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Freud’s Psychoanalytic Freud’s theory views personality development according to stages experienced in the growing years of infancy and adolescence.
Psychosexual DevelopmentOral stage (0 to 2 years)Anal stage (2 to 4 years)Phallic stage (4 to 6 years)Latency stage (6 to 12 years)Genital stage (12 years to up)
Oral stageFirsttwo years of the child when the center for pleasure is the mouth.
Anal stage Children attention is directed to anal region. Children receive pleasure from the elimination process.
Phallic stageChildren derive pleasure from activities associates with stroking and manipulating sex organs.
2 State of Phallic Stage Oedipus Electra Complex
OedipusThe stage when young boys experience rivalry with their father for their mother’s attention and affection.
Electra ComplexGirlsees her mother as a rival for her fathers attention but her fear for her mother less.
Latency stageOccurs between the ages of six and twelve.Their energies one now absorbed by such concerns as school learning, peer relations, sport and other recreational activities.Relatively calm and stable period.
Genital stageStartwith the onset of pubertyFeelings directed toward other persons of the opposite sex.Dependence on parents is overcome and the young person is on the way to establishing a suits flying life of his own.
Significance of Development theories to Education
That behavior becomes more and more highly organized and complex in nature as the person natures and experiences numerous interactions with the environment from stage to one another.
Frued Awareness of parents and teachers on the role of experiences during the early stages of the life cycle may be considered as the most outstanding contribution of Frued’s theory to understanding the concept of personality development.
Eriksons TheoryThe idea that development does not occur in a vacuum. Rather, it occurs first within the context of a family and later on within an increasingly larger social environment such as the neighborhood and the school.
Point of emphasis in Eriksons Theory1) The importance of a consistent and regular satisfaction of needs during the early stage of development of the sense of trust is to be developed by infants.
2) The importance of providing experiences to children during the pre-school age that will encourage independence and reward initiative, within their capabilities, if the sense of initiative to be achieved by pre- school children.
3) The importance of providing opportunities to children of formal schools age to acquire the basic skills and competencies considered important if they are to develop a sense of mastery and industry.
4) The need to help adolescents cope with their struggle to know who they are, what they are, and what they will become if they sense of identity.