# Module :-5 project scheduling and resource levelling

ASST. PROFESSOR um Shree Swami atmanand saraswati inst. of technology, surat
18. Mar 2020
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### Module :-5 project scheduling and resource levelling

• 1. PREPARED BY:- Karm Balar Asst. Prof. S.S.A.S.I.T. S.S.A.S.I.T G.T.U SHREE SWAMI ATMANAND SARASWATI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SURAT Construction management
• 2. Introduction Resource leveling Resource allocation Other schedules derived from project schedules Network crashing and cost-time trade-off Contents
• 3. The scheduling of activities, so that none of the precedence relationships are violated and none of the resource availabilities are exceeded, is a difficult task and can result in a number of combinations of possible early start and late start schedules. In literature, scheduling problems with limited resources is classified as large combinatorial problem. A number of programs based on some rules of thumb (also called heuristic) have been developed to solve such problems. These heuristic programs for resource scheduling can be broadly classified under two categories: (1) Resource leveling and (2) Resource allocation Introduction
• 4. The resource allocation procedure mainly consists of two activities: (i) Resource smoothing (ii) Resource levelling. Resource Leveling and Resource Smoothing are two resource optimization techniques. Resource Leveling is performed to balance the demand and supply of resources. Resource Smoothing is performed to achieve a more uniform resource utilization over a period of time. Resource Leveling may change the critical path of the project, whereas Resource Smoothing does not. Methods of resource allocation
• 5. Resource smoothing Resource Smoothing: Resource Smoothing is a resource optimization technique in which the Project Manager adjusts the timing of different activities so that the requirement for resources does not exceed a certain pre-defined limit. The objective is to complete the work by the required date while avoiding peaks resource demand. The intelligent utilization of floats can smoothen the demand of resources to the maximum possible extent is called resource Smoothing. In other words, activities may only be delayed within their free and total float.
• 6. The resource smoothing is applied in such a way that the total project duration remains the same i.e. there is no change in the total duration of the project. First, the periods of minimum demand for resources are determined or located and the activities are shifted according to the availability of float and requirement of resources. Thus the intelligent use of floats can smoothen the demand to the maximum possible extent. This type of resource allocation is known as resource smoothing
• 7. Resource leveling Resource Leveling is a resource optimization technique in which the Project Manager adjusts the start dates and finish dates of different activities in order to balance the demand for resources vs available supply. If the demand of a resource is more than its availability, then the only alternative is to delay the activity having maximum float. This process is called resource levelling. If there are more than one activities requiring the same amount of resources, in that case activity having minimum duration is chosen for resource reallocation. Resource levelling is adopted in case there is restriction on the availability resources
• 8. Resource levelling, Scenario A:  For example, if there are two task on project network diagram and they are scheduled on the same time period and both required the same resource, “X”.  Task A is on critical path, Task B is on non-critical path which means which has float.  Further assume, the task A is high priority task than the task B.  In this situation, if we perform resource levelling, the project schedule or critical path may or may not change.  If the levelling delay within the free or total float the project schedule will not change otherwise it will get changed. Resource levelling, Scenario B:  For example, if both task A and B are on critical path and they are scheduled on the same time period and required the same resource, “X”.  If we perform resource leveling in this situation then the project schedule or critical path will surely get changed.  It doesn’t matter which task of the two are high-priority than other.
• 9. Complete within given time Complete within given resources
• 10. Scheduling is a process for setting in order the various planned activities by fixing the starting and finishing dates to each part of the work in such a manner that the whole work should be done in an orderly and systematic way. For example, a railway map will show a passenger, the route by which he will travel from one place to another and stations along that route. But the time table will give him the time element that is the hour when his journey will begin, the time at which the train will reach at various stations and also the total time that will be required to reach the destination. In the same way the planning department will have to frame a time schedule for a project which will assign definite timings for individual constructional operations leading to finished product. SCHEDULING
• 11. 1) Construction schedule 2) Staff schedule 3) Labor schedule 4) Material schedule 5) Financial schedule 6) Equipment schedule 7) Invoice schedule 8) Estimation of direct and indirect costs Schedules derived from project schedule
• 16. The main objective of network planning is to complete the job within the stipulated time at minimum cost. At times it becomes necessary to accelerate the completion of work. This be made possible only by reducing the duration of critical activities. The duration of critical path can be reduced by the deployment of additional resources e. g additional labour, shuttering, centering etc., which again increases the cost. While exploring the possibility of accelerating project completion by arranging additional critical activities, the following questions require careful consideration. To what extent the project duration be reduced ? What is the lowest cost for reducing the project duration to the specified date? What is the project duration for which the total project cost is the lowest? Cost time analysis provides answers to these questions. The durations of critical activities may be reduced in two ways (i) by deploying more resources for early completion of such activities. (ii) by relaxing the technical specifications for such activities. TIME - COST TRADE OFF
• 17. If the duration is made longer, cost will be reduced. on the other hand, reducing the project duration would increase the cost of the project. A decision on this will depend on whether the commitment of additional resources and expenses is worthwhile. The Optimum duration will be one which gives the most economic cost for completing the project. In CPM there are two time cost estimates for each activity: 1. Normal estimate : In normal estimate, highlighting on cost, time being associated with minimum cost. 2. Crash estimate : In crash estimate emphasis is given to absolute minimum time required to complete the job. The necessary cost to complete the project with in the minimum time is provided.
• 18. Updating can be defined as planning and programming of the remaining portion of an activity job, by introducing the latest information available. At the end of day of work, the activities of the project must either be completed, in progress or they may not have started yet. Some of the activities may not have achieved the required percentage of progress, which was planned to have achieved on the day of updating. Updating
• 19. As far as progress is concerned, three possibilities exists: i) Some or all activities are progressing as per schedule. ii) Some or all activities are ahead of schedule. iii) Some or all activities are behind schedule. If all activities are progressing as per schedule, there is no need for updating the network. But, in case of activities are behind schedule, the process of updating is required to revive the time schedule of various activities on the arrow diagram. Such revision is known as updating.