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Chapter 8: World War I 1914-1918 http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/ww1/photoessay.htm
Nationalism Nationalism- extreme pride or devotion that a people feel for their country or culture. This sense of nationalism in Europe arose during the unification of Germany and Italy in the 19th century.
Nationalism (cont’d) Europe has several ethnic groups that have extreme passion for their country or culture. The Balkans was a very strained area due to many different ethnic groups.
Imperialism World Powers began acquiring territories that were considered to be socially primitive. Countries typically used their imperialistic beliefs to further their country’s economic demands or spread religious views.
Imperialism (cont’d) Great Britain- the world’s largest empire with territories all over the world. United States- acquired the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam during the Spanish American War.
Imperialism (cont’d) France- territories in Africa, Asia, and South America. Germany- territories in Africa and in the Baltics. Austria- Hungary- Began acquiring territory from the collapsing Ottoman Empire.
The World Prior to WWIhttp://www.alternatehistory.com/discussion/showthread.php?t=23357
Militarism Militarism- The policy of military preparedness and building up of weapons. 1900- Germany began building a navy that could compete with Great Britain’s.
Militarism (cont’d) Germany also began building up their army and supplied it’s military with the latest weaponry. They also developed a plan to fight a two front war if one was to break out. This plan was known as the Schlieffen Plan.
The Schlieffen Plan This plan was intended to defeat France on the Western quickly so they could get to the Eastern Front before the Russians could fully mobilize.
The Schlieffen Planhttp://brokenworld.wikispaces.com/13.2+War+in+Europe
Militarism (cont’d) Along with Germany, other countries began building up their militaries. With rising tensions they believed that the threat of large militaries would prevent war from breaking out.
Alliance System Alliance- an agreement between two or more countries. Before WWI begins several countries begin forming alliances with one another.
Alliance System Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria- Hungary, Italy Triple Entente- France, Great Britain, Russia
Alliance System European leaders believed that these alliances would create a balance of power and prevent war from breaking out. They believed that one country would not attack another out of fear that the attacked nation’s allies would join the fight.
The Fuse is Lit! Austria-Hungary began to acquire the states of Bosnia and Herzegovina upon the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Many Serbians were opposed to the new regime.
The Fuse is Lit! The Black Hand- Serbian super nationalist group that planned to assassinate the Archduke of Austria-Hungary. They believed this would lead to an independent Bosnia. On June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Black Hand, fired the shot that killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife.
Archduke Franz Gavrilo Princip Ferdinandhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gavrilo_Princip http://www.private-prague-guide.com/article/archduke-franz- ferdinand-of-austria-and-his-assassination-june-28-1914/
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinandhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Assassination_of_the_Archduke_Franz_Ferdinand.jpg
WWI Begins The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand would spark the beginning of WWI. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia after officials found out that the Black Hand had been supplemented by the Serbian government.
WWI Begins Serbia Slavs had an alliance with Russia, thus mobilizing the Russian Army. Germany saw this has an act of war, and declared war on Russia. Germany also declared war on France, an ally of Russia.
WWI Begins Germany, following the Schlieffen Plan, invades Belgium. Germany’s invasions of Belgium forced Great Britain to join the war.
The Sides are Set With Great Britain joining the war, the Allied Powers were formed to oppose the Central Powers. Allied Powers- Great Britain, France, and Russia Central Powers- Germany, Austria- Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
A New Kind of Warfare WWI brought about a new form of warfare on a scale never before seen in world history. Early on, the French army was not prepared to fight against the German army. The French were fighting in a traditional 18th and 19th method.
A New Kind of Warfare The German army was equipped with the newest technology in warfare: The Machine Gun. A German machine gun had 50 to 100 times the firepower of one French rifle. The French had nearly 15,000 deaths a day.
WWI German Machine Gun http://boivieapedia.pbworks.com/w/page/8081157/World%20War%201
The First Battle of Marne Began on September 7, 1914 The German Army was within 25 miles of Paris, France. Involved more than 2 million soldiers along a 125 mile battlefront. French had pushed back the Germans 40 miles. Over 250,000 lives were lost during the battle.
Trench Warfare Soldiers began building massive networks of trenches in order to protect themselves from artillery shells, machine gun fire, and grenades. On the Western Front, over 400 miles of trenches were dug. Soldiers lived in very harsh conditions.
Trench Warfare Soldiers would sleep, eat, and be treated for wounds or left for dead in the trenches. Soldiers had to constantly be aware of the enemy. Soldiers also stay below the trenches walls in order for them not to be killed.
Trench Warfare Trench warfare created a stalemate that would amount to great losses of life during WWI. Commanders would order their troops out of the trench and would meet a barrage of machine gun fire. “No Man’s Land” is where many soldiers would lost their lives.
Birth of Modern Warfare Technologyhttp://incredibleimages4u.blogspot.com/2011/04/tanks-used-for-first-time.html
Birth of Modern Warfare Technology The tank invented in 1915, was used to level areas in “no man’s land” and to enter enemy trenches. Poison gas- invented in Germany and first used in WWI. Chlorine gas would destroy the lungs of soldiers. The use of the gas masks would make poison gas less effective.
Birth of Modern Warfare Technology The first time airplanes were used in warfare was during WWI. Planes would get in air battles known as “dogfights.” They would also harass the trenches by throwing bricks and other heavy things. Airplanes were later mounted with machine guns.
The Red Baronhttp://www.fotopedia.com/items/oGrgsfdBDZM-fXsT_zPkkQI http://hushkit.wordpress.com/2012/04/29/painting-the-sky-in-blood-2/
The United States Prior to WWI The United States had a strong tradition of isolationism. When the war broke out America began leaning towards the allies because of the harsh war tactics of Germany.
The United States Prior to WWI Germany began using their U-boats as a weapon against the Allied powers. The US traded primarily with Great Britain during early part of WWI, because of the naval blockade they had set up to prevent Germany from trading with other powers. On May 1, 1915, the Lusitania, a British luxury liner carrying over 1900 passengers was torpedoed by a German U-Boat, killing 1200 people, including 128 Americans.
US Entry into WWI March 24, 1916- The Sussex was torpedoed once again by German U-boats. Germany issued the Sussex Pledge, telling the US they will not torpedo any merchant ship without warning.
US Entry into WWIIn February of 1917, Germany reassumed unrestricted submarine warfare forcing the US to cutoff diplomatic relations.The Zimmerman Note would become another sticking point for the US to go to War.
US Entry into WWIThe Zimmerman note was a proposal by Arthur Zimmerman to Mexico to declare war on the US.Mexico was to reacquire its old provinces of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.It was intercepted by the British and published in American newspapers.
US Entry into WWI The Zimmerman Note and unrestricted submarine warfare, along with the uncertainty of Russia remaining in the war, pressured Wilson to ask for a Declaration of War on April 2, 1917. The United States joined the Allied Forces on April 6, 1917.
Preparing for War In order to raise an army for the war in Europe, Congress passed the Selective Service Act in May of 1917. This required men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register to be drafted into the military. If drafted, these men would enter training with little to nothing ready for them to be trained with or live in.
Arriving in EuropeThe Americans that fought in Europe were known as the AEF (American Expeditionary Force) led by General John J. Pershing.To transport troops to Europe safely, the US used the convoy system, in which troop transports were surrounded by destroyers or cruisers for protection.
General John J. Pershing http://www.old-picture.com/american-legacy/003/Pershing-General.htm
The Convoy Systemhttp://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/military_conflict/p_convoy.htm
Allied Setbacks In November of 1917, the Bolsheviks took control of the Russian government. The Bolsheviks were communists, people who seek equal distribution of wealth and the end of all private property. Vladimir Lenin withdrew the Russian army from the Eastern Front and made peace with Germany, this allowed the Germans to focus all its forces on the Western Front.
US Troops in Battle US troops did not see action for nearly a year. They were a major factor in WWI. Helped defeat the Germans at Chateau-Thierry and Belleau Wood, which prevented the Germans from taking Paris.
American Military Women American women played a vital role in WWI. Many French-speaking American woman would work as switchboard operators known as “Hello Girls.” American women would also work as nurses, typist, bookkeepers, radio operators, electricians, and telegraphers.
The War Comes to an End In 1918, The Germans began to suffer crippling defeats in France. The war had crippled the German economy and people began to suffer from starvation. These same problems began to happen throughout the Central Powers and armies began to surrender.
The War Comes to an End On November 7, 1918, peace negotiations began between both sides. The Germans were to surrender their aircraft, heavy artillery, tanks, and U- boats. On November 11, 1918, the armistice was signed and the war was over.
The War on the Home Fronthttp://www.rainfall.com/posters/WWI/1069.htm
The War on the Home Front Liberty bonds were a type of loan that the US used for the war effort in Europe. The effort to sell Liberty bonds were very intense. Many celebrities, along with men in uniform, would hold large rallies in order to promote Liberty Bonds.
Liberty BondRally on Wall St. http://www.flickr.com/photos/46317563@N04/favorites/page11/?view=lg
Mobilizing the EconomyIn order to pay for the war, Congress passed the War Revenue Act of 1917.It increased taxes up to 77% on the wealthiest Americans.The US government also began regulating production, fuel, and food.
Mobilizing the Economy Congress created hundreds of administrative boards to regulate both industrial and agricultural production and distribution. One of the most important boards created during WWI was the War Industries Board (WIB). The WIB was headed by Wall Street business leader Bernard Baruch. The WIB regulated all materials needed for the War in Europe.
Mobilizing the Economy Congress also began regulating food and fuel with the passage of the Lever Food and Fuel Act of 1917. During the war, Herbert Hoover led the Food Administration and increased production three times as much as the US had produced prior to WWI. The consumption of fuel and food was promoted with days such as “meatless Mondays” and “gasless Sundays.”
Mobilizing WorkersBusinesses during the war saw large increases in profits during the war.This helped raise the wages of factory workers, however, the rising cost of food and housing barely helped those who worked.Work conditions became more hazardous but the urgency of war goods led to faster production.With the harsh conditions and long hours, labor union memberships increased 60% between 1916 and 1919.
Mobilizing Workers With the threat of strikes and stoppage in production, the Wilson administration created the National War Labor Board in 1918. The NWLB acted as a mediator between the workers and management. In the short time it existed, the NWLB handled 1200 cases involving over 700,000 workers.
Mobilizing Workers Women also played a vital role in America’s economy during WWI. Women took jobs that were traditionally held by men, such as working on railroads, docks, and in factories. Nearly 1 million women entered the workforce during WWI. Women’s efforts did not go unrecognized. Women’s suffrage advocates used their efforts during the war to justify their right to vote.
Women Workers During WWIhttp://atdetroit.net/forum/messages/6790/57392.html?1129598706
Epidemic on the Home Front In 1918 an influenza epidemic broke out in Europe and quickly spread to the United States. Nearly half of the American soldiers that died during WWI lost their lives to the flu. This influenza was like none that had ever been seen before. By the time the influenza epidemic passed, nearly 675,000 Americans had lost their lives.
Winning American’s Support for the War Many Americans favored neutrality in the war in Europe and Wilson had to convince those to support the war effort after neutrality was broken. Wilson created the Committee on Public Information (CPI) less that two weeks after declaring war on Germany. Wilson appointed George Creel to run the CPI.
Committee on Public Information The CPI used propaganda- posters, newspaper stories, speeches, and other materials that were designed to influence people’s opinions about the war in Europe. Creel hired the biggest movie stars of the time to speak on behalf of the war effort. He also hired artist to create patriotic posters and pamphlets. These worked extremely well and even began an anti-German sentiment in the US.
Limiting Anti-War Speech In 1917, Congress passed the Espionage Act, which punished those that aided the enemy or refused military service. A year later Congress passed a related law known as the Sedition Act, which made it illegal for Americans to “utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal…or abusive language” criticizing the government, flag, or military.
Limiting Anti-War Speech Many believed these laws violated the First Amendment of the US Constitution. Charles Schenck, arrested under the Espionage Act, for distributing 15,000 leaflets opposing the government’s war policies. In Schenck v. United States, the Supreme Court upheld Schenck’s conviction, stating that things during wartime can cause problems for the government or endanger soldiers on the battlefield.
“Peace Without Victory” Before the war had ended Woodrow Wilson wanted a “just and lasting peace” so that the Great War would never happen again. In January 1918, he gave his famous Fourteen Points speech, which outlined his plan for peace.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points The first four points called for open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, removal of trade barriers, and the reduction of military arms. The fifth point proposed a fair system to resolve disputes over colonies. The last eight points dealt with self- determination, or the right of the people to decide their own political status. In the fourteenth point, Wilson called for the establishment of a League of Nations.
Paris Peace ConferenceThe Paris Peace conference began on January 12, 1919.It had leaders from 32 countries including the Big Four.The Big Four consisted of President Woodrow Wilson, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, French Premier Georges Clemenceau, and Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando.
Paris Peace Conference Wilson had a vision of nations dealing with each other openly and trade fairly, while many other Allied Powers wanted to punish Germany for its role in the war. Other countries such as Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia , and Poland wanted their independence. Eventually the Allied Powers reached an agreement and presented their peace treaty to Germany in May 1919.
The Treaty of Versailles (1919)The Treaty of Versailles called for Germany to accept sole responsibility for the war.It also called for Germany to pay massive reparations for damages caused during the war and it limited the size of the German army.It called for the establishment of a League of Nations.It called for the Central Powers to give all of their colonies to the Allies.
The Fight over the TreatyThe fight to ratify the Treaty of Versailles in Congress became very difficult for Wilson.Their were three specific groups in Congress; Democrats who supported immediate ratification, Irreconcilables, who urged the outright rejection of the treaty, and the Reservationist, who demanded changes to the treaty.
The Fight over the TreatySenator Henry Cabot Lodge, head of the Committee of Foreign Relations, led the reservationist in Congress.The reservationist believed that the use of US military force was unnecessary to carry out the League’s decisions.This caused Wilson to go on an 8,000 mile cross country trip to promote the people to pressure the Republicans to ratify the treaty.
The Fight over the Treaty The treaty’s ratification was ultimately rejected once in November 1919 and again in March of 1920. The United States would not join the newly created League of Nations. The United States also signed a separate peace treaties with Germany after the Treaty of Versailles was rejected.
The Impact of WWIAt the end of WWI, nearly 14 million people had lost their lives.7 million people were permanently disabled.It was the most expensive war in world history to that point in time ($280 Billion).
The Impact of WWI Political- Led to overthrow of monarchies in Russia, Austria Hungary, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. Economic-It devastated European economies, however, the US became the world’s leading economic power.
The Impact of WWI Social- The impact of women in the workforce led to the ratification of the 19th Amendment in 1920 giving women the right to vote. African-American populations began to move to northern cities thus causing race relation changes in the US.
The Impact of WWI Impact in Europe- Countries had nearly lost entire generations of men. France was in ruins, Great Britains debt to the US was great, and the reparations imposed on Germany crippled their economy. It left to many issues unresolved in Europe. It would not be the “war to end all wars. ”