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Ch20 Sections 1 & 2 Notes

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Ch20 Sections 1 & 2 Notes

  2. 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>What changes occurred in marriage and the family in the course of the eighteenth century? </li></ul><ul><li>What was life like for children, and how did attitudes toward children evolve? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Marriage and the Family <ul><li>Extended and nuclear families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nuclear family, not the extended family, was most common in preindustrial western and central Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This conclusion is based on new studies of “parish registers.” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Marriage and the Family <ul><li>Early marriage was not common prior to 1750, and many women (perhaps as much as half) never married at all. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a typical English village, women and men married at twenty-seven. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marriage was commonly delayed because of poverty and/or local law and tradition . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Marriage and the Family <ul><li>Work away from home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many boys left home to work as craftsmen or laborers . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls left to work as servants—where they often were physically and sexually mistreated . </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Marriage and the Family <ul><li>Premarital sex and community controls. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegitimate children were not common in preindustrial society ; premarital sex was common, but marriage usually followed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The traditional (open-field) village system was a check upon both illegitimacy and early marriage . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public action against domestic disputes and marital scandals was frequent—often taking the form of degrading public rituals . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth control methods were primitive and undependable. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Marriage and the Family <ul><li>New patterns of marriage and illegitimacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between about 1750 and 1850 the number of illegitimate births soared —in some places from 2 to 25 percent of all births. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer young women were abstaining from premarital intercourse and fewer young men were marrying the women they got pregnant . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One cause for this was that the growth of cottage industry (and later, the factory) resulted in people marrying earlier and for love. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another cause was that more young villagers were moving to towns and cities where they were no longer subject to village controls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low wages, inequality, and changing economic and social conditions made it difficult for women to acquire a marriage based on romance . </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Children and Education <ul><li>Childhood was dangerous because of adult indifference, neglect, and even abuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Child care and nursing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infant mortality was very high. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breast-feeding of children was common among poor women. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breast-fed infants were more likely to survive than the infant who was fed artificial foods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle- and upper-class women hired wet nurses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The occupation of wet-nursing was often exploitative of lower-class women </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Children and Education <ul><li>Foundlings and infanticide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Killing nurses” and infanticide were forms of population control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundling hospitals were est. but could not care for all the abandoned babies . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some had as many as 25,000 children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In reality, many were simply a form of legalized infanticide . </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Children and Education <ul><li>Attitudes toward children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes toward children were different from those of today, partly because of the frequency of death . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents and doctors were generally indifferent to children . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children were often neglected or treated brutally. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Enlightenment brought about more humane treatment of children. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critics like Rousseau called for more love and understanding of children . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The practice of swaddling was discouraged. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Children and Education <ul><li>Schools and popular literature </li></ul><ul><li>Formal education outside the home became more important for the upper classes in the sixteenth century. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But education for common people did not begin until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both Catholic and Protestant reformers encouraged popular education. </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant Prussia led the way in universal education . </li></ul><ul><li>Education was important in Presbyterian Scotland and elsewhere. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Children and Education <ul><li>Literacy increased, especially in France and Scotland, between 1700 and 1800. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bible was still the favorite book, but new pamphlets called chapbooks became popular. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another form was popular literature, such as fairy tales, romances, and fictionalized history. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some popular literature dealt with practical arts; most new literature did not challenge the political and social system. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Questions to assess your understanding <ul><li>At what age did most people marry in the 1700 & 1800s? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was the marriage pattern later (ages) during this time? </li></ul><ul><li>What did young boys typically do for a job? </li></ul><ul><li>What did young women do for a job? </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to 1750 how would you characterize frequency of premarital sex? </li></ul><ul><li>What were a baby’s chances of survival at a foundling home? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Vincent de Paul? </li></ul><ul><li>What was Daniel Defoe’s perspective on child-rearing? </li></ul><ul><li>Which European country was the first to mandate compulsory education? </li></ul><ul><li>What was an underlying cause of the illegitimacy explosion? </li></ul><ul><li>To what can you contribute neglectful attitudes toward children in preindustrial Europe? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of texts/books were popular among European peasants ? </li></ul><ul><li>How did common people treat those who violated social norms in a village? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of almanacs were popular with European peasants? </li></ul><ul><li>What dangers threatened young girls who worked as domestic servants? </li></ul>