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introduction to hotel facility planning : planning of hotels

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hotel facility planning, introduction to hotels facility planning

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introduction to hotel facility planning : planning of hotels

  1. 1. Facility planning chapter 1 – Bhavya Khamesra sir B.SChotel mgmt2 year 1 INTRODUCTION Role of facilities in hospitality industry A hotel is classified by the facilities it is providing. Star category is given to them according to the level of service, décor, facilities etc. taj / oberoi/ Marriott / Sheraton are well known for the facilities they are providing. Facilities should be planned in advance so that there are no changes during the construction phase. All planning have to be done very efficiently and the plans, blueprints ,layouts of rooms, public areas should be made in details . The planning of the hotel project is effected by the factors such as size, type, functions, and financial economies. Design consultants, architects, housekeepers, managers decide on the hotel room designs and facilities to ensure customer comfort and efficiency in hotel operations. There are 3 types of functional areas 1. Guest accommodation : includes room, suites 2. Public areas : lounge, restaurant, bar, conference, gym, s.pool. 3. Service and administrative areas : office, kitchen, storeroom, staff locker room, - The rooms should be attractive, comfortable , equipped with the guest amenities, safe and secure, give privacy to the guests, sound proof, proper lighting, ventilation, heating and cooling and eye appealing interior decoration. - The restaurant/ coffeeshop / food and beverage facilities are very essential services along with the stay.the food of the hotel is one reason that will attract the guest again to the hotel.they should provide local, national and international cuuisines. - There should be adequate toilet facilities, parking space, circulation space - Guest reception, lobby, should be located on ground floor - Restaurant, coffee shop, bar should be located on 2/ 3 floor - On top floors rooms should be allocated - The hotel should give facilities in addition to the rooms, restaurant. Swimming pool, gymnasium, spa, outdoor and indoor games, - Efficient check in and checkout , timely housekeeping and F&B services and safety/ security in the hotel are also important issues to be dealt with - There should be adequate elevators/ escalators, parking space, garden in the hotel. - Local land laws , permissions, clearances and no objection certificates should be obtained from various government departments like- UIT, nagar nigam, food license, --- - Budgets should be prepared Importance of facility planning - To create good , safe and attractive atmosphere, appearance, with a feeling of comfort - To give interior decoration which is appealing to the eyes - Good operating designs, exteriors, interiors, - Lighting, colour, odour, sound should be taken care of
  2. 2. Facility planning chapter 1 – Bhavya Khamesra sir B.SChotel mgmt2 year 2 - All areas should be functional and give ease of working to employees also Recreational facilities - Indoor games such as carom, pool table, chess, cards, table tennis, - Outdoor games such as lawn tennis, badminton, basket ball, - Swimming pool The minimum size is 25 feet * 40 feet (1000 square feet). Kid’s pool should be separate. If there is no life guard then the depth should not exceed 4 feet. If the depth is more then 12 feet then only there could be a diving board. It should be slanting in depth. - Gymnasium Proper gap between machines, properly lighted, well ventilated, floors should be wooden or carpeted, bathrooms , shower area be provided near the gym, separate for ladies and gents. - Spa / saloon Separate spa/ massage rooms for men and women are provided. They should have bathing area and toilets attached. Salon means for hair cutting and beauty treatments make up. Full length mirrors on the walls. - Shopping arcade - Garden and land scaping Garden with lush green grass, ornamental plants, trees and flowers adds beauty to the hotel. Proper pipelines and sprinklers are used in the garden for watering . Feasibility studies - Feasibility reports are prepared which includes land cost, construction cost, plant and machinery cost, operational / running cost, for the hotel and all departments. - Main objective is rate of return (ROR) on capital invested and the return on investment (ROI). A 5 star hotel is expensive to build and very expensive to run/ maintain. - A 5 star hotel of 100 rooms may cost around 100- 200 crore rupees. - Hotel business is capital intensive in nature . the major operational costs are staff salaries, electricity bills, raw material, maintenance, rennopvation etc. - Room cost is 10, 00, 000 for 3 * hotel, 30,00,000 for 4 * hotel and 50,00,000 to 100,00,000 for 5 * hotel. It includes construction of the room,air conditioning and the interiors, furniture of the room. - Land is very expensive. Land requirements are 20000 square feet for 2 * hotel 40000 squarefeet for 3 * hotel 80000 squarefeet for 5 * hotel - The feasibility includes revenue from rooms, restaurant, their monthly operational costs , and the expected profit.
  3. 3. Facility planning chapter 1 – Bhavya Khamesra sir B.SChotel mgmt2 year 3 - Main revenue distribution Raw material cost Operating cost profit Rooms sales - 30% 70% Food sales 30% 40% 30% Beverage sales 40% 20% 40% - Break Even Point for hotels is 60% room occupancy. It means that the hotel should have 60 %occupancy in a year to have NO profit NO loss. - No of employee in a hotel should not exceed the number of rooms in the hotel. Eg a hotel with 100 rooms should have a total of 100 staff. If staff is more than 100 then the salary budget will affect the profit - Payback period is the time taken to pay all the loans, capital invested in a hotel. The payback period of a hotel is 7- 10 years. After 7 years the hotel will start giving profits. Cost of land should not exceed 30% of the total project cost. If the total cost of project is 100 crore rupees, then the land should not be above 30 crore rupees. Renovation & Refurbishment Renovation is done in hotels to keep the hotel maintained and comfortable for guest stay. It includes paint on walls, change tiles, polishing floors. It also includes changing the furniture, linen, curtains, other soft furnishings, mattresses etc. It is done every 5 years keeping with the latest trends and the competition. Types of construction 1. Huts for resorts made from mud, bamboo, wood, straw 2. Stone buildings – old palaces, forts made from stone 3. Bricks, cement, RCC buildings Building Site / location /view Building site is the place of construction. The type of soil – sandy, loamy, hard rocky area or plain agricultural land? What is the view? What is the location and what is the view from that location? eg a beach resort in Kerala should have sea view from all the rooms/ maximum rooms,they should have balconies for guests to sit and relax. Site Exploration means to study the type and nature of soil at various depths. - Whether ground is soft / hard / watery - Water level/ ground water of that area - Clay, sand, rock, loose gravel, peat , moist clay,
  4. 4. Facility planning chapter 1 – Bhavya Khamesra sir B.SChotel mgmt2 year 4 Building construction 1. Foundation It is made from stones/ cement, steel, concrete It means the lowest part of structure which provides a base for super structure. It includes the position of structure below ground level provided to transmit load/ weight on the structure. The foundation should be very strong to give a stable and long lasting building. A building with weak foundation will collapse in future. The purpose of foundation is to distribute weight overlarge area, to provide level surface, to prevent unequal settlement and to increase stability. Types of foundation - Shallow : where the earth is rocky/ hard - Deep : for dams, bridges very deep foundations and for areas where the earth is soil/ sandy / soft 2. Structural frame The basic requirement is that it must be strong enough to support all types of loads. There are 3 types of loads - Dead loads : load of walls, floor, roof, cement, sand etc - Live loads : load of people in that building, goods, machines, - Wind loads : pressure exerted by the wind on the walls and the building Provision of load for partition walls made from bricks, stones should be made. The stability of building takes in account the height and width of the building Pillars and columns made from steel/iron rods, which are filled with Mortar (cement+ sand+ concrete) 3. Exterior walls Masonry is basically wall construction. Walls can be made from stones, bricks and the building is bonded by mortar. Stones are strong, long lasting, more durable then bricks. The stones do not diorite with time. Stones need no extra care / treatment.but bricks need to be plastered . bricks also have few advantages, they can be fitted in pattern and more suited due to light weight, regular shape and size. Bricks size 4 inch*9 inch* 12 inch The building requires - Water proofing : protection from water - Thermal insulation: protection from heat - Sound insulation : low sound - Durability
  5. 5. Facility planning chapter 1 – Bhavya Khamesra sir B.SChotel mgmt2 year 5 Walls are of 3 types - Load bearing 9 inch thickness, can bear the load of above floors, walls made by interlocking the bricks, first walls are made then roof is made in such structure - Non load bearing wall is 4 inches thick , also known as partition wall, made from a single layer of bricks. It cannot bear the load of above floors . the steel pillars and beams are erected first , then the roof is filled and at last the walls are erected. Commonly used in complexes. - Retaining wall Used for dams, bridges. They resist the pressure of earth/ water. The walls should be watered for 6 days. They should be evenly plstered with cement and sand After plastering they should be watered for 20 days. The walls should be perfectly balanced and even 4. Roof Roof is the covering provided over top of a building to protect from rain, snow, wind etc. In olden days roofs were made from stone slabs. Now roofs are made from mortar (cement, sand and concrete mixture) filled in the structure made from of steel rods/ bars. This is called RCC structure (Reinforced Concrete and Cement) huts in resort may have roofs of mud and straw, kelu, wood/ bamboo logs etc. Cement : sand : concrete 1 : 3 : 6 The roofs should - Be structurally sound and strong to carry loads - Durable against the adverse effects of rain , snow, sun and wind - Should be water proof and have proper drainage - Should have desired insulation against heat and sound There are 2 types of roof designs - Slant roof : common in areas with rainfall and snow, so it slides down - Flat roof : often use for multistory buildings and complexes 5. Plastering Plaster makes the surface smooth. And it provides a good base for whitewashing, colouring, painting etc. plaster is made from cement, lime, clay, sand and water. Some additives are added to improve adhesiveness, durability and luster. Cement: Sand= 1:3
  6. 6. Facility planning chapter 1 – Bhavya Khamesra sir B.SChotel mgmt2 year 6 Cost of development It means purchasing land, making plans, leveling, construction etc. Cost of construction The basic cost of civil work/ construction comes out to be 1200- 2000 rupees per square feet. Eg. 1000 sq feet construction costs 1, 00,000 – 2, 00,000 rupees Feasibility report of a hotel 3 star category with 50 rooms Total cost 1 Land 60,000 sq.ft 2000 rs/ sq.ft 12,00,00,000 2 Building 40,000 sq.ft 2000 rs/ sq.ft 8,00,00,000 3 Rooms furniture fixtures, interiors 2,00,000 50 1,00,00,000 4 Plant and machinery 2,00,00,000 5 other 2,00,00,000 Total 25,00,00,000 Plant and machinery 2,00,00,000 Heating plant 20,00,000 Ventilation 10,00,000 Air conditioning 30000 80 24,00,000 Water treatment plant 20,00,000 Filtration plant 10,00,000 Sanitary 30,000 80 24,00,000 Kitchen equipments 20,00,000 Restaurant equipments 20,00,000 1 Room: furniture, fixtures and fittings- 2,00,000 Double bed 30,000 Chairs/sofa 6000 Tea table 4000 Refrigerator 5000 T.V 30000 Painting 20000 Mattresses 10000 Linen 5000 Curtains 5000 Interiors 40000 others
  7. 7. Facility planning chapter 1 – Bhavya Khamesra sir B.SChotel mgmt2 year 7 Bathroom 30,000 Bathtub 10000 Vanity/ wash basin 5000 w.c. 10000 Showerhead 3000 Taps 3000 fittings Area calculation Room area 400sq.ft / room × 50 rooms = 20,000 sq.ft Public area 20,000 sq.ft lobby 3000 Restaurant 2000 Kitchen 1000 Conference hall 3000 Swimming pool 2000 Gym 3000 Shopping arcade 1000 Administrative area 2000 Room sales 50 rooms × 5000 rs/ night 2,50,000 / night ×120 nights = 3,00,00,000 per year Operating expenses 1,50,00,000 per year/ammum Salary and wages 50,00,000 Electricity 30,00,000 Water 4,00,000 Office administration 2,00,000 Repair & maintenance 4,00,000 Advertisement 10,00,000 General expenses 10,00,000 Depreciation 10,00,000 Taxes 10,00,000 Insurance 10,00,000 Others 10,00,000
  8. 8. Facility planning chapter 1 – Bhavya Khamesra sir B.SChotel mgmt2 year 8 Salary 50 rooms 50 persons × 8000 rs/month = 4,00,000 rs./month × 12 months = 48,00,000 rs/ year Water 10 tankers/ day ×200 rs/day = 2000 rs/ day ×200 days = 4,00,000 rs/ annum Electricity Air condirioner 2 KW 12 HRS 24 UNITS t.v. 300 W 6 HRS 1.8 UNITS Geyser 2 KW 2 HRS 4 UNITS Lights 500 W 8 HRS 4 UNITS Refrigerator 150 W 24 HRS 3.6 UITS TOTAL 40 UNITS / ROOM/ DAY Room 40 UNITS/DAY ×7 rs/unit = 280 rs/ room× 50 rooms = 14000 rs/ day Others 700 units/ day × 7 rs/unit = 4900 rs / day Total 14000+5000 rs = 20000 rs/ day Occupancy 120 days Total 20000 × 120 = 24,00,000 rs/ year + 6,00,000 = 30,00,000 rs/year Income statement Sales 3,00,00,000 - Travel agents commission 20% - 60,00,000 = = 2,40,00,000 - Operating expenses - 1,50,00,000 = income/ profit = 90,00,000 rs/ year - Interest on capital
  • BhashettiPrasanna

    Aug. 27, 2021
  • HrithikGupta17

    Oct. 11, 2020
  • nmokale

    Jul. 19, 2020

hotel facility planning, introduction to hotels facility planning

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