For instance blurring the distinction between reality and virtuality, and blurring the distinction between human, machine and nature” (L. Floridi)
  4. 4. Classroom Learning Online Learning Mobile Learning 4 Affordances facilitating b-learning processes
  5. 5. WebTechnology 3D,AR,VRTechnologiesMobileTechnology Smartphones and tablets use is widespread. Many educational apps, ebooks, and videos are available. These more advanced technologies are now coming of age with new hardware and software. Inexpensive and user friendly. There are many educational tools available online and offline. Trends Showcase
  6. 6. Classic Teaching Model José Bidarra, 2018
  7. 7. Current Teaching Model José Bidarra, 2018
  8. 8. Connected Learning José Bidarra, 2018
  9. 9. Time-Space Matrix (Bidarra & Rusman, 2015) (application example based on Johansen, 1988)
  10. 10. Mobile Media José Bidarra, 2018
  11. 11. Mobile Learning • Basic model: SMS, MMS, images & text • Responsive Web: accessible via browser (online) • Educational Apps: installed in the device (offline) • Educational eBooks: installed in the device (offline) José Bidarra, 2018
  12. 12. Anytime, Anywhere Information Transfer DecentralizedCentralized Skills Transfer EmpoweredControlled Knowledge Creation Exchange Seamless Work & Learning Open up time and place for learning Data and analysis where and when you need it (Mauro Figueiredo) José Bidarra, 2018
  13. 13. M-Learning Research (Aberdour, 2013) José Bidarra, 2018
  14. 14. Moodle Mobile José Bidarra, 2018
  15. 15. Responsive Web vs. Native Apps A current product design decision: just make a web product “friendly” for mobile screens or invest in developing a mobile application Responsive Web: • Requires an Internet Connection; • Poor Performance (Browser Limitations); • Lack of Natural Navigation; • Lack of Push Notifications; • Lack of Other Functionality (QR codes, voice recognition, AR, …). José Bidarra, 2018
  16. 16. Responsive Web vs. Native Apps Native Apps: • Internet Connection Not Always Necessary; • Better Performance; • Increased Functionality; • Enhanced Security for Users; • Brand Awareness and Accessibility; • High investment in time and money. José Bidarra, 2018
  17. 17. Apps or eBooks? José Bidarra, 2018
  18. 18. App & Platform 4500 students 3400 exercises and video resolutions José Bidarra, 2018
  19. 19. • Use gamification techniques to engage students. • Accommodate game mechanics that are two- fold: complexity and detail. • Use three different levels of problem complexity: beginners, intermediate and advanced (colours). • For each problem there are two levels of exercise resolution: detailed and concise (video). Objectives José Bidarra, 2018
  20. 20. José Bidarra, 2018
  21. 21. José Bidarra, 2018
  22. 22. Hands on José Bidarra, 2018
  23. 23. Hands on José Bidarra, 2018
  24. 24. Augmented Reality (AR) José Bidarra, 2018
  25. 25. Music Teaching (AR) José Bidarra, 2018
  26. 26. Microsoft Hololens (MR) José Bidarra, 2018
  27. 27. Virtual Reality (VR) José Bidarra, 2018
  28. 28. Digital Storytelling Storytelling is based on a set of four elements that are still valid in the digital age, namely: • A narrator • A plot • A setting • Characters There is usually a conflict of some kind. Some common types of conflict may include: • Conflict between one person and another or between groups; • Conflict between a person and the natural environment; • Conflict between an individual and the society.
  29. 29. What are digital stories? Digital artifacts that include a compelling narration of a story; Elements that provide a meaningful context for understanding the story being told; Titles, images and graphics that capture and/or expand upon emotions found in the narrative; Voice, music and sound effects that reinforce ideas; Mechanisms that invite thoughtful reflection from the audience. José Bidarra, 2018
  30. 30. Organization & Structure You can decide to tell your story in chronological order; Some people call this a “linear narrative” because it seems to travel in a straight line. A story can also be told using a flashback technique. In this type of structure, events are interrupted by a memory of something that happened in the past. A third way that a narrative can be constructed is by learning about a series of events or a major happening from the points of view of several characters. José Bidarra, 2018
  31. 31. Narrators First Person: The narrator says “I” when telling the story, as in “I want you to know that everything I tell you is true.” Third Person Omniscient: Omniscient means “all seeing”. The narrator is not part of the story but describes the events that happen to all the characters, as well as their thoughts. Third Person Limited Omniscient: A Limited Omniscient narrator can see all, but chooses to focus on a few things or people. In this type of perspective, the narrator is also not part of the story and can describe many events. José Bidarra, 2018
  32. 32. Setting Narratives are set in a specific time and place. These setting details are usually identified at the beginning of the story in the exposition. Sometimes the setting is kept vague or poorly defined for a reason. Sometimes it is very specific with dates and real city names. The setting, along with characters, are a writer’s best opportunity to use rich descriptive language in her/his writing. José Bidarra, 2018
  33. 33. Characters Characters are most interesting when they are three dimensional and have many sides of their personalities shown. These characters have strengths and weaknesses. They seem alive and real. They are dullest when they are one dimensional stereotypes like “the hero”, “the villain”, “the best friend”, “the know-it-all” or “the nerd”. Movies specialize in these types of characters. A story usually features a main character or protagonist that the story follows. Sometimes there is a character that goes against the protagonist. This character is called an antagonist and often is the “bad guy”… José Bidarra, 2018
  34. 34. The Plot Diagram José Bidarra, 2018
  35. 35. Narrative Sequence Opening: also called the exposition, this part of the story introduces the setting, characters and opening situation. Conflict: also called the crisis, this single, sudden or special event starts the story going because something changes. Rising Action: the interest level increases usually due to problems, setbacks or complications which are also called crises. Climax: the point of highest interest. Everything else that happens is affected by the moment or event in the climax. José Bidarra, 2018
  36. 36. Narrative Sequence Falling Action: events unravel or unfold because of something that happened in the climax. Think of dominoes that are sent tumbling in a row. Resolution: the final resolution of the plot in which some or all of the loose ends of the plot are tied up. José Bidarra, 2018
  37. 37. Storytelling Tips 1. Point of view (involves the communicator in making choices; a very subjective exercise) 2. Dramatic question (creating conflict to be resolved later; e. g. how did I survive the tsunami?) 3. Emotional content (challenge, frustration, humor, exhilaration, resignation, etc.) 4. Narration (voice over information) 5. Soundtrack (music and sound effects) 6. Economy (time for the viewer to process, reducing the amount of unnecessary elements) 7. Pacing (give your listener time to participate, to think, and to process your story) José Bidarra, 2018
  38. 38. Storyboard A panel or series of rough sketches outlining the scene sequence and major changes of action or plot in a production to be shot on film or video. José Bidarra, 2018
  39. 39. Problem-based Storytelling (Jason Ohler) The “story core” breaks down in three parts: First, a “central challenge” must be evident— “a question, a problem, an obstacle, an opportunity, or a goal.” This “creates tension that gives the story its forward momentum.” Second, characters change as they wrestle with the problem. “Either life or ‘the old you’ pushes back as new circumstances or ‘a new you’ struggles to emerge.” Third, the problem receives closure: “solving a mystery, slaying a dragon, reaching a goal, applying new academic knowledge or learning processes, overcoming an obstacle. . . . " José Bidarra, 2018
  40. 40. Narrative Trail A narrative trail is not merely a linear path but ‘a chain of events organized into a coherent schema from a personal perspective (i.e. that of the narrator). And a narrator’s perspective brings to light intentions, interpretations, and evaluations related to these events’. (Walker, 2006, p. 109). Blogs are particularly relevant for examining narrative processes at work within the social utilities offered by Web 2.0. Other processes of structuring and meaning-making in unstructured and ill-defined information systems may be found in the Facebook timeline. José Bidarra, 2018
  41. 41. Facebook Timeline José Bidarra, 2018
  42. 42. Transmedia Storytelling José Bidarra, 2018
  43. 43. Content Gamification "the use of game design elements in non-game contexts" (Deterding et al., 2011, p.1) • Points: points are fantastic motivators and can be used to reward users/students across multiple levels or dimensions of a gamified activity • Levels: these are often defined as point thresholds, so the students (or users) can use them to indicate a higher status and have access to bonus content. • Challenges, badges, achievements, and trophies: the introduction of goals in an activity makes students (users) feel like they are working toward a goal. • Leader boards: in the context of gamification, high-score tables are used toJosé Bidarra, 2018
  44. 44. Online Course on ICT José Bidarra, 2018
  45. 45. Online Course on ICT José Bidarra, 2018
  46. 46. Online Course on ICT José Bidarra, 2018
  47. 47. Game Mechanics, Dynamics and Emotions - MDE model Badges Avatars Votes Leaderboards Achievements Boss Fights Virtual GoodsGuilds Quests Rewards Progress Bars Skill Trees Experience Points Stat Points José Bidarra, 2018
  48. 48. Games and Simulations José Bidarra, 2018
  49. 49. Sign Language Learning Serious Game José Bidarra, 2018
  50. 50. Translation through an Avatar Dynamic recognition of gestures José Bidarra, 2018
  51. 51. Virtual Sign Game 1 - Finite Automata 2 - Algorithms for Hierarchical Classification 3 - Sequence Alignment Algorithms José Bidarra, 2018
  52. 52. Saving Lake Wingra (ARIS) AR Game Mechanics Play on locationPlay on location Play on handheld Play on handheld collect clues and objectives collect clues and objectives Trigger game objects Trigger game objects For a $3.5M 2005-2008 STAR Schools grant with Harvard and MIT, my doctoral research group made location-based games using MITʼs Outdoor Augmented Reality platform. It was prety cool stuff. José Bidarra, 2018
  53. 53. Saving Lake Wingra (ARIS) José Bidarra, 2018
  54. 54. ARIS game engine 20 ARIS uses GPS to show you where to go http://arisgames.org José Bidarra, 2018
  55. 55. GameBook: text + images José Bidarra, 2018
  56. 56. GameBook: video + quiz José Bidarra, 2018
  57. 57. GameBook: Google Maps José Bidarra, 2018
  58. 58. GameBook: puzzle games José Bidarra, 2018
  59. 59. Mindomo: create a concept http://mindomo.com/ José Bidarra, 2018