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Chapter 7Chapter 7
Public OpinionPublic Opinion
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
 WHO GOVERNS?WHO GOVERNS?
1.1. How does public opinion in AmericaHow does public opinion in America
today vary by race, gender, and othertoday vary by race, gender, and other
differences?differences?
2.2. What is political ideology, and howWhat is political ideology, and how
does it affect political behavior anddoes it affect political behavior and
influence public policy?influence public policy?
 TO WHAT ENDS?TO WHAT ENDS?
1.1. What role did the Framers of theWhat role did the Framers of the
Constitution think public opinionConstitution think public opinion
should play in American democracy?should play in American democracy?
2.2. When, if ever, should public policiesWhen, if ever, should public policies
mirror majority opinion?mirror majority opinion?
Public Opinion and DemocracyPublic Opinion and Democracy
The Framers of the Constitution created aThe Framers of the Constitution created a
government to achieve certain goals:government to achieve certain goals:
““to form a more perfect Union, establishto form a more perfect Union, establish
Justice, ensure domestic Tranquility,Justice, ensure domestic Tranquility,
provide for the common defense, promoteprovide for the common defense, promote
the general Welfare, and secure thethe general Welfare, and secure the
Blessing of Liberty.”Blessing of Liberty.”
–– Preamble to the ConstitutionPreamble to the Constitution
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
What is Public Opinion?What is Public Opinion?
 How Polling WorksHow Polling Works
• PollPoll
• Random sampleRandom sample
• Sampling errorSampling error
• Exit pollsExit polls
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
American politics is intensely local, as
when Rep. Loretta Sanchez shakes
hands with a voter in her California
district. p. 156
Jonathan Nourok/PhotoEdit
 How Opinions DifferHow Opinions Differ
• Opinion saliencyOpinion saliency
• Opinion stabilityOpinion stability
• Opinion-policyOpinion-policy
congruencecongruence
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
What is Public Opinion?What is Public Opinion?
Clinton winning over Obama and
Edwards in New Hampshire
when the polls said otherwise,
p. 158
Jim Cole/AP Photo
Political SocializationPolitical Socialization
 Political socialization –Political socialization – process byprocess by
which background traits influencewhich background traits influence
one’s political viewsone’s political views
 Genes and the FamilyGenes and the Family
 ReligionReligion
 The Gender GapThe Gender Gap
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
Children grow up learning, but not
always following, their parents’
political beliefs. p. 159
Bob Daemmirch/The Image Works
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
Source: Institute of Politics, The 15th Biannual Youth Survey on Politics and Public Service, John F. KennedySource: Institute of Politics, The 15th Biannual Youth Survey on Politics and Public Service, John F. Kennedy
School of Government, Harvard University, October 2008.School of Government, Harvard University, October 2008.
Source: Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, Survey: More Americans Question Religion’s Role in Politics,Source: Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, Survey: More Americans Question Religion’s Role in Politics,
August 21, 2008, sections 3 and 4.August 21, 2008, sections 3 and 4.
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
Source: Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, Gen Dems: The Party’s Advantage AmongSource: Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, Gen Dems: The Party’s Advantage Among
Young Voters Widens, April 28, 2008.Young Voters Widens, April 28, 2008.
Figure 7.1 Gender Gaps onFigure 7.1 Gender Gaps on
Issue Importance (2006)Issue Importance (2006)
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
Source:Source: Ms.Ms. magazine/WDN Poll, Lake Research Partners, surveying 1,000 randomlymagazine/WDN Poll, Lake Research Partners, surveying 1,000 randomly
selected likely voters November 6–7, 2006.selected likely voters November 6–7, 2006.
Cleavages in Public OpinionCleavages in Public Opinion
 Social ClassSocial Class
 Race and EthnicityRace and Ethnicity
 RegionRegion
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
Los Angeles Mayor Antonio
Villaraigosa speaks to
supporters. p. 164
Lester Cohen/WireImage.com/Getty Images
Political IdeologyPolitical Ideology
 Political ideologyPolitical ideology - A more or less- A more or less
consistent set of beliefs about whatconsistent set of beliefs about what
policies government ought to pursue.policies government ought to pursue.
 Mass Ideologies: A TypologyMass Ideologies: A Typology
 Liberal and Conservative ElitesLiberal and Conservative Elites
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
Source: Adapted fromSource: Adapted from
“Profiles of the Typology“Profiles of the Typology
Groups: Beyond Red andGroups: Beyond Red and
Blue,” Pew ResearchBlue,” Pew Research
Center for the People andCenter for the People and
the Press, 2005.the Press, 2005.
Political Elites, Public Opinion,Political Elites, Public Opinion,
and Public Policyand Public Policy
 Political elites –Political elites – persons with apersons with a
disproportionate share of politicaldisproportionate share of political
power.power.
 Elites raise and frame political issues.Elites raise and frame political issues.
 Elites state the norms by whichElites state the norms by which
issues should be settled.issues should be settled.
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
Political Elites, Public Opinion,Political Elites, Public Opinion,
and Public Policyand Public Policy
HOW MUCH INFLUENCE DO ELITESHOW MUCH INFLUENCE DO ELITES
HAVE ON THE FOLLOWING?HAVE ON THE FOLLOWING?
 RacismRacism
 SexismSexism
 Economic problemsEconomic problems
 CrimeCrime
 DrugsDrugs
 Foreign affairsForeign affairs
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
M E M O R A N D U MM E M O R A N D U M
To:To: Cecilia Kennedy, U.S. RepresentativeCecilia Kennedy, U.S. Representative
From:From: Ronald Edwards, legislative assistantRonald Edwards, legislative assistant
Subject:Subject: Vote on comprehensive immigration reformVote on comprehensive immigration reform
The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) sought to stemThe 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) sought to stem
illegal immigration by imposing penalties on employers who hireillegal immigration by imposing penalties on employers who hire
them, while permitting the estimated 3 million illegal immigrantsthem, while permitting the estimated 3 million illegal immigrants
at the time to attain legal status. Since then, however, theat the time to attain legal status. Since then, however, the
number of illegal immigrants in the United States has quadrupled,number of illegal immigrants in the United States has quadrupled,
while law enforcement efforts to punish employers or deport thosewhile law enforcement efforts to punish employers or deport those
immigrants have been minimal. Your district is not directlyimmigrants have been minimal. Your district is not directly
affected by immigration, but voters have concerns both aboutaffected by immigration, but voters have concerns both about
maintaining law and order, and providing economic opportunitiesmaintaining law and order, and providing economic opportunities
for people who have resided in this country for many years.for people who have resided in this country for many years.
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
WHAT WOULD YOU DO?WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
Arguments for:Arguments for:
1. Your district contains a large proportion of first-generation1. Your district contains a large proportion of first-generation
Americans, who favor a “path to citizenship” for immigrantsAmericans, who favor a “path to citizenship” for immigrants
who have lived in this country for years, regardless of theirwho have lived in this country for years, regardless of their
legal status.legal status.
2. Illegal immigrants often take menial jobs that nobody else2. Illegal immigrants often take menial jobs that nobody else
wants, and contribute to the U.S. economy by paying taxeswants, and contribute to the U.S. economy by paying taxes
and buying goods and services.and buying goods and services.
3. A “path to citizenship,” with fines and other penalties for3. A “path to citizenship,” with fines and other penalties for
being in the country illegally, is the most realistic option forbeing in the country illegally, is the most realistic option for
individuals who have family and other long-term ties in theindividuals who have family and other long-term ties in the
United States.United States.
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
WHAT WOULD YOU DO?WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
Arguments against:Arguments against:
1. Your party leaders oppose comprehensive immigration1. Your party leaders oppose comprehensive immigration
reform, saying that enhanced border security must be areform, saying that enhanced border security must be a
higher priority.higher priority.
2. Illegal immigrants take jobs away from native-born2. Illegal immigrants take jobs away from native-born
Americans and cost more in public services, such asAmericans and cost more in public services, such as
education and emergency health care, than they contributeeducation and emergency health care, than they contribute
to the economy.to the economy.
3. People who entered the country illegally must not be3. People who entered the country illegally must not be
rewarded for breaking the law, and enforcement can berewarded for breaking the law, and enforcement can be
effective with sufficient resources.effective with sufficient resources.
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
WHAT WOULD YOU DO?WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
Your decision:Your decision:
Vote for bill?Vote for bill?
Vote against bill?Vote against bill?
Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
WHAT WOULD YOU DO?WHAT WOULD YOU DO?

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Public Opinion

  • 1. Chapter 7Chapter 7 Public OpinionPublic Opinion
  • 2. Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage  WHO GOVERNS?WHO GOVERNS? 1.1. How does public opinion in AmericaHow does public opinion in America today vary by race, gender, and othertoday vary by race, gender, and other differences?differences? 2.2. What is political ideology, and howWhat is political ideology, and how does it affect political behavior anddoes it affect political behavior and influence public policy?influence public policy?  TO WHAT ENDS?TO WHAT ENDS? 1.1. What role did the Framers of theWhat role did the Framers of the Constitution think public opinionConstitution think public opinion should play in American democracy?should play in American democracy? 2.2. When, if ever, should public policiesWhen, if ever, should public policies mirror majority opinion?mirror majority opinion?
  • 3. Public Opinion and DemocracyPublic Opinion and Democracy The Framers of the Constitution created aThe Framers of the Constitution created a government to achieve certain goals:government to achieve certain goals: ““to form a more perfect Union, establishto form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, ensure domestic Tranquility,Justice, ensure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promoteprovide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure thethe general Welfare, and secure the Blessing of Liberty.”Blessing of Liberty.” –– Preamble to the ConstitutionPreamble to the Constitution Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
  • 4. What is Public Opinion?What is Public Opinion?  How Polling WorksHow Polling Works • PollPoll • Random sampleRandom sample • Sampling errorSampling error • Exit pollsExit polls Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage American politics is intensely local, as when Rep. Loretta Sanchez shakes hands with a voter in her California district. p. 156 Jonathan Nourok/PhotoEdit
  • 5.  How Opinions DifferHow Opinions Differ • Opinion saliencyOpinion saliency • Opinion stabilityOpinion stability • Opinion-policyOpinion-policy congruencecongruence Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage What is Public Opinion?What is Public Opinion? Clinton winning over Obama and Edwards in New Hampshire when the polls said otherwise, p. 158 Jim Cole/AP Photo
  • 6. Political SocializationPolitical Socialization  Political socialization –Political socialization – process byprocess by which background traits influencewhich background traits influence one’s political viewsone’s political views  Genes and the FamilyGenes and the Family  ReligionReligion  The Gender GapThe Gender Gap Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage Children grow up learning, but not always following, their parents’ political beliefs. p. 159 Bob Daemmirch/The Image Works
  • 7. Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage Source: Institute of Politics, The 15th Biannual Youth Survey on Politics and Public Service, John F. KennedySource: Institute of Politics, The 15th Biannual Youth Survey on Politics and Public Service, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, October 2008.School of Government, Harvard University, October 2008. Source: Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, Survey: More Americans Question Religion’s Role in Politics,Source: Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, Survey: More Americans Question Religion’s Role in Politics, August 21, 2008, sections 3 and 4.August 21, 2008, sections 3 and 4.
  • 8. Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage Source: Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, Gen Dems: The Party’s Advantage AmongSource: Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, Gen Dems: The Party’s Advantage Among Young Voters Widens, April 28, 2008.Young Voters Widens, April 28, 2008.
  • 9. Figure 7.1 Gender Gaps onFigure 7.1 Gender Gaps on Issue Importance (2006)Issue Importance (2006) Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage Source:Source: Ms.Ms. magazine/WDN Poll, Lake Research Partners, surveying 1,000 randomlymagazine/WDN Poll, Lake Research Partners, surveying 1,000 randomly selected likely voters November 6–7, 2006.selected likely voters November 6–7, 2006.
  • 10. Cleavages in Public OpinionCleavages in Public Opinion  Social ClassSocial Class  Race and EthnicityRace and Ethnicity  RegionRegion Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa speaks to supporters. p. 164 Lester Cohen/WireImage.com/Getty Images
  • 11. Political IdeologyPolitical Ideology  Political ideologyPolitical ideology - A more or less- A more or less consistent set of beliefs about whatconsistent set of beliefs about what policies government ought to pursue.policies government ought to pursue.  Mass Ideologies: A TypologyMass Ideologies: A Typology  Liberal and Conservative ElitesLiberal and Conservative Elites Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
  • 12. Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage Source: Adapted fromSource: Adapted from “Profiles of the Typology“Profiles of the Typology Groups: Beyond Red andGroups: Beyond Red and Blue,” Pew ResearchBlue,” Pew Research Center for the People andCenter for the People and the Press, 2005.the Press, 2005.
  • 13. Political Elites, Public Opinion,Political Elites, Public Opinion, and Public Policyand Public Policy  Political elites –Political elites – persons with apersons with a disproportionate share of politicaldisproportionate share of political power.power.  Elites raise and frame political issues.Elites raise and frame political issues.  Elites state the norms by whichElites state the norms by which issues should be settled.issues should be settled. Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
  • 14. Political Elites, Public Opinion,Political Elites, Public Opinion, and Public Policyand Public Policy HOW MUCH INFLUENCE DO ELITESHOW MUCH INFLUENCE DO ELITES HAVE ON THE FOLLOWING?HAVE ON THE FOLLOWING?  RacismRacism  SexismSexism  Economic problemsEconomic problems  CrimeCrime  DrugsDrugs  Foreign affairsForeign affairs Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage
  • 15. M E M O R A N D U MM E M O R A N D U M To:To: Cecilia Kennedy, U.S. RepresentativeCecilia Kennedy, U.S. Representative From:From: Ronald Edwards, legislative assistantRonald Edwards, legislative assistant Subject:Subject: Vote on comprehensive immigration reformVote on comprehensive immigration reform The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) sought to stemThe 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) sought to stem illegal immigration by imposing penalties on employers who hireillegal immigration by imposing penalties on employers who hire them, while permitting the estimated 3 million illegal immigrantsthem, while permitting the estimated 3 million illegal immigrants at the time to attain legal status. Since then, however, theat the time to attain legal status. Since then, however, the number of illegal immigrants in the United States has quadrupled,number of illegal immigrants in the United States has quadrupled, while law enforcement efforts to punish employers or deport thosewhile law enforcement efforts to punish employers or deport those immigrants have been minimal. Your district is not directlyimmigrants have been minimal. Your district is not directly affected by immigration, but voters have concerns both aboutaffected by immigration, but voters have concerns both about maintaining law and order, and providing economic opportunitiesmaintaining law and order, and providing economic opportunities for people who have resided in this country for many years.for people who have resided in this country for many years. Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO?WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • 16. Arguments for:Arguments for: 1. Your district contains a large proportion of first-generation1. Your district contains a large proportion of first-generation Americans, who favor a “path to citizenship” for immigrantsAmericans, who favor a “path to citizenship” for immigrants who have lived in this country for years, regardless of theirwho have lived in this country for years, regardless of their legal status.legal status. 2. Illegal immigrants often take menial jobs that nobody else2. Illegal immigrants often take menial jobs that nobody else wants, and contribute to the U.S. economy by paying taxeswants, and contribute to the U.S. economy by paying taxes and buying goods and services.and buying goods and services. 3. A “path to citizenship,” with fines and other penalties for3. A “path to citizenship,” with fines and other penalties for being in the country illegally, is the most realistic option forbeing in the country illegally, is the most realistic option for individuals who have family and other long-term ties in theindividuals who have family and other long-term ties in the United States.United States. Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO?WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • 17. Arguments against:Arguments against: 1. Your party leaders oppose comprehensive immigration1. Your party leaders oppose comprehensive immigration reform, saying that enhanced border security must be areform, saying that enhanced border security must be a higher priority.higher priority. 2. Illegal immigrants take jobs away from native-born2. Illegal immigrants take jobs away from native-born Americans and cost more in public services, such asAmericans and cost more in public services, such as education and emergency health care, than they contributeeducation and emergency health care, than they contribute to the economy.to the economy. 3. People who entered the country illegally must not be3. People who entered the country illegally must not be rewarded for breaking the law, and enforcement can berewarded for breaking the law, and enforcement can be effective with sufficient resources.effective with sufficient resources. Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO?WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • 18. Your decision:Your decision: Vote for bill?Vote for bill? Vote against bill?Vote against bill? Copyright © 2011 CengageCopyright © 2011 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO?WHAT WOULD YOU DO?

Hinweis der Redaktion

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