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The cone of experience

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Edgar Dale's Cone of Experience

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The cone of experience

  1. 1. THE CONE OF EXPERIENCE By Edgar Dale
  2. 2. The Cone is a visual analogy and like all analogies, it does not bear an exact and detailed relationship to the complex elements it represents.
  3. 3. • The elements of the Cone of Experience are the 2 M’s of instruction namely the media and the material. • It guides the teachers in choosing the kind of instructional materials in teaching.
  4. 4. Verbal Symbols Visual Symbols Recordings, Radio Still Pictures Motion Pictures Educational Television Exhibits Demonstrations Dramatized Experiences Contrived Experiences Direct Purposeful Experiences Study Trips EDGAR DALE’S CONE OF EXPERIENCE Cognitive Skills
  5. 5. First introduced in Dale’s 1946 book, Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching. Designed to “show the progression of learning experiences” from the concrete to the abstract.
  6. 6. Concrete vs. Abstract Learning Concrete Learning Abstract Learning • First-hand experiences • Learner has some control over the outcome • Incorporates the use of all five senses • Difficulty when not enough previous experience or exposure to a concept • Every level of the Cone uses abstract thinking in come way
  7. 7. Influences on the Cone of Experience  Hoban, Hoban & Zisman’s Visual Media Graph  Value of educational technology is based on their degree of realism  Jerome Bruner’s Theory of Instruction  Three levels in the learning process  Enactive – direct experience  Iconic – representation of experience  Symbolic – words or visual symbols  The process of learning must begin in concrete experiences and move toward the abstract if mastery is to be obtained.
  8. 8. Mis-Conceptions of the Cone • All teaching/learning must move from the bottom to the top of the Cone. • One kind of experience on the Cone is more useful than another • More emphasis should be put on the bottom levels of the Cone • The upper level of the Cone is for older students while the lower levels are for younger students • It overemphasizes the use of instructional media
  9. 9. Levels of the Cone of Experience  Enactive – direct experiences  Direct, Purposeful  Contrived  Dramatized  Iconic – pictorial experiences  Demonstrations  Study trips  Exhibits  Educational television  Motion pictures  Recordings, radio, still pictures  Symbolic – highly abstract experiences  Visual symbols  Verbal symbols Verbal Symbols Visual Symbols Recordings, Radio Still Pictures Motion Pictures Educational Television Exhibits Demonstratio ns Dramatized Experiences Contrived Experiences Direct Purposeful Experiences Study Trips
  10. 10. Enactive • Refers to the direct experiences or encounter with what is. • This is life on the raw, rich and unedited. • They form the bases for all other learning experiences. • Example: (Actual swimming lesson)
  11. 11. Direct Purposeful Experiences • “First hand Experiences” • Have direct participation in the outcome • Use of all our senses Examples: Working in a homeless shelter  Tutoring younger children At the very bottom of the Cone we find the most concrete uses of experience.
  12. 12. Contrived Experiences  Here, we make use of a representative models and mock-ups of reality.  “Edited copies of reality”  Necessary when real experience cannot be used or are too complicated.  Examples  Conducting election of class and school officers  Mock up of a clock
  14. 14. Dramatized Experiences  “Reconstructed Experiences”  Can be used to simplify an event or idea to its most important parts.  Divided into two categories  Acting (Role Playing)– actual participation (more concrete)  Observing – watching a dramatization take place (more abstract) Other forms: 1. Plays 2. Puppets 3. Pageant 4. Pantomime 5. Tableu
  15. 15. Demonstrations • A visualized explanation of an important fact, idea or process by the use of: 1. Photographs 2. Drawings 3. Films 4. Displays 5. Guided motions • Showing how things are done. – How to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich – How to play the piano – How to lift a fingerprint • Visualized explanation of an important fact, idea, or process • Demonstrations are a great mixture of concrete hands-on application and more abstract verbal explanation.
  16. 16. Study Trips Watch people do things in real situations Observe an event that is unavailable in the classroom • These are excursions, educational trips, and visits conducted o observe an event that is unavailable within the classroom. Example: Field Study
  17. 17. • These are displays to be seen by spectators. • May consist of working models, charts and posters. • Sometimes are “for your eyes only”. More on visual.  Two types  Ready made ○ Museum ○ Career fair  Home-made ○ Classroom project ○ National History Day competition
  18. 18. Iconic Experiences on the Cone Progressively moving toward greater use of imagination Successful use in a classroom depends on how much imaginative involvement the method can illicit from students Involves: Demonstrations Study trips Exhibits Motion pictures Educational television Radio, recordings, and still pictures
  19. 19. Educational Television and Motion Pictures Television Motion Pictures  Bring immediate interaction with events from around the world  Edit an event to create clearer understanding than if experienced actual event first hand  Example:  TV coverage of 9/11  Can omit unnecessary or unimportant material  Used to slow down a fast process  Viewing, seeing and hearing experience  Can re-create events with simplistic drama that even slower students can grasp
  20. 20. • Television and motion pictures can reconstruct the reality of the past so effectively that we are made to feel we are there. • The unique value of the messages communicated by film and television lies in their feeling of realism, their emphasis on persons and personality, their organized presentation, and their ability to select, dramatize, highlight, and clarify.
  21. 21. Recordings, Radio Still Pictures  Can often be understood by those who cannot read. Lack auditory dimension.  Helpful to students who cannot deal with the motion or pace of a real event or television  These are visual or auditory devices which maybe used by an individual or a group.  Examples:  Time Life Magazine  Listening to old radio broadcasts  Listening to music
  22. 22. Symbolic • Refers to the use of words or printed materials which no longer resemble the object under study. • Example the word whale. Upon reading or hearing the word whale, the learner can form a mental image about it.
  23. 23. Visual Symbols No longer involves reproducing real situations Chalkboard and overhead projector the most widely used media Help students see an idea, event, or process Examples: Chalkboard Flat maps Diagrams charts
  25. 25. Verbal Symbols • They are not like the objects or ideas for which they stand. They usually do not contain visual clues to their meaning. • Written words fall under this category. It may be a word for a concrete object (book), an idea (freedom of speech), a scientific principle (the principle of balance), a formula (e=mc2)