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The plan comprises a central core with four radiating wings. The state rooms located in the central core are accessed from the outside by a flight of grand steps on the north. On the south is another portico surmounted by a colonnaded verandah with a dome above. The four wings accommodate the various offices and residential quarters along with four sets of staircases. The plan of the wings allows for a great deal of natural ventilation in the spaces while also permitting views across the gardens. The entire compound is surrounded by a balustraded wall with a grand arched gateways.
considered to be one of the best and oldest examples of Indo-Saracenic architecture in India
it comprises of large two floor high central hall, 16m high, measuring approx. 50m by 15m, and has a capacity to seat 1600 people. though laid out as a simple rectangle, a strong variation in form is achieved on the sensitive lacing of the four towers on simple square projections that fall behind each of the side entrance porches.
tinier cupolas on octagonal drums pin the corners with a series of turrets lining the east and west sides. impressive double floor high verandas on the east and west faces are lined by stone columns with sculptured capitals bearing human figures and Hindu icons and support large horseshoe arches trimmed in stone.
the wall of the verandah facing the hall is broken by giant doors with large clerestory circular openings decorated by ornate geometrical patterns of coloured glass. the result is a finely proportioned mass with a high fenestrated lower portion, terminated by vertical solid masses that soar skywards.
INDO - GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
Indo Saracenic architecture or Indo Saracenic Revival architecture (also known as Indo-
Gothic, Hindu-Gothic, Mughal-Gothic, Neo-Mughal architecture) denotes the fusion of Indo-
Islamic and Indian architecture. Indo Saracenic is an absorption of exotic elements from
native Indo-Islamic and Indian architecture, and fusing it with the Gothic revival and Neo-
Classical styles favoured inVictorian Britain. Indo Saracenic architecture is the brilliant
architectural engineering movement by the British architects in the late 19th century in
The hybrid combined diverse architectural elements of Hindu and Mughal with Gothic cusped
arches, domes, spires, tracery, minarets and stained glass, in a wonderful, almost playful
"Saracen" is an adaptation of a Greek word, sarakenoi, meaning "people who live in
tents"; that is, Arabs.The word Saracen was employed by Greek and Latin to refer
people who lived in desert areas in and near the Roman province ofArabia, and who
were specifically distinguished fromArabs. During medieval era Europeans denoted
Muslims as Saracens. Over a period of time "Saracen" had become synonymous
Before 1857 the British rulers in India applied Gothic Revival architecture incorporating Greek and
Roman features such as columns, triangular pediments for the public building in India. The main
reason for the adoption of this classical style for the British rulers was to retain the image as the holder
of power and status and to distance themselves from the native Indians. The Indian Rebellion of 1857
began as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company's army on 10 May 1857 and this 'Revolt of 1857'
compelled the Britishers to legitimize their rule and to establish confidence from the natives of the
colonized land. The rulers also began to understand that India had an architectural history that was as
deep as it was complicated. James Ferguson, an historian of Indian architecture, categorized and
evaluated Indian architecture and buildings based on their characteristics and proposed his conclusion
stating that Indian architecture sporadically went into diminution and therefore need to be revived by
British. The British government in India also encouraged a new generation of British architects to
experiment with the style known as Indo Saracenic.
The architectural deigns of British buildings, monuments, forts etc. in the post-Renaissance period
formed the inspiration for the British architects. They built the public buildings in India as per
advanced British structural engineering standards of the 1800's and used iron, steel and poured
FORMS OF INDO SARACENIC
The Palladian Style
When the British became a power, there were three styles prevalent in England viz. the
Palladian, Baroque and theVictorian.The Palladian style of architecture is based on the works of
Andrea Palladio (17th century) of Italy. It could be identified with a few features such as the
ceilings as an ornamental focus, mouldings often featuring masks, terms and shells or other
depictions of nature, fireplaces and wall painting. A great central tower rising from a succession
of traced roofs is one important characteristic of this style.The another important feature is
Palladian window, which consists of a central section with semi circular arch over and two
sections on either sides, all supported by pillars, as shown in the adjacent image.This was a
feature inculcated in India in some buildings (in Lucknow for example) though as such we
don’t find any monument made purely on Palladian style. La Martiniere LucknowThe early
Britons sought to introduce the Palladian style in the form of the La Martiniere in Lucknow.
It was built by Claude Martin, a wealthy eighteenth-century Frenchman, who was an
officer in the French and later the British East India Company. Martin acquired his fortune
while serving Asaf-ud-Daula, the nawab wazir of Awadh, and was reputedly the richest
Frenchman in India.The building, called Constantia at that time is now serves as a
The Victorian Gothic Style
When, India saw the emergence of presidencies of Madras, Bombay and Bengal, the fashion in
England was of Gothic revival and neoclassical architecture. At the same time, the Victorian style was
also in vogue. So, in the years to come, the buildings and monuments saw a mix of Indian (Mughal)
style, Victorian, Gothic, Palladian, Baroque and other styles. However, none of the styles prevalent in
Europe in those times were original. All of them were either imitated features from earlier
Romanesque or Georgian architecture. The Victorian Gothic Architecture thus, was basically a hotch-
potch of early European styles mixed with the introduction of Middle East and Asian influences. This
monument represents the themes deriving from Indian traditional architecture. This was the
beginning of the Indo-gothic or Indo-Saracenic revival. The monuments now created drew the
elements from the indigenous and indo-Islamic architecture and combined it with the gothic revival
and neo-classical styles favoured in Victorian England. One the best example is the Victoria Memorial
Hall of Kolkata, which inculcates numerous Mughal elements in its design. Such monuments were built
on advanced engineering standards. The material such as steel, Iron and poured concrete started
getting used. The most important features of the buildings of this revival were as follows: Bulbous
domes along with many miniature domes Overhanging eaves Pointed arches, cusped arches, or
scalloped arches Vaulted roofs Domed chhatris, pinnacles, towers and minarets Open pavilions
FORMS OF INDO SARACENIC
Map showing the
locations of cities
having Indo Saracenic
style buildings in India
• Chennai (Madras)
FEATURES OF INDO SARACENIC
FEATURES OF INDO-
• horseshoe, pointed, ogee,
• Quranic script
• Pavillion with dome
• Overhanging balcony
• overhanging eaves on large
• Perforated stone or latticed
Towers or minarets
Pinnacles or spires
ARCHITECTS OF INDO SARACENIC ARCHITECTURE
• Robert Fellowes Chisholm
• Charles Mant
• Henry Irwin
• William Emerson
• FrederickW. Stevens
ARCHITECTS OF INDO SARACENIC ARCHITECTURE
ARCHITECT HENRY IRWIN (1841-1922)
Architect of British India
Born on 21st January 1841, inTarbett, Ireland.
1864- Joined the public works department in England.
1866- was moved to ceylon.
1868- moved to India in PWD, Shimla.
1872- Became the executive engineer, nagpur and central provinces.
Got a real boost in 1888, after completetion ofVICE REGAL LODGE, Shimla
Became the superintendent engineer, Shimla ImperialCircle of central PWD.
Then he moved to Madras, as consulting architect for the Madras Presidency.
Last project was Mysore palace 1897-1912, after which he retired and went to
He died on 5th August, 1922.
ARCHITECT HENRY IRWIN’S BELIEFS
“Architecture should speak of its time and place, but yearn for
HIS MAJOR STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE-
Jacobethan style – Mixed renaissance and
Elizabethan style. Classical over Gothic.
Gothic revival- gothic + Elizabethan.
Saracenic – Islamic architecture.
Indo- Saracenic- Indo Islamic.
Indo Saracenic Revival – Indo Islamic + Gothic.
ARCHITECT HENRY IRWIN’S MAJOR WORKS
• Headquarters of the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway Chennai–
1873- Gothic revival style.
• Christ church, Panchmarhi – 1880 – Gothic revival style.
• The American College, Madurai -1881-Saracenic style (red bricks,
blending with surroundings).
• Vice Regal lodge-(1880-1888) – Jacobethan Style.
• GaietyTheatre, Shimla - 1888 (Stone)- exclusively for Britishers hence
• Madras High Court, Chennai – 1892 – Indo Saracenic style.
• Law College Buildings, Chennai - July 1892- Indo Saracenic style.
• Headquarters of the State Bank of Madras -1896 – Indo Saracenic style.
• Government Museum, Chennai – 1896- Indo Saracenic style.
• The Hindu Higher Secondary School, Chennai- 1897(the L-shaped red
brick building)- Saracenic style.
• Mysore palace – (1897-1912) – Indo Saracenic Revival style.
Sir Edwin Landseer was a British architect who is
known for imaginatively adapting traditional
architectural styles to the requirement of his era.
Delhi which would later on serve as the seat of the
government of India. In recognition of his
contribution, New Delhi is also known as “Lutyens”
Delhi . In collaboration with Herbert Baker. He was
also the main architect of several monuments in
New Delhi such as the India gate he also designed
the viceroy’s house.
Sir Herbert baker was a British architect baker was
the dominant force in South African Architecture
for two decades 1892 – 1912 among the many
churches schools and houses he designed in south
Africa are the St John’s College Johannesburg,
Wynberg boys school. Cape town
In 1912 baker went to India to work with Lutyens
and went on to design the secretariat buildings
New Delhi and parliament house in new Delhi and
the bungalows of members of Parliament. Baker
designed the two secretariat building ranking the
INDO SARACENIC ATTRACTION OF DELHI
SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
The central hall of the parliament has been
designed to be circular in shaped the dome is
98 ft (29.87 Meters) in diameter and is
Believed that is one of the most Magnificent
domes in the world.
The central hall is a place of historical
importance in India for two reason. The
transfer of colonial power to the provisional
government under Nehru in 1957 and the
framing of the constitution by the constituent
assembly took place in this very hall.
Originally , the central hall was used as the
library of the erstwhile central legislative
The gate is build as a special memorandum for all
the soldiers who belongs to Indian army and to
all those who who have gives their lives lighting
for the protection of their country. It is
considered that approximately 90,000 and more
soldiers names have been Encrypted over the
walls of India Gates which is a special thing in
The Explicit India Gate architecture explains you
that there is a huge Path which is also known by
the name of Raj path at the end of which is
constructed a 42 meters high India gate that was
previously known by the name of all India was
memorial. The designing of India gate was done
by famous architect sir Edwin lutyen. Standing
The Rashtrapati Bhawan is a large and vast mansion with
floors and have 340 rooms. It is built on a floor area of 200,00
square feet (19.000 m2). Vijay chowk in front of Rashtrapati
Bhawan and ends at India gates on the western end of the
road. The ancillary dome – like structure on top of the
building is known as a chattri an Integral part of Indian
The Secretariat building was designed by the prominent British
architect Herbert baker in Indo – Saracenic revival architecture.
Both the identical building have four levels, each with about 1,000
rooms in the inner courtyards to make space for future expansions.
In continuation with the viceroy house, these building also used
cream and red Dholpur sandstone from Rajasthan with the red
Sandstone forming the base. To get heir the building the designed
to from two squares. They have broad corridors between different
wings and wide stairway to the four floors and each building is
topped by a giant dome, while each wings and with colonnaded
Much of the building is in Colonial architectural style, yet it
incorporation from Mughal and Rajasthani architecture style.
Another feature of the building is a dome – like structure known as
the Chatri a design unique to India.
The main block of the supreme court building was built
on a square Piot of 22 acres and the building was
designed by chief of architect Ganesh Bhikaji
Deolalikar who was the first Indian to head CPWD and
designed the supreme court building in an Indo – British
architecture style. He was succeeded by Shridher
Krishna joglekar. The building is shaped to project the
image of scales of justice with the central wing of the
building correspond. The chief justice’s court is the
largest of the courtroom located in the centre of the
central wing. It has in the centre of the central wing.
The gateway of India is a monument built during
the British raj in Mumbai. It is located on the
water front in the Apollo Bander area in south
Mumbai and overlook the Arabian sea. The
structure is a basalt arch, 26 meter (85 feet) high.
It lies at the end of Chhatrapati Shivaji Marg at
the water edge in Mumbai Harbour. The gate
way of India also been Reffered to as the Taj
Mahal of Mumbai and is the city top tourist
The gate way of India was built to commemorate
the visit of king GeorgeVand Dueen marry to
Mumbai, prior the Delhi Darbar, in December 1911.
they only got to see a cardboard model of the
structure since the construction did not began till
1915. the foundation stone was laid on 31 march
1911 by the Governer of Bombay sir George
Sydenham Clarre with the final design of George
Wittet sanctioned on 31 march 1913.
The Taj Mahal palace hotel is a five star hotel located in the
Colaba region of Mumbai Maharashtra India next to the
gate way of India
Parts of Taj Hotel, resort and palace this hotel is
considered the flag ship property of the group and
contain 560 rooms and 44 Saits there are some 1500 staff
including 35 butlers. From a historical and architectural
point of view, the two building that makes up the hotel
theTaj Mahal palace and tower are two distinct building.
It is a place where the viceroy and Governer uset to
land upon their arrival of India. Through built for
British India and the British empire today serve as a
“monumental memento” of Colonialisation and
subjugation by the British over the people of India.
Built right next to Taj Mahal palace & tower hotel.
The gate way of India is a symbol of “power and
majesty” of British empire
There are five jetties at the gate way the first jetty is
exclusive to the atomic research centre. The second
and third are used for commercial ferry fourth is
closed and fifth to the royal BombayYatch club.
The hotel originally Builded by commissioned of Tata
and first opened its door to guest on 16th December
It is widely believed that Tamsedji TATA decided to
build the hotel after he was refused entry to one of
the Citys’s grand hotel of the time, Watson hotel, as it
was restricted to “whites only. The original Indian
architect were Sitaram khanderao vaidya and DN
Mirza. Completed by an English engineer W.A
chamber. The builder was khan Saheb Sorabji Rutton
The Muncipal corporation Building was located in south
Mumbai in Maharashtra, Mumbai, is a grade a heritage
building opposite to the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus at
the junction of Padabhai Naoroji road and Mahapalika
marg. It is also known as the Bombay Muncipal corporation
building or BMC.
Mumbai corporation of greater Mumbai and which has its
own motto – Yato Dharmastato Jaya. It is said to be the
largest civic Organisation
The BMC was created in 1865 and Arthur craw
ford was it first Municipal commissioner. The
Municipality was Initially housed in a modest
building at the terminus of Girgam road. In 1870
it was shifted to a building on Esplanade.
Located between Watson hotel and the Sassoon
mechanism institute where the present army &
navy building is situated
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) formly
Victoria Terminus (VT) is a UNESCO World
Heritage Site and an historic railway station in
Mumbai, India which serves as the headquarter
central railways. Designed by Fredericr William
Stevens with influence from Victorian Italianate
gothic revival. The station was built is 1887 in
Bunder area of Bombay to commemorate the
golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria.
Bori bunder was one of the areas along the
eastern shores lines of Mumbai , India which
was used as a storehouse for goods
imported and exported from Mumbai in
areas name. Bori means “sack” and Bandar
means port or haven. Bori bandar literally
means a place where sack are stored.
The station was eventually rebuilt as the
Victoria terminus named after the then
• Designed as barracks to provide
accommodation to the john
• A three storied structure .
• A long veranda being added
on the south front and two
small pediments on columns
by lord wellesley.
• And a better ornamented
façade (by capt. George
DORIC PEDIMENTED ENTRANCES
ITALIAN GRECIAN FONTAGE
THIRD PHASE- complete re-
modelling of the front façade by
Full height portico
Front Façade with
columns and corner
Steel Dome installed in1860s by the Viceroy Lord Elgin.
Lord Curzon brought electricity and lift ( Bird Cage Lift ).
Drawing and dining rooms.
Yellow Drawing Room: first floor , has wonderful
Blue Drawing Room: Elegantly furnished room used
by the governor to meet guest.
Brown Dining Room: Adjacent to the Blue Dining
room, it is used for small conferences and meetings.
Halls and banquet rooms
Throne Room: The Throne Room, as the name
suggests, contains the throne of Wellesley. It also
Urn used to carry Mahatma Gandhi's ashes.
The Marble Hall : Located on the ground floor of the
Raj Bhavan, this is used for state and private
The Banquet Hall : The Banquet Hall with rows
of Doric pillars on each side, flowering chandeliers
black Mahogany tables has entertained eminent
by Walter L. B. Granville
• “an Italianate palace
... around a
courtyard” ~ Jan
fused with arch
SOUTHERN VERANDA VERANDA EASTERN
St Paul's Cathedral in the very early
twentieth century St Paul's Cathedral as it is today.
• 8 October 1839
• William Nairn
• Gothic revival
Gothic revival features:
• Very low nave
• Hall without any aisles on its flanks
• Plastic art forms and memorabilia
• Barrel vault roof
• Stained glass
• Designed in 1864
• Walter B. Grenville (1819-1874)
• located in the site of Fort William
• 220 feet high domed roof
• Ionic-Corinthian pillars
• supported by octagonal base
• Neo classical architecture
• Mannerist columns
FEATURES • onion (bulbous) domes
• overhanging eaves
• pointed arches, cusped
arches, or scalloped
• Colonnaded area on
• Domed kiosks and
many miniature domes
• domed chhatris
• towers or minarets
• Use of Makrana marble
ITALIAN STATUES BRONZE STATUE OF
•Total area of 64 acre with the building covering an area of
338sq.Ft by 228 sq.Ft.
•On way to the north gate is a bronze statue of Queen
Victoria by Sir George Frampton.The Queen is seated on
her throne, wearing the robes of the Star of India.
• Approaching the building from the south, visitors pass
the King Edward VII memorial arch with a bronze
equestrian statue of the King by Sir Bertram Mackennal
surmounting it and a marble statue of Lord Curzon by
F.W. Pomeroy, R.A.
•There are also other statues of various dignitaries like
Lord Bentinck, Governor- General of India (1828-1835),
Lord Ripon (Governor- General of India from 1880 to
1884; the statue of Sir Rajendranath Mookerjee, the
PHILOSOPHY : -
• Built in 1900s.
• Working in Madras.
• Mental state on Indo- Saracenic.
• But wanted to do new, as last project, hence developed Indo- Saracenic
• Lots of inspirations in one structure. Not disorderly mix of design elements.
• Also known as Amba villas palace.
• Currently owned by Wodeyars(royal family of Mysore).
• Additions later in 1940—public durbar hall wing
• The maharani insisted-
– new palace be built in model and foundations of the old one.
– In the reconstruction, stone, brick and iron should be the chief materials.
• Indo-saracenic revival style – Hindu + Muslim + Rajput and Gothic.
• Surrounded by large garden.
• 72 acres.
• He used European design principles + Our climatic conditions = large
courtyards + verandahs.
• Locally available.
• Wooden doors.
• Pink stone.
• Hard granite - Myosre district.
• Stone - of Turuvekere in Tumkur - easy fine details
• Three storey marble domes
• 145 ft. five storeyed tower.
• Tallest tower of the palace
-Tower of a Gothic cathedral.
-Top of it is a large dome -
Islamic/Persian style structures.
-Above dome is a domed
Chhatri- Rajput style.
• Two more such domed Chhatris on central
arch of the facade.
• Between these two domed Chhatris and
Above the central arch is a carving of
goddess Gajalakshmi - Hindu Influence
• The Arches are pointed and of Persian in
origin. These are supported by massive
• Fine grey granite + pink domes( indo- saracenic) = cherry.
• Protruding balconies - ‘jharokha’ Rajshani architecture.
• Top of the balcony is with deep pink stone , that forms a semi dome
• Bottom is supported by a structural feature in the form a lotus.
• Enter the palace building through a smaller verandah - south
• The main archway - expansive central court.
• The whole court is netted at the top to prevent birds messing the
inside and an enclosed verandah runs around this court.
• The squinch (where the pillar meets the ceiling )
and the domical ceiling above the verandah,
plaster work on the ceiling, the capitals carved
with hard granite. This too is a present blend of
native and gothic styles.
Amba Vilas Palace (1900-
•fluted pillars from the
in Delhi, onion domes
Taj Mahal, Mughal tracery
Durbargadh Waghaji Palace
•Saracenic domes and
Such palaces were a sophisticated political symbol of the
imperial presence- outwardly Indian and built by Indian
hands, the overall control stayed with the British.
• Started in 1885
• Got the project because the then Viceroy of India- Lord Dufferin loved
• Completed in 1888
• 1947– renamed as Rashtrapati niwas.
• 1964– given to Indian institute of advanced study.
• Viceroy visited the site every day
• Result got mixed reactions.
• Shimla conference.
• F. B. Hebbert and L. M. St. Clair- executive engineers.
• Built in 1880s ( after 1857)
• He had just started in India.
• Influenced by Scottish castles,
• Used local material
• Jacobethan style.
• Local woods like pine, walnut and
• Light blue-grey masonary
• Tiled pitch roofing.
• Wrought stone work
• Interior by wood.
A R C H I T E C T U R E
• Jacobethan style
• Renovations being done.
• The top of Observatory Hill was leveled out to create a wide plateau.
• Surface of crushed shale - cracked in every direction'. Concrete was
liberally used for the foundations.
• Sprawling gardens.
• First govt. building to have electricity, and internal wiring, with elevator.
• Rain water harvesting system, still used today.
• Hexagonal faceted towers.
• Pitched roofs.
• High chimneys.
• Stone trims around windows.
• Carved brick detailing
• Interiors completely of wood.
This contrast is
• The South entrance leads to reception hall
– a fireplace and a grand spiraling
• Grand staircase
from right and
spirals upto 3
floors marks the
• These two features show
symmetry – Classical English
• The building has six stories.
• The teak paneled gallery- leads to the state drawing room, ballroom and
the wood-paneled dining room.
•Edward Lutyens had a low opinion of the design. He is
reported to have said,
“If one was told that it was built by monkeys all one
could say was, ‘What wonderful monkeys!' But they must
be shot if they tried to do it again.”
SENATE HOUSE- MADRAS UNIVERSITY
• Constructed by Robert Chisholm between 1874 and 1879
• Inspired by the Byzantine and built in the Indo-Saracenic
Stone columns with sculptured capital
Hindu iconography on the capital
Large clerestory circular openings decorated with
Madras southern Railway
SOME OF THE MOST
WORKS IN MADRAS
Madras high court
Bank of madras