2. What are Interventions
• An intervention is a set of sequencedand
planned actions or eventsand planned actions
or events intended to help the organization
intended to help the organization increase
3. Characteristics of Effective
• Is it relevant to the needs of the organization?
• Valid information
• Free and Informed Choice
• Internal Commitment
• Is it based on causal knowledge of intended
• Does it transfer competence to manage change
to organization members?
4. Meaning & Introduction
• Also called as Techno structural Intervention.
• Aimed at improving organizational
effectiveness through changes in the tasks,
structural, technological and goal processes in
• Focus on job design, division of labor and
hierarchy, arrangements of equipment and
5. Types of Structural Interventions
• Socio Technical Systems (STS)
• Self managed Teams
• Work Redesign
• Management by Objectives (MBO)
• Quality Circles
• Quality of work life projects (QWL)
• Total Quality Management (TQM)
6. Socio technical Systems
• Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational
development is an approach to complex organizational work
design that recognizes the
interaction,between people and technology in workplaces.
The term also refers to the interaction between society's
complex infrastructures and human behaviour.
• Is based on joint optimization of the social and technological systems
• The boundary between the organization & its environment should be
managed to allow effective exchanges but protection from external
• The implementation of STS should be highly participative.
7. Self managed teams/
autonomous work teams
• Alternative to traditional assembly line methods.
Rather than having a large number of employees each
do a small operation to assemble a product, the
employees are organized into small teams, each of
which is responsible for assembling an entire product.
These teams are self-managed, and are independent
of one another.
• Providing teams with a grouping of tasks that
comprises a major unit of the total work to be
8. • Training group members in multiple skills,
including team effectiveness skills.
• Delegating to the team many aspects of how
the work gets done.
• Providing a great deal of information and
feedback for self regulation of quality &
9. Work Redesign
• Job design (also referred to as work design or task
design) is a core function of human resource
management and it is related to the specification of
contents, methods and relationship of jobs in order to
satisfy technological and organizational requirements as
well as the social and personal requirements of the job
• Its principles are geared towards how the nature of a
person's job affects their attitudes and behavior at
work, particularly relating to characteristics such as skill
variety and autonomy.
10. • The aim of a job design is to improve job satisfaction,
to improve through-put, to improve quality and to
reduce employee problems (e.g., grievances,
• Richard Hackman & Greg Oldham have provided an OD
approach to work design based on theoretical model of
what job characteristics lead to psychological states
that produce high internal work motivation.
• Based on five job characteristics- Skill variety, task
identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback
from the job.
• Goal setting and performance review processes
should have a team thrust and should be both
participative and transactional.
• Based on participative and transactional we mean
that in goal setting, subordinates should have
meaningful ways to provide inputs; and in reviewing
performance, a collaborative examination of the
forces in the situation needs to be made.
• MBO may be described as a process consisting of series of inter
The subordinate proposes a set of goals for the upcoming time
The subordinate and supervisor jointly developed specific goals
and targets. These goals must be specific and measurable.
The actual performance of the individual is measured against
13. The feedback of results to the individual and
appropriate rewards for performance.
The outcome of the performance review provides the
basis for setting new performance goals.
Peter Drucker believed MBO was not a cure-all, but a
tool to be utilized. It gives organizations a process, with
many practitioners claiming the success of MBO is
dependent on the support from top management,
clearly outlined objectives, and trained managers who
can implement it.
14. Quality Circles
It is a form of group problem solving and goal
setting with a primary focus on maintaining
and enhancing product quality.
Quality circles consists of 7-10 employees from
a unit who meet together regularly to analyze
and make proposals about product quality.
Leaders are encouraged to create a high
degree of participation within the group.
• It includes restructuring of several dimensions of the
• Increased problem solving between management and
• Increased participation by teams of employees in shop
floor decisions pertaining to production flow, quality
control and safety.
• Skill development through skill training, job rotation,
and training in team problem solving.
• Total Quality Management is a combination of a
number of organization improvement techniques
and approaches including the use of quality
circles, statistical quality control and extensive use
of employee participation.
• A core definition of total quality
management (TQM) describes a management
approach to long–term success through customer
satisfaction. In a TQM effort, all members of an
organization participate in improving processes,
products, services, and the culture in which they
17. Characteristics of TQM
• Primary emphasis on customers
• It is based on measurement using SQC
• Continuous search for sources of defects with
a goal of eliminating them entirely.
• Participative Management
• Emphasis on teams & team work
• Continuous training