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Lecture 1 adj adverb

  1. 1.  Adjectives-Adverbs  Comparative and superlative adjectives  Simple Past vs. Present Perfect
  2. 2. What is an adjective?  Adjectives are words that  describe nouns They live in a very _______ _______ house.  go before nouns There are _______ ______roses on the table. big wooden lovely red
  3. 3. What is an adjective? Adjectives:  give more information about the noun Which book is yours? -The ……………one.  make your writing more interesting In the phrase, "the black cat" the word black is an adjective because it describes the cat. red
  4. 4. Adjective type  Opinion adjectives wonderful, good, etc describe what we think of someone or something Opinion adjectives go before fact adjectives It’s a beautiful silk skirt. (opinion) > (fact)  Fact adjectives long, light, round, etc describe what someone or something  really is
  5. 5. Order of adjectives Opinion adjective Fact adjectives Noun Opinion Size Weight Shape Color Material Noun beautiful rectangular leather bag ugly big black cat small square wooden box heavy brown table wonderful tall glass building Opinion-Fact (Size, Weight, Shape, Color, Material)
  6. 6. Opinion adjectives brave comfortable fantastic friendly lovely beautiful flowers wonderful angry bad
  7. 7. Adjectives of size  big  fat  great  huge fat man  large  small  tiny  slim small car
  8. 8. Adjectives of weight  heavy  light  underweight light as feather  weighty heavy
  9. 9. Adjectives of shape  triangular  rectangular  round  square  broad  wide
  10. 10. Adjectives of color  red  cream  violet  yellowish  dark-green  gray  tanned violet flower tanned skin
  11. 11. Adjectives of material  Glass  Wooden  Cotton  Plastic  Leather  Ceramic  Copper
  12. 12. Put in the right order wooden dark table long _____ _____ _____ _____ huge metal round bowl _____ _____ _____ _____ sleeping small bag red _____ _____ _____ _____ English silly man young _____ _____ _____ _____ table long dark wooden bowl huge round metal bag small red sleeping man silly young English
  13. 13. Comparative and superlative adjectives The comparative form of an adjective is used for comparing two people or things (e.g. he is taller than me), while the superlative is used for comparing one person or thing with every other member of their group (e.g. he was the tallest boy in the class).
  14. 14. Degrees Positive Comparatives Superlatives One-syllable adjectives old older the oldest new newer the newest high higher the highest Adjectives ending in -y dirty dirtier the dirtiest noisy noisier the noisiest heavy heavier the heaviest Two or more syllable adjectives intelligent more intelligent the most intelligent expensive more expensive the most expensive boring more boring the most boring Irregular adjectives good better the best bad worse the worst far further the furthest
  15. 15. OCEANS PACIFIC ATLANTIC INDIAN 155,557,000 sq km 76,762,000 sq km 68,556,000 sq km Pacific ocean is of all Atlantic ocean isn’t as as Pacific ocean Atlantic ocean is than Indian ocean.
  16. 16. Expensive cities: HONG KONG>TOKYO>LONDON Hong Kong is of all. London is not as as Tokyo. Tokyo is than London.
  17. 17. NBHN DRY PLACES Aswan, Egypt Luxor, Egypt Arica Desert, Chile 0.02" 0.03" 0.04" Aswan is than Luxor. Arica Dessert isn’t of all. Luxor isn’t as as Aswan .
  18. 18. Good country Sri Lanka Montenegro South Korea Culture, off the beaten track, value for money Activities, adventure, off the beaten track Activities, events, off the beaten track Sri Lanka is country to travel. Montenegro is not as as South Korea to travel. Montenegro is than Skorea to travel.
  19. 19. The longest rivers in the world Nile river 6650km long the longest Amazon river 6400km long longer Yangtze river 6300km long long
  20. 20. Write the sentences in the correct order: taller / than / Gary / Rick / is. Gary is taller than Rick.  1. airplanes / than / are / slower / trains  ----------------------------------------------------------  2. actress / Mary / the / was / popular / most  --------------------------------------------  3. father / is / your / than / stronger / mine  -----------------------------------------------------------  4. the / Carol / has / scarf / got / shortest  ----------------------------------------------------  5. the / student / he / tallest / is  -------------------------------------------
  21. 21. The Giant Redwood is the _____ tree in the world. (tall) Rio de Janeiro is one of the ________ cities in the world. (beautiful) American Idol is the _________ TV show in America. (popular)
  22. 22. Thumbelina is the world's _______ horse. (small) The cheetah is the animal ______ in the world. (fast) Bears are the _____ animals. (dangerous)
  23. 23. What is an adverb?  An adverb can be one word or a phrase. Adverb shows manner (how), place (where), time (when), frequency (how often).  He drives carefully.  (How does he drive? Carefully.-adverbs of manner)  Your coat is here.  (Where is it? Here.-adverbs of place)  He left for Italy yesterday.  (When did he leave ? Yesterday.-adverbs of time )  He usually eats out.  (How often does he eat out? Usually.-adverb of frequency)
  24. 24. Adverbs  Farmers wake up early in the morning.  They work hard all day.  They go home late in the evening.
  25. 25. Adverbs usually go after verb. He walks slowly. I always wake up early. Children were playing happily.
  26. 26.  Adverbs of frequency go after auxiliary verbs and the verbs to be, but before main verbs. Example:  He is always on time for appointments.  He has never visited Paris.  He always comes to work on time.
  27. 27. Formation of adverbs We usually form an adverb by adding –ly to the adjective. dangerous-dangerously Quick-quickly Nice-nicely Sole-solely Careful-carefully Adjectives ending in –le drop the –e and take –y gentle-gently Regrettable-regrettably Horrible-horribly Adjectives ending in –l take –ly. wonderful-wonderfully Beautiful-beautifully
  28. 28.  Some adjectives are not formed according to the above rules. They have either a totally different form or same form as the adjectives. Adjective Adverb good well fast fast hard hard late late early early
  29. 29. Order of adverbs  When there are two or more adjectives in the same sentences, they usually come in the following order:  If there is a verb of movement (go, come. leave, etc.) in the sentence, then the adverbs come in the following order: Manner (how) Place (where) Time (when) He was studying hard in his room last night Place (where) Manner (how) Time (when) She came home by bus yesterday.
  30. 30. Simple Past vs. Present Perfect When do we use each tense in English?
  31. 31. Present Perfect tense Form: have / has + past participle Affirmative: I have heard this song before. She has heard this song before. Interrogative: Have you heard this song before? Has she heard this song before? Negative: I haven’t heard this song before. She hasn’t heard this song before.
  32. 32. Remember: Grammar has meaning! Different grammar tenses are used in different situations or contexts and they carry different meanings. For example …
  33. 33. Use the simple past for action that happened in the past and is: over, done, finished! Use the present perfect for action that started in the past, but . . . is still true today.
  34. 34. The simple past always refers to an action or situation that is finished. The present perfect connects the past and the present. It is used to show that an action or situation in the past: -continues today, OR -might happen again
  35. 35.  Use the simple past with time words like:  yesterday  last Saturday, week, month, year, etc.  _______ ago  when I was…  in 1990 (past date)  Use the present perfect with time words like:  recently/lately  since …  so far this week, month, year, etc.
  36. 36. Additional notes about present perfect: We often use present perfect to say that something happened sooner than expected. Example: Jan: Don’t forget to mail that letter. Tom: I’ve already mailed it.
  37. 37. We often use present perfect to express personal experiences, there is not a definite time given. The time expressions ever and never are very often used with this meaning. Example: I have never been to Japan. Have you ever been there?
  38. 38. Practice! Do these exercises with your class. Choose the simple past or present perfect and talk about why each is necessary. 1. When I was a child, I ________ (swim) a lot. 2. So far this week, we _________ (study) a lot. 3. Theo __________ (be) very sick recently. 4. I _________ (have) a terrible headache yesterday. 5. It ________ (rain) a lot lately. swim 6. They _______ (get) married ten years ago. 7. I ________ (go) to Balboa Park many times. 8. My family ________ (take) a vacation last year.
  39. 39. -Have you ever…(enjoy,see,stay in,visit,go on,experience)? - … - When ? - …
  40. 40. Practice 1. Peter … (play) football yesterday. 2. They … (clean) the car. It looks new again. 3. Last year we … (go) to Italy. 4. John and Peggy … (just/read) the book. Now they can watch the film. 5. I … (meet) my friend two days ago. 6. We … (never/visit) another country before. 7. She … (buy) a new car in 2011. 8. I'm sorry, but I …(forget) my homework. 9. … (win) the game of chess? 10. The girls … (not/eat) their lunch yet.
  41. 41. Thank U 4 your attention

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • source: http://www.worldatlas.com/geoquiz/thelist.htm
  • http://www.forbes.com/pictures/eglg45emggd/2-tokyo-japan/
  • http://www.worldatlas.com/geoquiz/thelist.htm
  • http://www.lonelyplanet.com/themes/best-in-travel/