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Tilapia Hatchery Management and Fingerling Production

Presentation during the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) Seminar Series on July 26, 2018 at RDMIC Bldg., cor. Visayas Ave., Elliptical Rd., Diliman, Quezon City

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Tilapia Hatchery Management and Fingerling Production

  1. 1. TILAPIA HATCHERY MANAGEMENT AND FINGERLING PRODUCTION Evelyn H. Zafra BFAR-NFFTC, CLSU, Science City of Munoz
  2. 2. TILAPIA • Native to Nile and North Africa • Extensively farmed throughout Asia • Now a global species
  3. 3. TILAPIA • Dubbed as “aquatic chicken” - Grows fast - breeds easily in captivity - Propagation and culture is not too expensive - Hatcheries can readily supply the seedstock requirement of grow-out operators
  4. 4. • Introduced in 1950 (O. mossambicus) • Origin: Thailand
  5. 5. 1972 - Oreochromis niloticus ((Nile tilapia, Pla-Pla, Giant tilapia, Meztiso, KinabasiNile tilapia, Pla-Pla, Giant tilapia, Meztiso, Kinabasi )) Presence of strong vertical stripes on the caudal fin. Origin: Israel, Thailand
  6. 6. 10 oocytes I. NEST BUILDING & COURTSHIP (1-5 days) II. OVULATION & SPAWNING (<2 hours) Spawned female leaves lek IV. NURSERY (10-30 days) continued maternal dependency; fry and mother begin to feed incubation period is T0 C dependent Development of ovary after incubation Speed of ovarian development varies with period of maternal dependency and food availability re-entry of recovered female into lek boundary of lek III. INCUBATION (6-10 days)*holding of seed in the mouth continuously mature oocytes V. FEEDING & RECOVERY (14 -30 days) Natural Reproductive Cycle ofNatural Reproductive Cycle of Oreochromis spp.spp. Adapted from AIT Hand-out “The Nile Tilapia: Techniques for mass Fingerling Production and Grow-out, 1992.
  7. 7. Relationship between the Number of Eggs Laid withRelationship between the Number of Eggs Laid with the size of the Female Tilapiathe size of the Female Tilapia Directly ProportionalDirectly Proportional Hepher and Fruginin, 1981
  8. 8. DEVELOPMENT OFDEVELOPMENT OF O. NILOTICUS ATAT 28°C28°C Stage 5 3.75 - 5 days Stage 2 14-30 hrs. Stage 1 2-3 hrs. 30-48 hrs. Stage 3 Stage 4 3 days Stage 6 5-6 days 9-12 days Stage 7
  9. 9. o Depends on: Growth of TilapiaGrowth of Tilapia - stocking rates - water quality - food supply o Male grow faster (10-20%)
  10. 10. Juveniles - Omnivorous and mainly consumes copepods, phytoplankton and insects - By 6 cm TL, diet becomes primarily phytoplankton Diet/NutritionDiet/Nutrition Fry Mash Starter Grower Types of Commercial Feeds Adults - Utilizes phytoplankton (blue-green algae and diatoms) but may also consume macrophytes when phytoplankton densities are low - consumes commercially available and/or formulated feeds
  11. 11. Intestine/Gut LengthIntestine/Gut Length Tilapia has an intestine length between five to eight times its body length. Tilapia has an intestine length between five to eight times its body length.
  12. 12. Environmental RequirementEnvironmental Requirement Parameter Level Remarks Temperature (°C) 28 - 32 Optimum for reproduction and growth Stops feeding at 16°C, disease-induced mortalities at 10-18°C below Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) >5 Minimum for optimum growth Salinity (ppt) 10 -15 Favors growth of Nile Tilapia Nile tilapias can reproduce in salinities up to 10 to 15 ppt, but perform better at salinities below 5 ppt Fry numbers declines at 10 ppt pH 6.5 – 9.0 Optimum for primary production Total ammonia (mg/l) 0.02 – 0.05 0.08 mg/l unionized ammonia can cause decreased food consumption of fish Nitrite (mg/l) < 27 Toxic due to less capacity of hemoglobin in taking oxygen Turbidity (cm) 30 – 35 For pond productivity
  13. 13. TILAPIA CULTURE • Hatchery – production of seedstocks both for nursery and grow-out • Nursery - rearing of fry to advance fingerlings for grow-out • Grow-out - growing of tilapia fingerlings to table size for consumption
  14. 14. TILAPIA HATCHERY A place for artificial breeding of tilapia, hatching and rearing and nursery from various stages of development: eggs (hatchlings), pre- swim-up fry, swim-up fry, post fry to fingerlings.
  15. 15. TILAPIA HATCHERY • Allows the tilapia grow-out farmer to have ready fingerlings whenever he needs • As long as the demand of fingerlings exists, a well managed hatchery can turn to be a good business
  16. 16. TYPES/METHOD OF TILAPIA HATCHERY • Open pond (the most commonly used) • Tanks • Hapas (net enclosures) placed in ponds Fry collected from the spawning units (pond, tank, hapa) are stocked to rearing units before stocking to grow-out Fingerlings collected are directly stocked to grow-out units
  17. 17. OPEN POND METHOD • Tilapia breed freely in ponds • Quality fingerlings is important to be used by fishfarmers • Poor fingerlings result in poor harvests • Consider using properly produced fingerlings • Ensure profit
  18. 18. OPEN POND METHOD • The most common and simplest way of producing tilapia fingerlings • Breeders are allowed to spawn naturally in the pond • Pond serves both for breeding and rearing of fry to fingerlings
  19. 19. MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE IN OPEN POND HATCHERY
  20. 20. 1. CONDITIONING OF BREEDERS • Male and female breeders are stocked in separate pond • Breeders are given supplemental feeds with high protein content • To regain their energy loss during the previous breeding • Healthy breeders will give healthy offspring ♀♂♂
  21. 21. SEX DIFFERENTIATION FOR TILAPIASEX DIFFERENTIATION FOR TILAPIA 2. Urogenital pore 2. Genital pore 1. anus 3. Urinary pore ♀♀ ♂♂ 11 22 33 11 22 1. anus
  22. 22. 2. PREPARATION OF BREEDING POND - Fishpond is allowed to completely drain first so that all the previous stocks are collected - Pond bottom is tilled using a tractor - If necessary, hydrated lime is applied all over the pond bottom. - Breeding pond is prepared in such a way that the pond bottom is soft and leveled for ease of the male breeders in building their nest. - Pond is filled with water to a depth of 0.75 to 1.0 meter
  23. 23. Oreochromis’ NestsOreochromis’ Nests
  24. 24. 3. SELECTION AND STOCKING OF BREEDERS - Hatchery operators and workers must have skills in selecting female breeders that are ready to spawn and male breeders that are ready to mate. - A ready to spawn female breeder has swollen papillae and distended abdomen, while a ready to mate has protruding reddish urogenital papillae. - The average weight of breeders to be stocked in the breeding pond is about 250g to 500g - stocking density of breeders – 1 breeder/2m2 - 200-500kg/ha. - 1 set per 5-7sq.meter - Sex ratio -1:3 (male:female) ♀
  25. 25. 4. ROUTINE POND MANAGEMENT • Feeding • Water quality monitoring • Maintenance of pond system • Monitoring of water depth • Observation for the presence of fry
  26. 26. 5. HARVESTING OF SEEDSTOCKS A. FINGERLINGS COLLECTION METHOD - 15-21 days after stocking of breeders - Seining/harvesting is done weekly thereafter depending on the weather condition/water temperature (250 C) - Fingerlings are transferred to conditioning tanks - Conditioning is very important to ensure high survival during transport to grow-out units
  27. 27. 5. HARVESTING OF SEEDSTOCKS B. FRY COLLECTION METHOD - 10-15 days after stocking ready to spawn breeders, schools of fry may be observed - scissors net is used for harvesting - collection is daily (morning and afternoon) along the edges of pond dikes or all over the pond - collected fry are further reared to fingerlings size (hapa, pond, tank)
  28. 28. INTENSIVE TILAPIA HATCHERY C. EGG COLLECTION METHOD
  29. 29. INTENSIVE TILAPIA HATCHERY TECHNOLOGY Aqua Farming Tech, Inc. Thermal California, USA
  30. 30. Egg grader Incubation jars Hatchery Set up Hatchery paraphernalia on the wall
  31. 31. Aerated water supply Pail Paint Brush
  32. 32. I.I. COLLECTION OF EGGS FROM BREEDING PONDSCOLLECTION OF EGGS FROM BREEDING PONDS Collection will commence seven to ten days after stocking of ready to spawn and ready to matebreeders. Breeders will be seined towards the area where the “baklad” is installed . Breeders will be trapped where they will be scooped and put into the breeders bed Eggs in the mouth of female breeders will be collected and will be transferred to the pail Eggs will be immediately transported to the hatchery
  33. 33. II. CLEANING OF EGGS, ESTIMATION ANDII. CLEANING OF EGGS, ESTIMATION AND TRANSFERRING TO INCUBATION JARSTRANSFERRING TO INCUBATION JARS eggs will be put in fry trough and cleaned in flowing water separating from dirt Quantity of eggs will be estimated by putting them in a 500ml stainless mug Based on Aqua Farming Tech, Inc. 1 ml:120- 165 pcs eggs Eggs will be transferred to a 500 ml beaker for easy transferring to incubation jars Eggs will passed through a funnel directing it to the incubating jars
  34. 34. III. EGG INCUBATION, HATCHING OF EGGS ANDIII. EGG INCUBATION, HATCHING OF EGGS AND GRADING OF SWIM-UP FRYGRADING OF SWIM-UP FRY Eggs will stay in incubation system for three days or until all eggs are hatched to swim up fry. Swim up fry will be graded before transferring to fry troughs for further rearing without direct contact to the fry, it will be released in the pail that is placed at the bottom of the outlet of the fry trough by opening the outlet hole of the fry trough To completely collect the fry, let the water flow and push the remaining fry towards the outlet using paint brush
  35. 35. Put collected fry in the grader The remaining fry in the grader will be set aside by putting the fry to another pail Continue activity everyday until all the eggs are fully hatched to swim up fry.
  36. 36. IV. FRY REARING IN FRY TROUGHIV. FRY REARING IN FRY TROUGH Feeding will be done every four hours (level of water in troughs should be lowered before feeding) Simultaneous cleaning of fry trough should be done by brushing the walls using a sponge When water is already shallow, saturate the fry with feeds Fry will stay in the fry trough for one week before it will be transferred in the nursery tanks. Raise water to desired level
  37. 37. V. TRANSFERRING, REARING AND FEEDING OFV. TRANSFERRING, REARING AND FEEDING OF FINGERLINGS IN THE STAINLESS NURSERYFINGERLINGS IN THE STAINLESS NURSERY TANKSTANKS Transfer fry from hatchery to stainless nursery tanks for further rearing and growing to size until fish is ready to be transferred to large circular/rectangular concrete tanks Fish in nursery tanks is fed four times daily Monitoring of the condition of fish, regular cleaning of the tanks and regular feeding are the activities to be undertaken.
  38. 38. VI. TANK PREPARATION AND STOCKING OFVI. TANK PREPARATION AND STOCKING OF FINGERLINGS TO CONCRETEFINGERLINGS TO CONCRETE CIRCULAR/RECTANGULAR TANKSCIRCULAR/RECTANGULAR TANKS Fingerlings are further grown to juvenile size at concrete tanks Tanks are cleaned by brushing the walls and floorings before being stocked Water will be allowed to enter then after sometime, the water will be washed out For circular tanks, ring of feeds will be broadcasted by hand one foot apart while in rectangular tank, feeds are broadcasted in a straight line way Once tank was thoroughly cleaned, feeds will be broadcasted
  39. 39. BFAR-NFFTC Modified Intensive Tilapia HatcheryBFAR-NFFTC Modified Intensive Tilapia Hatchery
  40. 40. BFAR-NFFTC Modified Intensive Tilapia HatcheryBFAR-NFFTC Modified Intensive Tilapia Hatchery Conditioning tank of breeders
  41. 41. BFAR-NFFTC Modified Intensive Tilapia HatcheryBFAR-NFFTC Modified Intensive Tilapia Hatchery Breeding Pond Area
  42. 42. BFAR-NFFTC Modified Intensive Tilapia HatcheryBFAR-NFFTC Modified Intensive Tilapia Hatchery Artificial Incubation
  43. 43. BFAR-NFFTC Modified Intensive Tilapia HatcheryBFAR-NFFTC Modified Intensive Tilapia Hatchery Breeders Sorting Net
  44. 44. BFAR-NFFTC Modified Intensive Tilapia HatcheryBFAR-NFFTC Modified Intensive Tilapia Hatchery Seine Net
  45. 45. COST AND RETURN OF 1.2 HECTARE TILAPIA HATCHERY IN EARTHEN PONDS
  46. 46. Assumptions: 1. Land Area: 12,000 m2 2. Water Area: 9,160 m2 3. Water Depth:1.0 m 4. Number of Compartments:12 units 5. Water Source: Irrigation and Deep well as back-up 6. No. of cropping/year: 7 cropping /year COST AND RETURN ANALYSIS OF 1.2 HECTARE TILAPIA HATCHERY IN EARTHEN PONDS
  47. 47. Particulars Unit Cost (Php) Quantity Total Cost (Php) 2.Land clearing 20,000.00/ha 1.2 ha. P 24,000.00 3..Excavation/diking/compaction 3,000/hour 148 hours 444,000.00 4.Water supply system - lined supply system   385.00/linear m   459 linear meter   176,715.00 5.Drainage system - underground drainage canal - drainage manhole - catch basin           144,262.50   8,250.00 111,728.00 6.Pump and installation    2 160,000.00 7.Equipments/ Paraphernalia - seine net - weighing scale - tubs/buckets    5,060.00 2,500.00 2,000.00   2 rolls of b-net 1 unit 5 units    10,120.00 2,500.00 10,000.00 8.Twin holding tanks 20,000.00/unit 2 units 40,000.00 9.Caretaker’s house/ bodega 5,000.00/m2 5m X 4m 100,000.00 10.Vehicle (2nd hand) 300,000.00 25% of the time for the project  75,000.00 TOTAL     P 1,306,575.5 TABLE 1. CAPITAL INVESTMENT
  48. 48. Particulars Unit Cost (Php) Quantity Costs (Php) a. Fertilizers Applied - Ammonium Phosphate (16-20-0)   1,200.00/bag   12 bags   14,400.00 b. Feeds - Fish fry mash - Fish Finisher   1000/bag 800/bag   5 bags 630 bags   5,000.00 504,000.00 c. Fuel - Diesel   47.00/li   200 lt   9,400.00 d. Electricity 1,000.00/mo. 12 mos. 12,000.00 e. Irrigation fee 1,750/ha twice a year 3,500.00 f. Labor Caretaker   Additional labourer (harvesting, sizing and marketing)  7,500.00/mo.  250.00/day  1 @ 12 mos.  5 laborers 2 days harvest @ 10 cycles/yr 90,000.00  12,500.00 g. Miscellaneous (oxygen tanks, Plastics and rubber bands, etc)     60,000 Sub-total     710,800.00 h.10% Contingencies (Travelling & representation, etc)     71,080.00 Add: Production Cost/100g breeders * See attached Production cost/ for (100g breeders)      136,653.00  TOTAL      P 918,533.00 TABLE 2. OPERATING CAPITAL
  49. 49. Particulars Unit Cost (Php) Quantity Costs (Php)  a. Breeders (Fingerling size)  1.00  25,000 pcs.  P 25,000.00 b. Fertilizers Applied - Chicken Manure (basal) - Ammonium Phosphate (16-20-0)   80.00/bag 1,000/bag    56.54 bags 2 bags    4,523.00 2,000.00 c. Feeds - Fish fry mash - Fish Starter - Fish Grower - Fish Finisher   83/kg 31.2/kg 29.2/kg 25.2/kg   100 kg 675 kg 725 kg 1,000 kg    8,300.00 21,060.00 21,170.00 25,200.00 d. Fuel - Diesel   44.00/li   25 li/wk @ 4 wks for 4 months   17,600.00 e. Electricity     1,200.00 e. Labor Caretaker Additional laborer (seining, sexing and conditioning of broodstock)  7,500.00/mo.  250.00/day  1 @ 3 mos.  3 laborers@ 2 days  22,500.00  1,500.00  TOTAL      P 136,653 TABLE 3. PRODUCTION COST / 100g BREEDERS
  50. 50.   EQUIPMENTS   COST ECONOMIC LIFE ANNUAL DEPRECIATION 1.Paraphernalia's - seine nets - bucket/ tubs - weighing scale    10,120.00 5,000.00 2,500.00    2 years 3 years 2 years    5,060.00 1,666.00 1,250.00 2.Pump and accessories 80,000.00 10 years 8,000.00 3.Water Supplies structures  176,715.00  10 years  17,671.00 4. Drainage structures 264,240.50 15 years 17,616.00 5.Twin holding tanks 40,000.00 15 years 2,666.00 5. Farm building 100,000.00 15 years 7,142.00 6. Vehicle (25% of time for the project) 75,000.00 10 years 7,500.00 TOTAL      P 68,571.00 TABLE 4. DEPRECIATION OF VALUE
  51. 51. PROJECTED PRODUCTION Assumptions: *Breeders = 6,000 pcs (4,500 female; 1,500 male) Fingerlings production per female breeder = 200 pieces Fingerlings produced/cycle = 4,500 female breeders X 200 fingerlings = 900,000 pcs Production per year = 900,000 x 10 cropping= 9,000,000 pcs   * Size distribution: size 24, 50% = 4,500,000pcs. size 22, 30% = 2,700,000pcs. size 17, 20% = 1,800,000 pcs.
  52. 52. 27 PROJECTED SALES = Quantity - 10% allowance x unit price Size 24 = 4,500,000 x .10 x 0.15 = Php 607,500.00 Size 22 = 2,700,000 x .05 x .25 = PhP 641,250.00 Size 17 = 1,800,000 x .05 x .35 = PhP 4598,500.00 TOTAL GROSS SALES = 1,847,250.00  
  53. 53. CAPITAL INVESTMENT = Development cost + Operating Cost = P 1,306,575.5 + P 918,533 = P 2,225,108.5   OPERATING COST/YR = Operating cost + Depreciation Cost = P 918,533.00 + 68,571.00 = P 987,104.00   NET INCOME BEFORE TAX = Sales – Operating Cost = P 1,847,250.00 – P 987,104.00 = P 860,146.00   NET INCOME AFTER TAX = Net income before tax - (15% Provision Tax) = P 860,146.00- P 129,022 = P 731,124.00 RETURN ON INVESTMENT = Net income after tax ------------------------- X 100 Total Project Cost = P 731,124.00 ----------------- X 100% = 32.85%
  54. 54. RETURN ON OPERATING EXPENSES = Net income after tax ----------------------- X 100 Operating Cost = P 731,124.00 ------------------------ X 100 P 987,104.00 = 74.06% Capital Investment PAYBACK PERIOD = ------------------------- Net income after tax   = P 2,225,108.5 ------------------------- = 3 years

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