Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
OpenGLAM – An Introduction
...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
OpenGLAM
• Goals
• Principl...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Let’s engage global audienc...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Let’s improve the discovera...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Let’s create new possibilit...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Let’s facilitate the re-use...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
1. Release digital informat...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Where Do We Stand Today?
• ...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Early Adopters
13.5%
Shareo...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Bulgaria, Brazil, Finland, ...
35%
6%
42%
13%
47%
17%
17%
6%
55%
19%
61%
15%
51%
23%
27%
10%
71%
11%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
Open data Linked ...
26%
23%
18%
30%
38%
24% 28%
33% 33%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
BG BR CH FI NL NZ PL PT UA
Open data
N = 1...
11%
12%
4%
6%
10%
9%
6%
19%
11%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
BG BR CH FI NL NZ PL PT UA
Linked data / seman...
42%
50%
44%
58%
71%
50%
38% 39% 39%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
BG BR CH FI NL NZ PL PT UA
Digitization
N ...
16%
17%
12%
15%
31%
12%
12%
17% 15%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
BG BR CH FI NL NZ PL PT UA
Open content
N ...
74%
66%
34%
74%
70%
71%
75%
58%
75%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
BG BR CH FI NL NZ PL PT UA
Social media
N ...
16%
19%
8%
26%
17%
9% 13%
11%
26%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
BG BR CH FI NL NZ PL PT UA
Collaborative con...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Independent
Variable(s)
Ope...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
9
countries
Social Media Di...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Attitudes: Conditions for R...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Digitization Today – Countr...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Digitization in 5 Years – C...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Open Content Today – Countr...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Open Content in 5 Years – C...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Copyright Clearance as a Pr...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Driving and Hindering Facto...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
«Let’s do it!» – «But how?»
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
▶ Put reproductions of «you...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
▶ Apply «free» copyright li...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
▶ Metadata Aggregators
▶ Eu...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
"We are doing the same thin...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
▶ In March and April 2013 Z...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Get involved with your loca...
Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences
Contact
Bern University of ...
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Conference "Vernetzte Welten" - Introduction to OpenGLAM

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Introduction to OpenGLAM; Conference "Vernetzte Welten", Graz, 25 February 2016

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  • Conference "Vernetzte Welten" - Introduction to OpenGLAM

    1. 1. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences OpenGLAM – An Introduction Beat Estermann, 25. Februar 2016, Graz, « Vernetzte Welten » Archäologiemuseum des Universalmuseums Joanneum, Graz (Thilo Parg, Wikimedia Commons, CC by-sa 3.0) Wo nicht anders vermerkt, unterstehen die Inhalte dieser Präsentation der CC-by-sa 4.0 Lizenz. Bitte Markenrechte auf Logos beachten.
    2. 2. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences OpenGLAM • Goals • Principles
    3. 3. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Let’s engage global audiences! (go where the people are!)
    4. 4. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Let’s improve the discoverability and inter-connection of collections Linking Open Data cloud diagram 2014, by Max Schmachtenberg, Christian Bizer, Anja Jentzsch and Richard Cyganiak. http://lod-cloud.net/ CC BY-SA 3.0
    5. 5. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Let’s create new possibilities for participation by users / visitors Photo: Wikimedia Commons, Swiss National Library, Simon Schmid, Fabian Scherler - CC-BY-SA
    6. 6. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Let’s facilitate the re-use of heritage items and the information about them
    7. 7. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences 1. Release digital information about the artefacts (metadata) into the public domain using an appropriate legal tool such as the Creative Commons Zero Waiver. 2. Keep digital representations of works for which copyright has expired (public domain) in the public domain by not adding new rights to them. 3. When publishing data make an explicit and robust statement of your wishes and expectations with respect to reuse and repurposing […] 4. When publishing data use open file formats which are machine- readable. 5. Opportunities to engage audiences in novel ways on the web should be pursued. Full version with examples: http://openglam.org/principles/ The 5 OpenGLAM Principles
    8. 8. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Where Do We Stand Today? • Selected Results of the OpenGLAM Benchmark Survey Source: Estermann, Beat (2015) Diffusion of Open Data and Crowdsourcing among Heritage Institutions. Based on data from Finland, Poland, Switzerland, and The Netherlands. Paper Presented at the EGPA 2015 Conference, held on 26-28 August 2015 in Toulouse, France. http://survey.openglam.ch 9 countries Some of the following graphics are derived from more recent analyses, based on data from 9 countries: Brazil, Bulgaria, Finland, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and Ukraine.
    9. 9. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Early Adopters 13.5% Shareofinstitutions(%) Innovators 2.5% Early Majority 34% Late Majority 34% Laggards 16% Research Questions Where do heritage institutions stand with regard to… …Open Data? …Linked Data / Semantic Web? …Digitization …Open Content? …Engaging Audiences on the Internet …Collaborative Content Creation What are the perceived risks and opportunities? (drivers vs. hindering factors) What are the expected benefits? What are the differences between different types of heritage institutions? A further goal of the “OpenGLAM Benchmark Survey” are international comparisons: In what ways does the situation in the different countries vary? Awareness Evaluation AdoptionTrialInterest Innovation Diffusion Model, Everett Rogers, 1962
    10. 10. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Bulgaria, Brazil, Finland, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, all institution types combined, N = 1030. Cases with «stagnation» / «discontinuance» have been ignored. Proportionofinstitutions(%) Innovators 2.5% Early Majority 34% Late Majority 34% Early Adopters 13.5% Laggards 16% Collaborative content creation Social media Open content Digitization Linked data Open data Advanced implementation Adoption Trial Evaluation Interest No interest Everett Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation Model 9 countries Diffusion of Innovative Practices among Heritage Institutions
    11. 11. 35% 6% 42% 13% 47% 17% 17% 6% 55% 19% 61% 15% 51% 23% 27% 10% 71% 11% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Open data Linked data / semantic web Digitization Open content Social media Collaborative content creation Archives Museums Libraries N = 1030 Adoption Rates According to Institution Type 9 countries
    12. 12. 26% 23% 18% 30% 38% 24% 28% 33% 33% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% BG BR CH FI NL NZ PL PT UA Open data N = 1030 Adoption Rates – Country Comparison 9 countries
    13. 13. 11% 12% 4% 6% 10% 9% 6% 19% 11% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% BG BR CH FI NL NZ PL PT UA Linked data / semantic web N = 1030 Adoption Rates – Country Comparison 9 countries
    14. 14. 42% 50% 44% 58% 71% 50% 38% 39% 39% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% BG BR CH FI NL NZ PL PT UA Digitization N = 1030 Adoption Rates – Country Comparison 9 countries
    15. 15. 16% 17% 12% 15% 31% 12% 12% 17% 15% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% BG BR CH FI NL NZ PL PT UA Open content N = 1030 Adoption Rates – Country Comparison 9 countries
    16. 16. 74% 66% 34% 74% 70% 71% 75% 58% 75% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% BG BR CH FI NL NZ PL PT UA Social media N = 1030 Adoption Rates – Country Comparison 9 countries
    17. 17. 16% 19% 8% 26% 17% 9% 13% 11% 26% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% BG BR CH FI NL NZ PL PT UA Collaborative content creation N = 1030 Adoption Rates – Country Comparison 9 countries
    18. 18. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Independent Variable(s) Open Data Linked Data Digitization Open Content Social Media Use Collab. Cont. Creation Country ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ Institution Type ++ Typical Objects + ++ Main Users Geographical Reach ++ Size (paid FTE) ++ Size (revenues) Pct of Volunters in Workforce ++ + Revenue Sources Form of Organization + Number of Metadata Types ++ ++ ++ + Skills / Skills Acquisition ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ Attitudes reg. Open Content + ++ Ordinal Logistic Regression – Synthesis of Results 9 countries
    19. 19. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences 9 countries Social Media Digitization Open Content Open Data Collaborative Content Creation Linked Data 5-99% volunteers > 100% volunteers reach size (revenues) institutional funding from public funds library > archive museum > library library 100% volunteers > less than 5% vol. two-dimensional visual resources overall skills level Number of channels used to acquire skills overall satisfaction with skills acquisition number of metadata types PL, CH archival resources ready to make content freely available for non- profit projects BR > NZ NL CH, BR > UA BG, BR, NL, UA > PL Commercial organization institutional funding from private funds text-based resources archival resources natural resources digital interactive resources organizational maturity Factors influencing the adoption of Internet-related practices positive impact negative impact
    20. 20. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Attitudes: Conditions for Releasing Content N = 457
    21. 21. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Digitization Today – Country Comparison 1% 17% 0% 30% 50% 10% 2% 6% 1% 7% 0% 0% 2% 10% 1% 10% 5% 10% 13% 50% 10% 50% 25% 50% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Text based resources (365) Two-dimensional visual resources (357) Archival resources (281) Three-dimensional man-made movable objects (314) Natural resources (47) Geography based resources (119) Time based resources (220) Percentage of resources already digitized by the average institution (median) (N is indicated for each object type; the values for natural resources are not shown due to the small sample size) Finland Poland Switzerland The Netherlands
    22. 22. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Digitization in 5 Years – Country Comparison 3% 45% 10% 50% 50% 30% 12% 30% 15% 35% 28% 20% 10% 50% 10% 50% 45% 50%50% 80% 25% 80% 40% 50% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Text based resources (318) Two-dimensional visual resources (317) Archival resources (251) Three-dimensional man-made movable objects (279) Natural resources (39) Geography based resources (99) Time based resources (196) Percentage of resources expected to be digitized in 5 years by the average institution (median) (N is indicated for each object type; the values for natural resources are not shown due to the small sample size) Finland Poland Switzerland The Netherlands
    23. 23. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Open Content Today – Country Comparison 3% 5% 3% 1% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Percentage of resources already made available as open content by the average institution (median) (N is indicated for each object type; the values for natural resources are not shown due to the small sample size; “0%” value tags have been suppressed) Finland Poland Switzerland The Netherlands
    24. 24. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Open Content in 5 Years – Country Comparison 0% 5% 2% 5% 10% 1% 3%5% 8% 2% 10% 30% 0% 0%0% 5% 0% 5% 10% 0% 5% 15% 50% 20% 25% 18% 10% 19% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Percentage of resources expected to be made available as open content in 5 years by the average institution (median) (N is indicated for each object type; the values for natural resources are not shown due to the small sample size) Finland Poland Switzerland The Netherlands
    25. 25. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Copyright Clearance as a Prerequisite for Open Content Note: The data may be somewhat biased as it does - by definition - not include the data from institutions who weren’t able to provide numbers regarding the copyright status of their objects. 31% 29% 47% 42% 59% 44% 18% 28% 27% 35% 35% 40% 29% 37% 37% 50% 33% 23% 10% 12% 8% 13% 34% 15% 8% 13% 8% 7% 4% 6% 11% 6% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% What is the copyright situation of the objects in your collection? (average percentages for each object type; N is indicated for each object type) copyright status unknown copyright controlled by third parties copyright controlled by the institution public domain
    26. 26. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Driving and Hindering Factors of Open Content and Crowdsourcing Driving Factors1 Hindering Factors1 Open Content Improving the visibility of the institution and its holdings Making content more easily available for existing users and attract new users Facilitating networking among institutions Improving interactions with users Doing a better job at fulfilling the institution’s core mission Extra time effort and expenses (digitization, documentation, rights clearance) Feeling of loss of control Wish to prevent commercial use of content by third parties without due compensation Technical issues and insufficient staff skills Crowdsourcing Intention to get access to external expertise and to have certain tasks carried out by volunteers Quest for an improved relationship with users/visitors (trust, loyalty, public ownership and responsibility) Extensive preparation and follow-up Difficulties to estimate the time scope; low planning security; continuity of data maintenance is not guaranteed 1 Factors which are of relevance for more than 50% of responding institutions
    27. 27. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences «Let’s do it!» – «But how?»
    28. 28. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Put reproductions of «your» public domain works on the Internet in high resolution formats and mark them as «public domain» works, so that others can re-use them and build upon them! ▶ In case of doubt regarding the legal situation, consult the Public Domain FAQ (Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property): ▶ “If a work is in the public domain, it can be used in any way desired – this means reproduced (copied), edited, distributed, etc. – without permission.” ▶ “The individuality required for copyright protection is commonly lacking for reproductions which are as true as possible to the original.” ▶ “If a person or institution knows that a work is in the public domain and still claims copyright to it, this is so-called intentional deception.” Respect the public domain and facilitate access to it Source: https://www.ige.ch/en/service/frequently-asked-questions/copyrights/public-domain.html
    29. 29. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Apply «free» copyright licenses to: ▶ biographical information ▶ publications referring to your collections ▶ any other type of content that others may want to re-use ▶ Creative Commons offers two possibilities to «freely» license copyrighted content (note: «free» as in «freedom» not as in «beer»): ▶ Avoid using «non commercial» or «no derivative» restrictions ▶ Use the Creative Commons Zero Waiver to publish your metadata Apply «free» copyright licenses to your content www.creativecommons.org
    30. 30. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Metadata Aggregators ▶ Europeana ▶ Archives Portal Europe ▶ International Inventory of Musical Sources ▶ Swiss Open Government Data Portal ▶ Content Platforms ▶ Wikimedia Commons ▶ Flickr – The Commons ▶ Internet Archive Make your data/content available through open data/content platforms
    31. 31. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences "We are doing the same thing, for the same reason, for the same people, in the same medium. Let's do it together!! LiamWyatt WIKI- Cooperate with the Wikipedia/Wikimedia Community https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:GLAM/Schweiz
    32. 32. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ In March and April 2013 Zentralbibliothek Zürich uploaded ca. 100 images from their prints and photography collection to Wikimedia Commons ▶ By the end of April 2014, 56 out of 96 uploaded files (58%) have been used in 159 Wikipedia articles belonging to 42 different language versions of Wikipedia ▶ In April 2014 these 159 Wikipedia articles were viewed over 500’000 times Source: http://tools.wmflabs.org/glamtools/baglama2/ Measure the impact and talk about it… Zürich, Sechseläuten fire around 1900. Anonymous artist, Public Domain (Wikimedia Commons). Chamonix. Crossing the Sea of ​​Ice, between 1902 and 1904. Anonymous artist, Public Domain (Wikimedia Commons). The Iron Bridge across the Thur, view from east from Regensdorf, 1857. Jakob Eggli, Public Domain (Wikimedia Commons). WP-de: Schweizerische Nordostbahn WP-fr: Chamonix-Mont-Blanc; Recul des glaciers depuis 1850 WP-ru: Шестизвонье
    33. 33. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Get involved with your local OpenGLAM Community! Open Cultural Data Hackathon at the Swiss National Library (Feb.2015) Photo: Swiss National Library, Simon Schmid, Fabian Scherler – CC by-sa Open Cultuur Data (Netherlands), CC by-sa Hackathons… Master Classes… Survey… Lobbying…
    34. 34. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Contact Bern University of Applied Sciences E-Government Institute Beat Estermann beat.estermann@bfh.ch 031 848 34 38 http://openglam.ch – Swiss OpenGLAM Working Group (opendata.ch) http://openglam.org – International OpenGLAM Working Group (Open Knowledge)

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