Role of enzymes in dairy industries

11. Sep 2013

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Role of enzymes in dairy industries

  1. Dr. Babasaheb Nagurao Kumbhar M.V.Sc scholar College of veterinary sciences, Hyderbad
  2. Enzyme Cut (degradation) Build (synthesis) Change (modification) “A biological catalyst that promotes & speeds up a chemical reaction without itself being altered in the process.”
  4. Enzyme action enzyme substrate products
  5. Properties of enzymes  Control ripening.  Cause food spoilage (rotting).  Responsible for changes in flavor, color, texture and nutritional properties.  Can be inactivated by heat to extend storage stability of foods.  Control oxidation and spoilage (bioconservation)  Increase nutritive values ( phytase , proteases etc.)  Used for fermentation purposes in foods.  Can be extracted and purified to a high degree.
  6. Sources of enzymes There are three major sources of enzymes : Plants ( 4%) (papain, bromilain) Animals ( 8%) (renet) Microorganisms (>80%) (yeast, fungi and bacteria)
  7. Enzyme Production/Isolation Methods
  8. Uses of enzymes 1. Analytical Applications of Enzymes 2. The Animal Feed Industry 3. The Meat and Fish Processing Industry 4. The Dairy Industry 5. The Leather Industry 6. CIP and cleaning of microfilters -- Detergents 1. The modification of Fats and Oils 2. The Pulp and Paper Industry 3. The Fruit Juice Processing Industry 4. The Production of Bulk and Fine Chemicals 5. Enzyme-Replacement Therapy
  9. Dairy industry Cheese Cheese flavor Lactose hydrolyses Pasteurization Infants milk Rennin Lipase Protease Lactase Catalase Trypsins Tenderizers – Bromelin, Papain, Ficin Leather production Animal feed Phytate, Glucan, Raffinose etc Other uses:-  Cleaning-In-Place (CIP) & membrane cleaning  Anti-microbial
  10. Why important ?  Added or used to cause particular reaction  Advantages  Natural, Nontoxic  Catalyze specific reactions  Active under mild conditions  Active at low concentrations  control rate of reaction  Can be inactivated
  11. Meat Tenderizer Protease found in papaya as meat tenderizer Papain
  12. Pepsin  Very acidic activity optima (pH 1.8)  Somewhat limits its use  Used in cheese making
  13. • Produced from stomach of cows enzyme chymosin (rennin) obtained either from calf stomach or more recently from a microorganism. • Cut casein proteins in milk into smaller pieces • solidify milk Rennet -
  14. Proteases Reduced bitterness Degrade AA
  15. Protease Usage in Dairy Products • Make creamier yogurt products • Hydrolyze whey proteins -- dairy products less allergic Leather Production:-- for the soaking and de-wooling stages of hide processing in which selective protein degradation results in a softer produce without substantial loss of strength.
  16. Cleaning-In-Place (CIP) & membrane cleaning • Proteases—in detergent • Proteinaceous stain/soil– complex of protein, fat, carbohydrates • Cleaning microfiltration & ultra filtration membranes
  17. Baby Food Trypsin Predigest proteins Easier to digested Use:-  Infant milk formulates from cow’s milk  Convert the milk proteins into peptides & free amino acids  Non-degraded cow’s milk protein can induce sensitization in infants when they are fed the milk.  The risk of inducing sensitization or an allergic reaction can be minimized.
  18. Lactase enzyme (-galactosidase) -- extracted from fungi -- Aspergillus oryzae
  19. Lactose intolerance Lactose intolerance people No digestion of lactose Remain in digestive system Fermented by bacteria GI symptoms nausea, cramps, bloating, gas,& diarrhea -- within 4h Tablet of lactase
  20. Reaction Substrate: Lactose Lactose + H2O -galactosidase Glucose + Galactose hydrolysis Enzymes Lactase=β- Galactosidase Application :- Production of low-lactose dairy product Lactose-intolerant people Ice-cream -- creamier, minimize crystallinization & sweeter-tasting
  21. Antimicrobial Enzymes e.g. 1. Lysozyme 2. Chitinases 3. ß-Glucanases
  22. Animal feed  used to increase digestibility  To destroy salmonella & other unwanted micro organisms e.g. phytate, glucan, raffinose etc Animal feed
  23. Lipases Milk fat Lipase Free fatty acids (flavour production) hydrolyse Source- Animal --kid, calf, lamb Plant– mucor meiheri Enhancement of cheese flavor
  24. Catalase H2O2 1/2O2H2O + Pasteurization High heat Natural enzymes in milk Destroyed No development flavor & good quality cheese Sources – bovine liver/ microbial sources H2O2— used instead of pasteurization e.g. Swiss cheese making Technical problem in past. Hydrogen Peroxide-
  25. • Quality testing of food products and pasteurizationPhosphatase: • To control bacteriaLysozyme • To control fungiChitinases • To control yeastsß-Glucanases • Instead of preservative agents… e.g. lacto-peroxidasesPeroxidases
  26. enzyme Source Action in food Food application Papain Latex of unripe papaya fruit protein hydrolysis Meat tenderisation Bromelain Pineapple juice and stem Muscle and connective tissue protein hydrolysis Meat tenderisation Ficin Fig fruit latex Muscle and connective tissue protein hydrolysis As bromelain & papain but not widely used due to cost Chymosin (rennet) Calf abomasum Kappa casein hydrolysis Cheese making Pepsin Bovine abomasum casein hydrolysis in cheese Help for rennet action
  27. Lysozyme Hen egg white Hydrolysis of bacterial cell wall polysaccharides Prevention of late blowing defects in cheese by spore-forming bacteria Lactoperoxidase Cheese whey: bovine colostrum Oxidation of thiocyanate ion to bactericidal Hypothiocyanate Cold sterilisation of milk Aminopeptidase Lcictococcus lactix Axpergillux spp. Rhizopux oryzae Releases free amino acids from N-terminus of proteins and peptides Releases free amino acids from N-terminus of proteins and peptides Lipase/ esterase Gullet of goat&lamb: calf abomasum: pig pancreas Triglyceride (fat) hvdrolvsis Flavour enhancement in cheese products: