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Ent300 module09
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Ent300 Module09

  1. 1. Module 9 THE OPERATIONS PLAN
  2. 2. LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of the module, students should be able to: <ul><li>understand the concept of operations function in business </li></ul><ul><li>understand the topics that are included in an operations plan </li></ul><ul><li>prepare an operations plan for their proposed project </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Operation is one of an important function in a business organization </li></ul><ul><li>Managing operations is crucial to make sure that the business is able to produce product or deliver services according to the specification, quality and time specified by the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Operations management can be defined as the process of marshalling business input to transform them into output in the form of product or services </li></ul>
  4. 4. Components in an operations system The components of an operations system that is involved in the transformation of business input into output comprises of the following: <ul><ul><li>Business Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External Environment </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Schematic Diagram of an Operations System The components of an operations system can be portrayed in the schematic diagram as shown below: Input Output Feedback External Environment Factors Transformation Process Transformation Process
  6. 6. OPERATIONS PLAN <ul><li>The operations plan is the one of the section that is included in the business plan </li></ul><ul><li>This section will demonstrate the operational aspect of the business that is crucial in transforming the business input into output </li></ul><ul><li>The operations plan will ensure the business is able to produce the product or to provide the services that the business had planned in the marketing plan </li></ul>
  7. 7. The operations plan comprises of the following topics: <ul><li>Process Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Operations Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Production Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Material Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Machine and Equipment Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Manpower Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Overheads Requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Location Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Business and Operations Hours </li></ul><ul><li>License, Permits and Regulations Required </li></ul><ul><li>Operations Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation Schedule </li></ul>
  8. 8. PROCESS PLANNING <ul><li>Process planning involve the identification of the step-by-step processes from beginning to end in making the product or in providing the services </li></ul><ul><li>For manufacturing business, the processes involved will be explained clearly such as the activity involved, its duration and the equipment used </li></ul><ul><li>For service business, the process planning will explain all the steps that should be taken from start to finish to provide the service to the customer </li></ul>
  9. 9. PROCESS PLANNING (cont.) <ul><li>The step by step processes can be illustrated using diagram such as a flow chart or a process chart </li></ul><ul><li>The process chart will use symbols that are universally recognized in the operations management field </li></ul><ul><li>These symbols are also used in the job activity chart to show a worker’s activity </li></ul>
  10. 10. Symbols Used in the Process Chart Operation Activity that modify, transform or give added value to the input Transportation Movement of materials or goods from one place to another Inspection Activity that measure the standard or quality Symbol Activity Description Delay Process is delayed because in process materials are waiting for next activity Storage Finished product or goods are stored in the storage area or warehouse
  11. 11. Flow Chart for the Production of Mixed Fruits Jelly Transfer the fruits from the store to the production area Check the quality of the fruits and segregate the bad fruits Clean the fruits under running water Put the fruits into the fruit chopper for chopping process Use electric ladle to stir the fruit until the fruits change into pulp Add ten parts of water into the mixture Boil the mixture for 90 minutes Put the chopped fruits into the boiler for steaming process
  12. 12. Activity Chart for Web Designing Services Greet the client Invite the client into the discussion room Get the relevant information from the client Brief the client about terms and conditions Get the agreement from the client regarding terms and condition Work on the design of the web Get the feedback from the client Make the amendment accordingly Make a presentation to the client Send the client to the door
  13. 13. OPERATIONS LAYOUT <ul><li>Illustrate the layout of the operations </li></ul><ul><li>Layout refers to the arrangement of machine, equipment, workers and other facilities used in the operations </li></ul><ul><li>The layout must be design in such a way that the production of goods and services can be done smoothly and efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>There are three types of layout: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout based on process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout based on product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout based on marketing </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Layout <ul><li>Layout based on product </li></ul><ul><li>This type of layout is suitable for a business that has product focus or continuous flow production </li></ul><ul><li>The design of this layout is made according to the sequence of activities to product the product </li></ul><ul><li>Example of a business that have this kind of layout is a food processing factory </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of Layout (cont.) <ul><li>Layout based on process </li></ul><ul><li>This layout is suitable for a business that produce several products using similar processes </li></ul><ul><li>This type of layout is design based on the similarity of processes where by machine and equipment that perform similar function will be grouped together </li></ul><ul><li>Example of business with this type of layout is a steel workshop and a tailor store </li></ul>
  16. 16. Types of Layout (cont.) <ul><li>Layout based on marketing </li></ul><ul><li>This layout is designed with an intention to maximized the area available to display goods </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of layout based on marketing can be observed in the retail business such as book store or departmental store </li></ul>
  17. 17. Example of Layout Based on Product Filling Area Office Steaming Receiving Area Finished Goods Storage Fruits Cleaning Area Washing Area Fruits Chopper
  18. 18. Example of Layout Based on Process Milling Machine Grinding Machine Drilling Machine Office Tool Room Storage Area
  19. 19. Example of Layout Based on Marketing Store Cashier Aisle Frozen Food Aisle Pastry Products Aisle
  20. 20. Example of Layout in a Restaurant Cashier Food Display Counter Beverages Dining Area Kitchen Store Food Counter Toilet
  21. 21. PRODUCTION PLANNING <ul><li>It is important to make sure that the business is able to produce output or to provide services that is enough to fulfill the expected market demand or sales </li></ul><ul><li>This can be achieved by having a good production planning </li></ul><ul><li>In production planning, the business will determine how much output to produce for a certain period of time such as in a day, a week or a month </li></ul><ul><li>The business may need the information from the marketing plan, e.g. average sales forecast </li></ul>
  22. 22. Example of calculation for output per day Average sales forecast per month = RM 25,200.00 Price per unit = RM 15.00 Number of output per month = RM 25,200.00 RM 15.00 = 1,680 units If the number of working days per month is 24 days The amount of output to be produced per day is: = 1,680 units 24 days = 70 units per day
  23. 23. MATERIAL PLANNING <ul><li>Material planning is done to determine the type and amount of raw materials need for the production </li></ul><ul><li>Material planning involved four steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and list down the raw materials required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare the Bills of Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculate the quantity of raw material required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the suppliers of raw materials </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Identify and list down the raw materials required <ul><li>Usually in manufacturing business, the raw materials used is easily identified </li></ul><ul><li>For example, to manufacture pencils, raw materials needed are hollow wood, lead, eraser, metal band, paint, glue and packaging box </li></ul><ul><li>In case of retail business, the raw materials is known as goods. The business need to estimate the amount of initial goods to be purchased to start the business operation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Prepare the bills of materials <ul><li>The bills of materials will contains a complete list of materials, parts or components and the amount needed to produce a unit of product </li></ul><ul><li>To prepare the bill of material, the entrepreneur must understand the design of the product </li></ul><ul><li>This bill of material is important information for purchasing activities </li></ul>
  26. 26. Example of Bills of Materials <ul><li>To produce a unit of pencil, the bills of materials is as follows: </li></ul>1 0.5 ml Glue 106 1 0.5 ml Paint 105 1 2 cm long Metal band 104 0.75 cm long 6mm diameter 17 cm long 1.5mm diameter 17 cm long Specification Product No. Description Quantity 101 Half hollow wood 2 102 Lead 1 103 Eraser 1
  27. 27. Examples of Materials Requirement Schedule Material Quantity Safety Stock Total Material Requirement Price / unit (RM) Total price (RM) Flour 50 Kg 5 kg 55 1.2 66 Sugar 50 Kg 5kg 55 2.8 154 Eggs 200 units 20 220 0.15 33 Corn Syrup 100 Liter 10 110 3 330 Margarine 100 Kg 10 110 2 220 Total         803
  28. 28. MACHINE & EQUIPMENT PLANNING <ul><li>List out all machine and equipment required base on the process flow chart or process plan </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the amount of machine and equipment required based on the venture capacity requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the suppliers that are reliable in term of price and after sale services </li></ul>Steps to determine machine and equipment requirement:
  29. 29. Factors to be considered in purchasing machine and equipment <ul><li>Price </li></ul><ul><li>Quality and reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of spare parts </li></ul><ul><li>Break down maintenance facility </li></ul><ul><li>Technology & user friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier reputation </li></ul><ul><li>After sale services </li></ul>
  30. 30. Examples of Machine & Equipment Requisition Planning Schedule No. Machine Quantity Price / Unit (RM) Total Price (RM) 1. Mixer 1 2000 2000 2. Cutter 2 1000 2000 3. Cash Register 1 1500 1500 Total 5500
  31. 31. Steps to determine quantity for machine & equipment <ul><li>Determine the planned rate of production per day </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the standard production time per unit for the planned machine </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the machine productive time: </li></ul><ul><li>Operation hours – (Setting up time + Down Time) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Calculate the amount of machine required using the formula given in the next slide </li></ul>
  32. 32. Formula To Calculate the amount of machine require: Machine Productive Time per day Planned Rate of Production per day X Standard Production Time / Unit = No. of Machine Required
  33. 33. MANPOWER PLANNING Steps to determine the amount of direct labor required by the venture: <ul><li>Determine the planned rate of production per day for the particular section of job </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the standard time for a worker to produce one unit of product or to complete a particular job </li></ul><ul><li>Determine workers productive hours: </li></ul><ul><li> Working hours per day – rest time or workers idling time </li></ul><ul><li>4. Calculate the amount of direct labor required </li></ul>
  34. 34. Formula To Calculate the amount of direct labor required Worker Productive Time per day Planned Rate of Production per day X Worker Standard Production Time / Unit = No. of Worker Required
  35. 35. <ul><ul><li>Example of Direct Labour Planning Schedule </li></ul></ul>No Position No. of Staff Required Salary/Month (RM) EPF (RM) 13 % Socso (RM) 2% Total (RM) 1 Operation Manager 1 2000.00 260.00 2260.00 2 Total
  36. 36. OVERHEADS REQUIREMENT <ul><li>Determine the overheads that are required in the operations </li></ul><ul><li>Overheads refers to requirements other than direct raw materials and direct labour </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of overheads are indirect labour costs, indirect material, insurance, maintenance and utilities </li></ul>
  37. 37. LOCATION PLAN <ul><li>The entrepreneur has to make decision which premise is the best for the business to operate </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of location is important because it will affect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business operation cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term investment </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Factors that Influence the Choice of Location <ul><li>MANUFACTURING ACTIVITY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priority should be given to the cost factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In manufacturing cost saving would contribute to profit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SERVICE ACTIVITY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In service priority should be given to distance from market or customers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance from customers will influence sales revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In service business cost saving may not contribute to sales revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in revenue will contribute to increase in profit </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Factors to be considered for Choice of Location <ul><li>Distance from raw material / suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Labor supply </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Price of Land or rentals </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Local Government Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Facility for expansion and business development </li></ul>
  40. 40. BUSINESS AND OPERATIONS HOURS <ul><li>Business hours refer to the time the business is open to the customers </li></ul><ul><li>Operation hours refer to the hours the workers have to work. </li></ul><ul><li>For manufacturing, usually the business will operate on 8-hours per shift. Thus the entrepreneur will only decide whether the business will runs for one shift or more. This will depends upon the planning for production </li></ul>
  41. 41. BUSINESS AND OPERATIONS HOURS (cont.) <ul><li>For service business, the entrepreneur will has to state the business hours in terms of days and hours </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a restaurant may open to the customer from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. every day </li></ul><ul><li>However, the operations hours for the workers will be different </li></ul><ul><li>The working hours may be from 5 a.m. to 12.a.m </li></ul><ul><li>The entrepreneur may have 2 shifts for the workers; the first shift will starts from 5 a.m. to 3 p.m. and the second shift starts from 3p.m. to 12 a.m. </li></ul>
  42. 42. LICENSE, PERMITS and REGULATIONS <ul><li>Find out and list down all the license/permits/ regulations that are required to operate the business </li></ul><ul><li>Identify which agency is responsible to approve the particular license/permit </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a restaurant among others will need the following license/permit/regulations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>License for signboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permits for emigrant workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typhoid injection for the workers </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. OPERATIONS BUDGET <ul><li>The business need to estimate the budget for the operations activities </li></ul><ul><li>The operations budget can be categorized into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed asset expenditure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This operation budget is important because it will be one of the input to prepare the financial plan </li></ul>
  44. 44. OPERATIONS BUDGET (cont.) <ul><li>Fixed Asset Expenditure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the investment on long term assets used in the operations to produce the product or services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples are the purchase of machines and equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monthly Expenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the payment made every month in the operations department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples are wages for workers and raw materials purchased </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. OPERATIONS BUDGET (cont.) <ul><li>Other Expenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are expenses that are made and could not be categorized as fixed asset expenditure or monthly expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples are deposits and insurance </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Example of Operations Budget RM 7,000 RM 30,100 RM 80,500 Total RM 6,000 RM 1,000 RM 20,000 RM 6,500 RM 600 RM 3,000 RM 35,500 RM 45,000 Machine and Equipment Factory Renovation Raw Materials Wages + EPF + SOCSO Utilities Factory Rent Deposit for rent Deposit for utilities Other Expenses Monthly Expenses Fixed Asset Item
  47. 47. IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE <ul><li>Implementation scheduling involves sequencing and allotting time to all project activities </li></ul><ul><li>To prepare implementation schedule, entrepreneurs has to decide how long each activity and compute the requirement on people and other resources </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling normally use Gantt Chart which is a planning chart used to schedule resources and allocate time </li></ul>
  48. 48. The Importance of Project Scheduling <ul><li>Project scheduling serves several purposes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It shows the relationship of each activity to others and to the whole project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It identifies the precedence relationship among activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It encourages the setting of realistic time and cost estimate for each activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It helps make better use of people, money and material by identifying critical bottlenecks in the project </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Example of Project Implementation Schedule 1 month June 2009 Installation of machines 1 month June 2009 Recruitment of labours 3 months April – June 2009 Procurement of machines and raw material 1 month April 2009 Renovation of premise 3 months Feb – Mac 2009 Searching for business premise 4 months Jan – April 2009 Application for permits and license 3 months Jan – Mac 2009 Incorporation of business Durations Deadlines Activities
  50. 50. END OF MODULE 9