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Taxonomy, Systematic, Diversity and Classification
Taxonomy starts with Greeks -Aristotle, Theophrastus
The main Goal of taxonomist is to identify the species (basic unit of classification)
This branch of Biology forms or postulates rules, principles and procedures for classification
Taxonomy directs a Taxonomist, how to classify means no one can go beyond the principles and procedure
postulated by Taxonomy, during his attempt of classification.
The most popular defination of Taxonomy is science of identification, Nomenclature and classification of
organisms is called Taxonomy.
Grouping of organisms (animals and plants) on the basis of their similarities and desimilarities that reflect
their most significant feature and inter relationship.
Term introduced by Linnaeus and is the alternative term of taxonomy or synonym of taxonomy.
Given by J. Huxley
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New systematic (Biosystematics) - Term introduced by Huxley using of all branches of biology to classify
animals and plants. It elaborated phylogenetic system of classification (cladistics)
1.1 WHAT IS 'LIVING'?
When we try to define 'living', we conventionally look for distinctive characteristics exhibited by
living organisms. Growth, reproduction, ability to sense environment and mount a suitable response
come to our mind immediately as unique features of living organisms.
One can add a few more features like metabolism, ability to self-replicate, self-organise, interact
and emergence to this list.
All living organisms grow
Increase in mass and increase in number of individuals are twin characteristics of growth.Amulticellular
organism grows by cell division.
In plants, this growth by cell division occurs continuously throughout their life span. In animals, this
growth is seen only up to a certain age. However, cell division occurs in certain tissues to replace lost
Unicellular organisms also grow by cell division. One can easily observe this in in vitro cultures by
simply counting the number of cells under the microscope.
In majority of higher animals and plants, growth and reproduction are mutually exclusive events.
One must remember that increase in body mass is considered as growth.
Non-living objects also grow if we take increase in body mass as a criterion for growth. Mountains,
boulders and sand mounds do grow. However, this kind of growth exhibited by non-living objects is by
accumulation of material on the surface.
In living organisms, growth is from inside. Growth, therefore, cannot be taken
as a defining property of living organisms. Conditions under which it can be observed in all living
organisms have to be explained and then we understand that it is a characteristic of living systems. A
dead organism does not grow.
Reproduction, likewise, is a characteristic of living organisms
In multicellular organisms, reproduction refers to the production of progeny possessing features
more or less similar to those of parents.
Invariably and implicitly we refer to sexual reproduction. Organisms reproduce by asexual means
also. Fungi multiply and spread easily due to the millions of asexual spores they produce.
In lower organisms like yeast and hydra, we observe budding. In Planaria (flat worms), we observe true
regeneration, i.e., a fragmented organism regenerates the lost part of its body and becomes, a new
The fungi, the filamentous algae, the protonema of mosses, all easily multiply by fragmentation. When
it comes to unicellular organisms like bacteria, unicellular algae orAmoeba, reproduction is synonymous
with growth, i.e., increase in number of cells.
We have already defined growth as equivalent to increase in cell number or mass.
Hence, we notice that in single-celled organisms, we are not very clear about the usage of these two
terms - growth and reproduction.
Further, there are many organisms which do not reproduce (mules, sterile worker bees, infertile human
couples, etc). Hence, reproduction also cannot be an all-inclusive defining characteristic of living
organisms. Ofcourse, no non-living object is capable of reproducing or replicating by itself.
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Characteristic of life is metabolism.
All living organisms are made of chemicals. These chemicals, small and big, belonging to various
classes, sizes, functions, etc., are constantly being made and changed into some other biomolecules.
These conversions are chemical reactions or metabolic reactions. There are thousands of
metabolic reactions occurring simultaneously inside all living organisms, be they unicellular or
All plants, animals, fungi and microbes exhibit metabolism. The sum total of all the chemical reactions
occurring in our body is metabolism.
No non-living object exhibits metabolism. Metabolic reactions can be demonstrated outside the body in
cell-free systems. An isolated metabolic reaction(s) outside the body of an organism, performed in a
test tube is neither living nor non-living.
Hence, while metabolism is a defining feature of all living organisms without exception, isolated
Invitro are not living things but surely living reactions. Hence, cellular organisation of the body is the
defining feature of life forms.
Perhaps, the most obvious and technically complicated feature of all living organisms is this ability to
sense their surroundings or environment and respond to these environmental stimuli which could be
physical, chemical or biological.
We sense our environment through our sense organs. Plants respond to external factors like light,
water, temperature, other organisms, pollutants, etc.
All organisms, from the prokaryotes to the most complex eukaryotes can sense and respond to
Photoperiod affects reproduction in seasonal breeders, both plants and animals. All organisms handle
chemicals entering their bodies.
All organisms therefore, are 'aware' of their surroundings. Human being is the only organism who is
aware of himself, i.e., has self-consciousness. Consciousness therefore, becomes the defining property
of living organisms.
When it comes to human beings, it is all the more difficult to define the living state. We observe patients
lying in coma in hospitals virtually supported by machines which replace heart and lungs.
The patient is otherwise brain-dead. The patient has no self-consciousness. Are such patients who
never come back to normal life, living or non-living?
living organisms are self-replicating, evolving and self-regulating interactive systems capable of responding
to external stimuli.
Biology is the story of life on earth. Biology is the story of evolution of living organisms on earth.
All living organisms - present, past and future, are linked to one another by the sharing of the common
genetic material, but to varying degrees.
1.2 DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD
The number of species that are known and described range between 1.7-1.8 million. This refers
to biodiversity or the number and types of organisms present on earth.
We should remember here that as we explore new areas, and even old ones, new organisms are
continuously being identified.
As stated earlier, there are millions of plants and animals in the world; we know the plants and animals
in our own area by their local names.
These local names would vary from place to place, even within a country. Probably you would recognise
the confusion that would be created if we did not find ways and means to talk to each other, to refer to
organisms we are talking about.
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Hence, there is a need to standardise the naming of living organisms such that a particular organism is
known by the same name all over the world. This process is called nomenclature.
Obviously, nomenclature or naming is only possible when the organism is described correctly and we
know to what organism the name is attached to. This is identification.
In order to facilitate the study, number of scientists have established procedures to assign a scientific
name to each known organism. This is acceptable to biologists all over the world.
For plants, scientific names are based on agreed principles and criteria, which are provided in
International Code for Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN).
Animal taxonomists have evolved International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN).
The scientific names ensure that each organism has only one name. Description of any organism
should enable the people (in any part of the world) to arrive at the same name.
They also ensure that such a name has not been used for any other known organism.
Biologists follow universally accepted principles to provide scientific names to known organisms.
Each name has two components - the Generic name and the specific epithet.
This system of providing a name with two components is called Binomial nomenclature.
This naming system given by Carolus Linnaeus is being practised by biologists all over the world. This
naming system using a two word format was found convenient.
Let us take the example of mango to understand the way of providing scientific names better.
The scientific name of mango is written as Mangifera indica. In this name Mangifera represents the
genus while indica, is a particular species, or a specific epithet.
Other universal rules of nomenclature are as follows :
Biological names are generally in Latin and written in italics.
They are Latinised or derived from Latin irrespective of their origin.
The first word in a biological name represents the genus while the second component denotes the
Both the words in a biological name, when handwritten, are separately underlined, or printed in italics
to indicate their Latin origin.
The first word denoting the genus starts with a capital letter while the specific epithet starts with a small
letter. It can be illustrated with the example of Mangifera indica.
Name of the author appears after the specific epithet, i.e., at the end of the biological name and is
written in an abbreviated form, e.g., Mangifera indica Linn. It indicates that this species was first
described by Linnaeus.
Since it is nearly impossible to study all the living organisms, it is necessary to devise some means to
make this possible. This process is classification.
Classification is the process by which anything is grouped into convenient categories based on some
easily observable characters. For example, we easily recognise groups such as plants or animals or
dogs, cats or insects.
The moment we use any of these terms, we associate certain characters with the organism in that
Suppose we were to say 'mammals', you would, of course, think of animals with external ears and body
hair. Likewise, in plants, if we try to talk of 'Wheat', the picture in each of our minds will be of wheat
plants, not of rice or any other plant.
Hence, all these - 'Mammals', 'Wheat', 'Rice', 'Plants', 'Animals', etc., are convenient categories we
use to study organisms.
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The scientific term for these categories is taxa.
Hence, based on characteristics, all living organisms can be classified into different taxa.
This process of classification is taxonomy. External and internal structure, along with the structure
of cell, development process and ecological information of organisms are essential and form the basis
of modern taxonomic studies.
Hence, characterisation, identification, classification and nomenclature are the processes that are
basic to taxonomy.
Taxonomy is not something new. Human beings have always been interested in knowing more and
more about the various kinds of organisms, particularly with reference to their own use.
In early days, human beings needed to find sources for their basic needs of food, clothing and shelter.
Hence, the earliest
classifications were based on the 'uses' of various organisms.
Human beings were, since long, not only interested in knowing more about different kinds of organisms
and their diversities, but also the relationships among them. This branch of study was referred to
The word systematics is derived from the Latin word 'systema' which means systematic arrangement
Linnaeus used Systema Naturae as the title of his publication.
The scope of systematics was later enlarged to include identification, nomenclature and classification.
Systematics takes into account evolutionary relationships between organisms.
1.3 TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES
Classification is not a single step process but involves hierarchy of steps in which each step represents
a rank or category.
Since the category is a part of overall taxonomic arrangement, it is called the taxonomic category and
all categories together constitute the taxonomic hierarchy.
Each category, referred to as a unit of classification, in fact, represents a rank and is commonly
termed as taxon (pl.: taxa).
Taxonomic categories and hierarchy can be illustrated by an example. Insects represent a group of
organisms sharing common features like three pairs of jointed legs. It means insects are recognisable
concrete objects which can be classified, and thus were given a rank or category.
Remember, groups represent category. Category further denotes rank. Each rank or taxon,
in fact, represents a unit of classification. These taxonomic groups/ categories are distinct
biological entities and not merely morphological aggregates.
Taxonomical studies of all known organisms have led to the development of common categories
such as kingdom, phylum or division (for plants), class, order, family, genus and species.
All organisms, including those in the plant and animal kingdoms have species as the lowest category.
The basic requirement is the knowledge of characters of an individual or group of organisms. This
helps in identifying similarities and dissimilarities among the individuals of the same kind of organisms
as well as of other kinds of organisms.
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Taxonomic studies consider a group of individual organisms with fundamental similarities as a species.
One should be able to distinguish one species from the other closely related species based on the distinct
Mangifera indica, Solanum tuberosum (potato) and Panthera leo (lion), all the three names, indica,
tuberosum and leo, represent the specific epithets, while the first words Mangifera, Solanum and Panthera
are genera and represents another higher level of taxon or category.
Each genus may have one or more than one specific epithets representing different organisms, but having
morphological similarities eg. Panthera has another specific epithet called tigris and Solanum includes
species like nigrum and melongena.
Human beings belong to the species sapiens which is grouped in the genus Homo. The scientific name
thus, for human being, is written as Homo sapiens.
Genus comprises a group of related species which has more characters in common in comparison to
species of other genera.
For example, potato and brinjal are two different species but both belong to the genus Solanum.
Lion (Panthera leo), leopard (P. pardus) and tiger (P. tigris) with several common features, are all species
of the genus Panthera. This genus differs from another genus Felis which includes cats.
Family, has a group of related genera with still less number of similarities as compared to genus and
Families are characterised on the basis of both vegetative and reproductive features of plant species.
Three different genera Solanum, Petunia and Datura are placed in the family Solanaceae.
Among animals for example, genus Panthera, comprising lion, tiger, leopard is put along with genus, Felis
(cats) in the family Felidae.
Order and other higher taxonomic categories are identified based on the aggregates of characters. Order
being a higher category, is the assemblage of families which exhibit a few similar characters.
The similar characters are less in number as compared to different genera included in a family.
Plant families like Convolvulaceae, Solanaceae are included in the order Polymoniales mainly based on
the floral characters.
The animal order, Carnivora, includes families like Felidae and Canidae.
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Order Primata comprising monkey, gorilla and gibbon is placed in class Mammalia along with order
Carnivora that includes animals like tiger, cat and dog. Class Mammalia has other orders also.
Classes comprising animals like fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds
along with mammals constitute the next higher categorycalled Phylum.
All these, based on the common features like presence of notochord
and dorsal hollow neural system, are included in phylum Chordata.
All animals belonging to various phyla are assigned to the highest
category called Kingdom Animalia in the classification system of
animals. The Kingdom Plantae, on the other hand, is distinct, and
comprises all plants from various divisions.
The taxonomic categories from species to kingdom have been shown
in ascending order starting with species in Figure. These are broad
categories. However,taxonomists have also developed sub-categories
in this hierarchy to facilitate more sound and scientific placement of
Higher the category, greater is the difficulty of determining the relationship to other taxa at the same level.
Hence, the problem of classification becomes more complex.
Table : Organisms with their Taxonomic Categories
“Species can be defined as one or more populations sharing a common gene pool.”
Species term frist time used by John Ray
Species is Smallest Taxonomic and evolutionary unit
Members of same species have common gene pool.
Gene pool: Sum of the total genes present in a population.
Note : The main goal of evolutionary taxonomist is to recognize the basic unit of classification that is the
species and they try to group the species into a realistic phylogenetic scheme as possible.
1. Lumpers: This is the method to combine two or more populations into a single species.
2. Splitters: This is the method to seperate the same population into different species.
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Definations of Species given by different Taxonomist
(A) John Ray Defination of Species :
“On the basis of reproduction”.
“ All the animals that originated by same parents belongs to the same species”
Note - Above defination of species can’t define species exactly and accurately because in nature there is
continuous evolutionary process so that one species may changed to other species.
(B) Linnaeus Defination of Species :
On the basis of morphology (Traditional species concept or morphological species concept or static spe-
“ All the animals that are same in shape, size, colour belongs to same species”
Linnaeus believed that the species are fixed and unchangeable means consisntancy of species.
Note - Above defination of species is not fit because in a species population they can vary in shape, size
and colour so that asexual organism may be assigned to species only on grouping of clones that have the
same morphology and biochemistry.
Objection of Static species concepts: by Lamark Book - Philosophie zoologique
He was the first to discard the idea of “fixity of species” and “ Static species concept” as proposed
earlier by Aristotle and Linnaeus
(C) Mayr Defination of Species :
“On the basis of interbreeding” (Biological species concept) 1940.
“ Population of interbreeding individuals with common gene pool” and are reproductivelly isolated.
Support of biological species concept –
Lumpers: Taxonomist who propounded morphospecies concept had separated some of the same species
into two or more different species, now made biological tests to cross fertilize. Morphologically and
geographically spearated species have led the scientist to unify different group into single species.
For ex. varrious species of North American sparrow has been united with the multiple geographical
races of song sparrow.
Note - Above defination is only applicable for sexually reproducing organism and asexualy reproducing
organism or for a fossil we get, could not be defined by above defination.
Objection of biological species concept : Many different species could interbreed that is against
For eg. Female lion + Male tiger Tiglion
Male lion + Female tiger Liger
Female Donkey + Male Horse Hinny
Male Donkey + Female Horse Mule
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(a) Static species concept - Linnaeus, Aristotle, Plato
(b) Nominalistic species concept
(c) Biological species concept - by Mayer
(d) Polytypic species concept - K. Jordon
(a) Static species concept (Topological species concept):
Given by Linnaeus on the basis of external morphology like Shape, size and colour, “ All the animals that
are same in shape, size, colour belongs to same species”
Exception : In some cases the member of a species are not morphologically similar but it can not
be said that they are different species. For eg.
(i) Ova, pupa, larva of Silk worm are not identical in morphology but it can not be said
that they are different species
(ii) Pollymorphism in Termites and Honey bees
(iii) Sexual dimorphism in coelentrate like Polyp and medusa.
(iv) Sibling species that are same in shape, size, colour but can not interbreed
(b) Nominalistic species concept :
According to this concept there is no existance of species in nature and it is (species) only imagination of
(c) Biological species concept :
“Populations of interbreeding individuals with common gene pool”
(i) It form reproductive community
(ii) It is an ecological unit
(iii) It is also a genetical unit
(d) Polytypic species concept :
Type of species is determind by Behavior, Embryology, Ecology, cytology, Biochemistry
(i) It form population that have gene pool with free gene flow
(ii) Adaptation and natural selection occure
(iii) They have power of evolution
(iv) Each species has the capacity to give rise new species
Types of Species
(1) Sympatric species : The species inhabiting a same geographical area.
(2) Allopatric species : The species inhabiting in different geographical area.
(3) Sibling species : Group of very similar and closely related species which can not interbreed but it is
difficult to separate them on the basis of morphological characters alone
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Ex: Drossophila pseudobscura and D. Persimilis
(4) Polytypic species : species which consist of two or more sub - species
Ex : Carvus splendanse splendanse , Carvcus splendense isolence.
(5) Key stone species : The dominant species are mainaly responsible for environmental modification and
alternation in community composition act as key stone species. Their critical impact on community and
envirnment is more important than their abundance or dominance.
Ex : Oak – Key stone species of tropical rain forest
Fig – Key stone species of temprate rain forest
Kangaroo Rat – Key stone species of desert
(6) Taxonomic species : A species have definit bionomial name
(7) Endemic species : Species restricted in a particular area
(8) Epidemic : Cosmopolitain species.
Formation of one or more new species from pre-existing species.
Reproductive isolation :
Mayr defined this term as following “biological properties of individuals which prevent the interbreeding
of naturally sympatric population.” There are many natural intrinsic barrier which prevent interbreeding
between two species, means no genetic exchange between two different species occurs.
Exception of Reproductive Isolation : “Tigons” a hybrid of African Lioness and Asian Tiger which is
fertile and no barrier to hybridization between these species has evolved during their long isolation from
Taxonomic studies of various species of plants, animals and other organisms are useful in
agriculture, forestry, industry and in general in knowing our bio-resources and their diversity.
These studies would require correct classification and identification of organisms. Identification of
organisms requires intensive laboratory and field studies.
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The collection of actual specimens of plant and animal species is essential and is the prime source of
taxonomic studies. These are also fundamental to studies and essential for training in systematics.
It is used for classification of an organism, and the information gathered is also stored along with the
specimens. In some cases the specimen is preserved for future studies.
Biologists have established certain procedures and techniques to store and preserve the information as well
as the specimens. Some of these are explained to help you understand the usage of these aids.
Herbarium is a store house of collected plant specimens that are dried, pressed and preserved on sheets.
Further, these sheets are arranged
Herbarium showing stored specimens
according to a universally accepted system of classification.
These specimens, along with their descriptions on herbarium sheets, become a store house or repository
for future use.
The herbarium sheets also carry a label providing information about date and place of collection, English,
local and botanical names, family, collector's name, etc.
Herbaria also serve as quick referral systems in taxonomical studies.
The herbarium techniques involve following steps
(i) Collection (ii) Drying (iii) Poisoning
(iv) Mounting (v) Stiching (vi) Labelling
(vii) Identification (viii) Filing of specimens (ix) Storing
(x) Maintenance of index register
Tools for collection of plants :- Vasculum, collection Bags/Polythene bags, Digger for digging, papers,
Knife and scissors for cultting twigs, field not book, glue, prunning shears to cut hard branches, forceps
Magnifying lens long poled hook to take out branches from high trees.
Firstly plant part in collected & after that specimen is given, number & records its information in field note
book, Speciman is pressed in between news paper or blotting paper. The dried specimens are poisoned
by the use of chemicals like 0.1% Hg Cl2
, DDT. The standard size of herbarium sheet is 29 × 41cm.
A label of 6.5 ×10.5 cm or 8 ×12 is attached at on corner of herbarium sheet for providing various
information about specimen.The sheet are then placed in metal cupboards of herbarium, species, genus
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TYPE OF HERBARIA
(I) National herbaria have flora of many parts of the world.
(II) Regional herbaria containing plants of a region.
(III) Local herbaria including plants of a local area.
S.No. Name of Herbarium
No. of. Specimens
1 Royal Botanic Garden, Kew - London. K 6.5 million
2 Museum of Natural history, Paris. P 5 million
3 Konarov Botanical Society
of Acdemy of sciences of Leninguard Russia.
LE 5 million
4 British Museum of Natural Histroy, London. BM 4 million
5 Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh (Scotland). E 2.5 million
6 Central national Hebarium, Sibpur Kolkata. CAL 2.5 million
7 National Botanical Garden Lucknow (UP). LKW 1 million
8 Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (Utranchal). DD 0.3 million
Important Herbaria of World
These specialised gardens have collections of living plants for reference. Plant species in these gardens
are grown for identification purposes and each plant is labelled indicating its botanical/scientific name and
The famous botanical gardens are at Kew (England), Indian Botanical Garden, Howrah (India) and at
National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India).
The first garden was developed by Theophrastus (380-287 BC) for science and education purposes.
The first modern botanical graden of the world established in Pisa Italy in 1543.
Objectives of botanical Gardens :-
(i) Rare and endemic species of plants are conserved under ex situ conservation.
(ii) These are helpful to supply living plant resources for research, Identification and classification.
(iii) These are the sites of germplasm collection of selected plants and their wild relatives.
(iv) They provide materials and seeds for research.
(v) They act as research stations as well as acclimatization centres for the introduction of economically
useful plants. They provide aesthetically pleasing environment.
Important Botanical Gardens :
(1) Royal Botanical Garden, Kew, England : It was established in 1759 by William Aiton but opened in
1841as ‘Botanical capital’ of the world. Rock gradens, Bamboo garden, victoria Lily pond, Jordell lab,
Alpine house are famous places in this Garden It is spread in 300 acres.
(2) Main Botanical Garden, Moscow : It is largest botanical garden in the world at present time. It is
spread in 900 acres.
(3) Indian Botanic Garden sibpur (Howrah) Kolkata : It was established by Robert Kyd in 1787. It is
spread over 273 acres of land near bank of hoogly river. It is largest and oldest botanical garden of India
and Asia.William Roxburgh (Father of Inidan botany) played an imprtant role in the development of this
garden between 1793 –1813. Its main features are as follow.
250 years old Great Banyan tree (Ficus benghalensis).
It has Asia’s largest herbarium that has about 2.5 million specimens.
It has Good collection of World’s tropical plants.
Palm house, giant water lily (Victoria regia), Indian rubber tree, Bambusetum, Pinetum are other
attractions of this garden.
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(4) Natioanl Botanic Garden Lucknow (UP)
(5) Botanic Garden of FRI, Dehradun
(6) Lloyd Botanic Garden, Darjeeling
(7) Lal Bagh Garden, Bangalore
Special Kinds of Gardens :
(1) Arboretum : The main collection are of woody species in them.
(2) Bambusetum (Bambuseta) : Main collection of Bamboos.
(3) Orchidarium (Orchidaria) : A garden containing collection of orchids Ex:- national orchidaria in
BSI, Shillong and Coimbatore.
(4) Pinetum : Main collection of conifers.
Biological museums are generally set up in educational institutes such as schools and colleges. Museums
have collections of preserved plant and animal specimens for study and reference.
Specimens are preserved in the containers or jars in preservative solutions. Plant and animal specimens
may also be preserved as dry specimens.
Insects are preserved in insect boxes after collecting, killing and pinning.
Larger animals like birds and mammals are usually stuffed and preserved. Museums often have collections
of skeletons of animals too.
Method of insect preservation – After killing and Pinning, collected and preserved in to insect boxes.
Method of preservation of larger animals – Birds and mammals are stuffed and preserved.
These are the places where wild animals are kept in protected environments under human care and which
enable us to learn about their food habits and behaviour.
All animals in a zoo are provided, as far as possible, the conditions similar to their natural habitats. Children
love visiting these parks, commonly called Zoos.
Largest Zoo of the world is set up in Kruger (S. Africa). National Zoological park, Delhi, established in
1959. It is one of the finest zoo of Asia.
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Key is another taxonomical aid used for identification of plants and animals based on the similarities and
dissimilarities. The keys are based on the contrasting characters generally in a pair called couplet.
It represents the choice made between two opposite options. This results in acceptance of only one and
rejection of the other. Each statement in the key is called a lead.
Separate taxonomic keys are required for each taxonomic category such as family, genus and species for
Keys are generally analytical in nature.
Flora, manuals, monographs and catalogues are some other means of recording descriptions.
They also help in correct identification. Flora contains the actual account of habitat and distribution of
plants of a given area.
These provide the index to the plant species found in a particular area.
Manuals are useful in providing information for identification of names of species found in an area.
Monographs contain information on any one taxon.
Lead – Each statement in the Key is called a lead.
(i) Bracketed keys : They are most popular keys in which the pairs of contrasting choices are given
numbers in brackets and the user can pick up the correct choice.
(ii) Indented or Yoked key : It has sequence of choice between two or more statements of characters of
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Point of Remember
1. Manuals : They provide information for identifications of names of species found in an area.
2. Monograph : It is a book that provides all the available information about a taxon like genus, family or
higher catergory at the time of publication.
(1) Identification of an organism is the primary and basis step of taxonomist during classification.
(2) In indentification similarity of newly first time discovered organism matched with already known organ-
ism. This implies assigning an organism to a particular taxonomic group.
For example : There are three plants every X,Y,Z, and all represent different species. Another plant, say A
is discovered recentally and unidentified but it matches or recembles Y. Then the recognition of the plant A
as identical to the already known plant is the identification.
Holotype : The original type specimen from which the description of a new species is established.
Isotype : Duplicate of holotype, as another brach of the same tree.
Lectotype : Specimen selected from original material to serve as nomenclatural type where there is no
Neotype : New nomenclature type when the original type is missing .
Paratype : Any other specimen described along with holotype.
Syntype : Any of two or more specimens cited by an author when there is no holotype.
(II) Binomial nomenclature - Given by Linnaeus
Universal name or Scientific name or Biological name of an animal / plant: Through which it is known
by some names all over the world.
Idea of binomial nomenclature first given by Gaspard bauhin in his book “Pinex Theory Botanicy” later
Linnaeus applied it as Linnaen principles.
Developed by Karl Von Linne a swidish botanist
He gave certain principles called linnaeus principles for this in his book “Philosophia botanica”
Species planterum - 5900 plants have given scientific name
Systema naturae - 4232 animal have given scientific name and classification also.
I.C.B.N. stablished in 1961 C.
I.C.Z.N. Stablished in 1969
The standered reference recognised for this is the tenth eddition of systeman naturae (1758).
Fifth international zoological congress meeting set up in Burlin and adoped the binomial system of
According to I.C.Z.N. and I.C.B.N. an organism must have given the scientific name according to
following rules -
(1) The name of living object must consist of two words –
First word – Generic name
Second word – Specific epithet (not specific name because it is incomplete and senceless with-
out generic name)
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Ex: Cow –
Here is the explanation –
First Example : Cow – Boss indica
Buffalo – Bubalis indica
(2) Scientific name consist of two names first genus and secound species and they should not have less
than 3 letter and more than 12 letters
(3) Generic name written first as noun and its first letter is alwayes capital
(4) No two plants/animals genera have the same name
(5) The specific name written after the generic name it should be short but may be compound like hibiscus-
(6) The name are derived either from Latin language or Latinized.
(7) The scientific name is printed in Italics.
(8) The name of the author is appended in abbreviated form in Roman script without a coma
Ex : Mangifera indica Linn, Homo sapience Linn
(9) When a binomial name is changed, the name of the original author is kept in bracket and the new scien
-tist’s name written after this out side the bracket without comma
Ex: Albizia lebback (Linn) Benth
(10) In case an orginism has been given more then one name, the earlier legitimate one recognised to be
(11) The long and difficult name should be avoided, means the name of species should be smaller and easy
(12) The species should not be identified due to its size.
(13) The colour should not be criteria for differences but the name should refer to some important
characters of the plant or animal.
(14) The correct and original spelling of a name should be maintained
(15) Homonyms and superfluous name can be rejected
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(i) If two or more taxa are combind in to one the new taxon takes the name of the constituent that had the
oldest valid name.
(ii) If a taxon be split in two or more taxa, then one of the new taxa should be given old name
(iii) Tautonyms : If both generic and specific word are same, then called tautonyms and not accepted in
botanical binomial nomenclature while used frequentaly in zoological binomial nomenclature earlier.
Ex : Buffalo - Bubalis bulabis
Rat - Rattus rattus
Advantage of the binomial system
(i) The biological name are same all over the world.
(ii) They are uniformly binomial
(iii) They are definite and accepted universly
(iv) They are descriptive
(v) They indicate general relationship
(vi) An incorrect name can be easily set right
(vii) All newly discovered plants and animals can be named an discribed easily
(III) Biological Classification
Two kingdom system
Two kingdom system classification of Aristotle :
Aristotle was the earliest scientist and philosopher to attempt a more Scientific basis of classification.
Plant classification : He used simple morphological character to classify plants.
Note : Theophrastus - Divided or classified plants using criteria some what same as Aristotle (Morphol-
ogy, Habit, Habitat)
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Two kingdom system of classification of Linnaeus (1707 - 1778) :
Base on external morphology.
Father of modern botany and Taxonomy
Father of binomial nomenclature
(i) Species planterum - 5900 (6000) Plants are classified and given botanical named
according to binomial nomenclature.
(ii) Systema naturae - 4232 More than 4000 animals are classified and given zoological
nomenclature according to binomial nomenclature.
(iii) Philosophi botanica
(iv) Flora Laponica
(v) Critaca botanica
Limitations and demerits of two kingdom system
(1) It was not phylogenetic means based on Morphological characters and unable to represent evolution-
(2) Large number of organism did not fall in to these two categories (kingdom-plantae and kingdom-
Ex: Bacteria, B.G.A., slime mold, Mycoplasma, Rikettsia etc.
(3) It did not distinguish between -
Prokaryctes and eukaryotes
Unicellular and multicellular organism
Photosynthetic (algae) and non-photosynthetic (fungi)
(4) This classification did not included some specific characteristic Like -
Nature of wall
Mode of nutrition
Method of reproduction
Five kingdom systems classification of whittaker
(1) Five kingdom system classification reflects phylogenetic relationships of organism and main criteria for
classification used by whittaker are -
Cell structure (cell complexity means prokaryotes and eukaryotes)
Thallus organisation (body complexity)
Mode of nutrition
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(2) Five kingdom are mode by three fundamental characteristics
Merits of whittakers’s five kingdom over Linnaeus two kingdom system
Key merit is phylogenetic whittaker while marphological Linnaeus system
(1) Linnaeus placed or grouped bacteria, B.G.A. fungi, algea, mosses, ferns, gymnosperm and an-
giosperm in to single categary plantae only on the basis of single common character they all had the
presence of cell wall while they widely differed in many other characters. It was whittaker who has
separated them and group according to more similarity they have.
(2) Linnaeus grouped bacteria and B.G.A like prokaryotes with eukaryotes but whittakers separated all
prokarytes by grouping them in to kingdom-Monera and separate them from eukaryotes.
(3) Whittaker separated unicellualr chlamydomonas like unicellular eukaryotic algea from multicellular
(4) Spiliting (separating) : He separated Heterotrophic and chitinous wall containing fungi from au-
totrophic and cellulosic wall containing green plants by forming separate kingdom-fungi for fungus and
kingdom-plantae for rest green multicellular plants, which were placed together by Linnaeus.
(5) Lumping (unifying): he brought together, unicellular algae (chlamydomonas and chlorella) with unicel-
lular animals (paramoecium and amoeba)
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Demirits of whittaker’s five kingdom
Although five kingdom system of whittaker is phylogenetic and such phylogenetic system of classification
are most advance type that reflects evolutionary relationship amoung the organism but yet after there are
same limitation and drawbacks in this system.
(1) Limitation of kingdom protista :
(i) Protista have diverse mode of nutrition, mode of life and structure.
(ii) Dionoflagellates are included in protista while they are mesokaryotic not eukaryotic.
(iii) Slime mold differ from remaining protista
(iv) There are several evolutionary lines of protist for Ex. Animal, plant, fungus (slime mold)
(v) It is difficult to distinguish between unicellular algae and green algea included in volvoccales
(2) Exeception of kingdom plantae :
It is a group of multicellular green autotrophic, eukaryotic plants but also contains controversial plants-
(a) Insectivorous plants :
(1) Nepenthese - Pitcher plant (some species are xerophytic like N.Khaisiana with medicinal value)
(2) Ceresenia - Pitcher plant
(3) Utricularia - Bladder wort (aquaitic)
(4) Drocera - Sundew
(5) Dionia - Venus fly trap
(b) Parasitic plants :
(1) Cuscuta - Total stem parasite
(2) Lorenthus and viscum - Partial stem parasite
(3) Rafflesia and Orobanchi - Total root parasite
(4) Santellum - partial root parasite
(3) Doubtful position of algae :
Algae are placed in several kingdom - Monera (B.G.A), Protista (unicellular algae like Chlamydomonas)
Plantae (Multicellular algae like Spirogyra)
(4) What about viruses :
The position of viruses is not clear or no space for viruses in whittaker’s classification.
(5) Interesting position of yeast :
Although yeast is unicellular eukaryotic organism (on the basis of cell complexity) then after it is placed with
fungus in kingdom fungi (on the basis of reproduction it is included with ascomycetes)
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Curious Method to memorise all kingdom system
(I) Two kingdom classification: Aristotle, Linnaeus
(II) Three kingdom classification : Haeckel, Protista kingdom stablished by Haeckel
(III) Four kingdom classification : Copeland
(IV) Five kingdom classification : Whittaker
(V) Six kingdom classification : Most recent classification is six kingdom classification Proposed by
three microbiologist - Karl woese, Kandler, Wheelis
(1) Six kingdom of Woese based on recent nucleic acid hybridization
DNA sequencing mathod
Comparing base sequence of 16S rRNA from variety of orgnism
(2) Woese, Candeler, Wheelis, proposed bacteria should be divided in to archeobacteria and
eubacteria on the basis of 16S rRNA base sequence
(3) Doman : (i) Taxonomic categories above the rank of kingdom on the basis of 16S r.R.N.A
gene sequence called Domen
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Type (I) : Very Short Answer Type Questions : [01 Mark Each]
1. Define systematics.
2. What is taxonomy ?
3. Name the 3 main systems of classification.
4. Who devised the bionomial nomentclature ?
5. Define the taxon.
Type (II) : Short Answer Type Questions : [02 Marks Each]
6. What is meant by identification of a species?
7. Who is regarded the father of taxonomy and why ?
8. Name the 3 international codes of biological nomenclature.
9. Mention three aims of a zoological park.
Type (III) : Long Answer Type Questions: [03 Mark Each]
10. Name the major categories used in taxonomy and arrange them in an hierarchical manner.
11. Write down a suitable definition of a species.
12. Explain the terms systematics and New systematics.
13. Which of the following cover the greater number of organisms :
(a) Phylum or genus
(b) Family or phylum
(c) Family or order
(d) Class or phylum
Type (IV) : Very Long Answer Type Questions: [05 Mark Each]
14. Explain five kingdom system classification of Whittaker.
15. Explain the binomial system of nomenclature.
16. Write short notes on -
(c) Zoological park
17. What is the role of keys in taxonomy? Illustrate with example.
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1. The recent branch of taxonomy is
(1) karyotaxonomy (based on structure/number and banding of chromosomes)
(2) Cytotaxonomy (based on cytoplasmic structures)
(3) Evolution of species
2. The immense biological diversity (1.7 million species of living organisms -1.2 million animals and 0.5
million plants) that we see is the result of
(1) Organic evolution (2)Adaptations (3) Inorganic evolution (4) Variations
3. The practical purpose of classification of living organisms is to
(1) Facilitate identification of unknown organisms (2) Explain the origin of living organisms
(3) Trace the evolution of Jiving organisms (4) Name the living organisms
4. Static concept of species (nullae species novae i.e., no species new, it is immutable) was given by
(1) Lamarck (2) Linnaeus (3) De Candolle (4) Mayr
5. Maximum diversity is seen amongst
(1) Monera (2) Animalia (3) Plantae (4) Protista
6. Taxon is
(1) Short term for taxonomy
(2) A group of species
(3) A classificatory(taxonomic) unit of any rank
(4) A compendium of international rules of nomenclature
7. Arrange the following in order of increasing group size, beginning with the smallest (i) family (ii) kingdom
(iii) phylum/division (iv) genus (v) order (vi) class (vii) species.
(1) (vii), (iv), (i), (v), (vi), (iii), (ii) (2) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii)
(3) (v), (iv), (i), (vi), (ii), (iii), (vii) (4) (vii), (vi), (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v)
8. In a taxonomic hierarchy, categories/taxa are arranged in
(1) Descending order (2) ascending order (3) vertical order (4) in any order
9. Category is
(1) a rank in hierarchy (2) any group of living objects
(3) a term used interchangeable with taxon (4) a taxonomic group
10. Mark the odd one in the following
(1) Family (2) Cohort (3) Taxon (4) Species
11. Which taxonomic category contains organisms belonging to same class but not to same family?
(1) Species (2) Genus (3) Order (4) Population
12. Genus is a group of related
(1) Species (2) Varieties (3) Orders (4) Families
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13. A binomial nomenclature has
(1) 2 taxons (2) one name (3) 2 terms (4) None of these
14. What are Mule, Tigon, Liger, and Hinny?
(1) Species (2) Sub species (3) Hybrids (4) Categories
15. Holotype is a
(1) Typical specimen designated by author for nomenclature and publication
(2) Incomplete specimen
(3) Unpreserved specimen
(4) Specimen fro mother locality
16. In binomial nomenclature proposed by Linnaeus, every organism has
(1) Two names, one Latin and other common
(2) Two names, one scientific and other vernacular
(3) One scientific name, given by two scientists
(4) One scientific/biological name with two words - a genus and a species
17. Binomial epithet in binomial nomenclature is
(1) Genus + Species (2) Genus
(3) Genus + Species + Author name (4) Genus + species + Family
18. Which of the following categories is the most inclusive?
(1) Order (2) Family (3) Phylum (4) Species
19. Species name is not used alone because
(1) It is not a complete name.
(2) It does not sound well
(3) Same species name may be used with many genera
(4) All of the above
20. Which of the following is not a category?
(1) Aves (2) Class (3) Phylum (4) Genus
21. Which of the following is a category?
(1) Order (2) Class (3) Genus (4) All of these
22. The category which includes related families is
(1) Phylum (2) Order (3) Class (4) Genus
23. The U.S. National Herbarium is situated in
(1) Los Angeles (2) Hollywood (3) Washington (4) California
24. ICBN stands for
(1) International classification of biological nomenclature
(2) International code of biological nomenclature
(3) International code of botanical nomenclature
(4) International classification of biological naming
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25. The places where collection of dried, pressed plant specimens mounted on paper or placed in liquid
representative are kept systematically
(1) Herbaria (2) Museum (3) Botanical garden (4) Zoo
26. Gardens are meant for
(1) Aesthetic value (2) Knowing origin of plants
(3) Checking erosion and pollution (4) Protecting rare plants and to maintain gene pool
27. The first modern Botanical garden was
(1) Padua Botanical Garden (2) Royal Botanical Garden
(3) Indian Botanical Garden (4) FRI
28. In how many parts ICBN is divided
(1) 3 (2) 5 (3) 2 (4) 4
29. The sorting out of identified and accessioned herbaria sheets family. Genus and species wise and their
arrangement according to a standard system of classification are a step in making herbarium. This step
is known as
(1) Index registers (2) Filing of specimens
(3) Mounting (4) Labeling of specimen sheets.
30. National herbarium is that which contains plants of
(1) a region (2) a country (3) a locality (4) world
31. Taxonomic keys are constructed to identify a species. Which key is most popular?
(1) Bracketed keys (2) Indented keys (3) Taxonomic keys (4) none of these
32. Scala naturae (ladder of nature) was first theory in Biology in which all things were placed in a hierarchy.
It was given by
(1) Haeckel (2) Aristotle (3) Leeuwenhoek (4) Cuvier
33. Term Species, Division and Phylum were coined by
(1) Species by John Ray, Division by Eichler and Phylum by Cuvier
(2) Species by Cuvier, Division by Eichler and Phylum by Ray
(3) Species by Ray and Phylum and Division by Haeckel
(4) Species and Division by Ray and Phylum by Linnaeus
34. Most recent branch of Taxonomy is
(1) Karyotaxonomy (based on nucleus and number, structure and arrangement of chromosomes)
(2) Biochemical taxonomy (based on biochemicals)
(3) Numerical taxonomy (based on number of shared characters using statistical methods
(4) Classical systematics (based on morphological features)
35. Intermediate category is
(1) Category in addition to obligate categories (2) subphylum
(3) Sub species (4) all of the above
36. A genus with a single species is called
(1) Typical (2) Monotype (3) Polytype (4) Syntype
37. In a scientific name, every name has 2 words – Genus and species.
(1) First word of Genus is written in capital letter (2) First word of species is written in small form
(3) Every name is followed by author citation (4) All of the above
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38. A population of similar organisms which are capable of interbreeding to form fertile off spring is
(1) Species (2) genus (3) tribe (4) family
39. The relationship between comparable structures is called
(1) Analogy (2) Ontogeny (3) Phylogeny (4) Homology
40. Which is not a taxon in Linnaeus hierarchy?
(1) Class & order (2) Kingdom & Class (3) Genus & species (4) Phylum & family
41. The category ‘tribe’ is added in between
(1) Genus and species (2) family and genus (3) subfamily and genus (4) class and order
42. The head quarter of BSI (Botanical survey of India) is at
(1) Howrah, (Calcutta) (2) New Delhi
(3) NBRI Lucknow (U.P) (4) FRI Dehradun (Utranchal)
43. Royal botanic garden is situated in
(1) Kew (2) Paris (3) Washington (4) Howrah
44. What is a botanical garden?
(1) It is essentially a collection of living plants maintained for both pure and applied studies
(2) It is essentially a collection of plants only
(3) It is essentially the collection of rare and fossil plants
(4) It is for research work on
45. Herbarium means
(1) Store house/place where preserved identified dry liquid/speciments are kept systematically.
(2) A heavy card sheet carrying the dried and pressed specimen of plant.
(3) A garden with all plants arranged systematically.
(4) A system of arranging plants into different categories.
46. Largest herbaria of the Asia is at
(1) Kew (2) Sibpur (3) Chennai (4) Trombay
47. Indian Board for wild life was established in
(1) 1953 (2) 1952 (3) 1853 (4)1852
48. Who developed the key first for the identification of animals?
(1) John Ray (2) Goethe (3) Cuvier (4) Theophrastus
49. Which one of the following is not includes in taxonomical aids
(1) Herbarium (2) Museum (3) Botanical gardens (4) None of these
50. Identification of plants and animals based on the
(1) Similarities (2) dissimilarities (3) (1) and (2) both (4) None of these
51. The keys are based on the contrasting characters generally in a pair called -
(1) Couplet (2) lead (3) specimens (4) data
52. All plant and animals belonging to various phyla are assigned to the highest category called-
(1) Kingdom (2) Phylum (3) Class (4) Division
53. In case of plants classes with a few similar characters are assinged to a higher category called
(1) Kingdom plantae (2) Division (3) Phylum (4) None of these
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1. Of the following taxonomic categories which is the most inclusive (i.e., is the highest in the hierarchy)?
(1) Order (2) Sub-species (3) Class (4) Genus
2. Two different animals are classified into the same family. This means they would be classified in:
(1) The same phylum, but different class (2) The same class, but different species
(3) A different kingdom and a different phylum (4) A different class and a different order
3. Which of the following taxonomic categories contains organisms least similar to one another?
(1) Class (2) Family (3) Genus (4) Species
4. Organisms grouped under kingdom Protista can be described as:
(1) Chemosynthetic prokaryotes (2) unicellular eukaryotes
(3) Multicellular heterotrophs (4) unicellular autotrophs
5. Which of the following cannot be the criteria for grouping of plants / animals together?
(1) Similar reproductive physiology (2) Similar behavioral/mating pattern
(3) Anatomical similarity (4) Genetic similarity
1. "Ordines Anomali" of Bentham and Hooker includes (AIIMS 2006)
(1) plants described only in fossil state
(2) seed plants showing abnormal forms of growth and development
(3) plants described in the literature but which Bentham and Hooker did not see in original
(4) a few orders which could not be placed satisfactorily in the classification
ASSERTION / REASONING
In each of the following questions a statement of Assertion (A) is given followed by a corresponding
statement of Reason (R) just below it. Of the statements, mark the correct answer as
(1) If both assertion and resaon are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion
(2) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion
(3) If assertion is true but reason is false
(4) If both assertion and reason are false
2. Assertion: Whittaker did not include unicellular green algae in protista.
Reason: Distinction between unicellular and multicellular organisms is not possible in case of algae.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
3. Assertion: Systematics is the branch of biology that deals with classification of living organisms.
Reason: The aim of classification is to group the organisms.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
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4. Assertion: Taxon and category are same things.
Reason: Category shows hierarchical classification.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
5. Assertion: The hierarchy includes seven obligate categories.
Reason: Intermediate categories are used to make taxonomic positions more informative.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
6. Assertion: The species is reproductively isolated natural population.
Reason: Prokaryotes cannot be kept under different species on the basis of reproductive isolation.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
7. Assertion : Linnaeus system of animal classification is essentially an artificial system, yet it has become
a natural system
Reason : Similarities forming the basis in Linnaeus system are indicative of genetic relationship.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
1. A convenient way for easy identification of an organism by applying diagnostic contrasting characters is
(1) Systematics (2) key (3) classification (4) none of these
2. FRI is situated at (MPPMT 2002)
(1) Lucknow (UP) (2) Bhopal (MP) (3) Hyderabad (AP) (4) Dehradun (Utranchal)
3. Botanical Gardens provide (CBSE 2005)
(1) Beautiful area for recreation (2) reservoir for tropical plants
(3) Exsitu conservation of Germplasm (4) natural habitat for wild life
4. The institute which encourage publication of local flora in India is
(1) NBRI (2) FRI (3) BSI (4) IARI
5. CNH (Central National Herbarium) is located at
(1) Mumbai (2) Chennai (3) Kolkata (4) Bangalore
6. Systema Naturae was written by (MP PMT 2007)
(1) Linnaeus (2) Aristotle (3) Darwin (4) de Candolle
7. Reason of diversity in living being is (CBSE 2001)
(1) Mutation (2) long term evolutionary changes
(3) Short term evolutionary changes (4) gradual changes
8. Choose the correct sequence of taxonomic categories in Linnaeus Hierarchy
(Karnataka 2001, Kerala 2007, Wardha 2005)
(1) Phylum - class - Family - Tribe - Order - Genus - Species
(2) Division - Class - Order - Family - Tribe - Genus - Species
(3) Order - Class - Tribe - Division - Family - Genus - Species
(4) Phylum - Class - Tribe - Order -Family. - Genus - Species
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9. Binomial nomenclature includes (EAMCET 1995; DPMT 1996; BHU 20()2; MPPMT 2006)
(1) Genus, species (2) Genus, family (3) Genus, subfamily (4) Species, subspecies
10. Who proposed phylogenetic classification of plants ? (CPMT 1998; Orissa JEE 2003, 06; Pb. PMT 2004)
(1) Mehta (2) Linnaeus (3) Hutchinson (4) Bentham and Hooker
11. Phylogenetic classification is one which is based on (CBSE 1994; DPMT 2006)
(1) habits of plants (2) utilitarian system
(3) overall similarities (4) common evolutionary descent
12. The five kingdom classification of living organisms was proposed by
(Kerala PMT 2001, 04; Orissa JEE 2004; HPPMT 2006)
(1)Altmann (2) Hutchinson (3) Whittaker (4) Adolf Engler
(5) Bentham and Hooker
13. The type specimen used by the author in the original publication is known as (PCS 2002; BV Pune 2006)
(1) holotype (2) isotype (3) lectotype (4) syntype
14. Five kingdom classification includes (DPMT 2006)
(1) Monera, Protista, Animalia, Plantae, Algae
(2) Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
(3) Virus, Prokaryota, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
(4) Algae, Fungi, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms
15. Taxon is a (DPMT 2006)
(1) group of same species
(2) group of similar genera
(3) subdivision of kingdom
(4) apy rank in taxonomic hierarchy
16. Identify from the following the only taxonomic category that has a real existence (Karnataka CET 2006)
(1) genus (2) species (3) phylum (4) kingdom
17. Which of the following is required as equivalent to subspecies of classical taxonomy ? (VITEEE 2006)
(1) Ecotype (2) Ecospecies (3) Cenospecies (4) Comparium
18. The term 'neo-systematics' was given by (CPMT 2006)
(1) John Ray (2) Julian Huxley (3) Theophrastus (4) Carolus Linnaeus
19. In the classification of plants, the term cladistics refers to the (Kerala PMT 2006)
(1) sexual classification
(2) natural classification
(3) artificial classification
(4) binomial classification
(5) phylogenetic classification
20. Which of the following taxonomic ranks contains organisms most similar to one another ? (MH-CET 2006)
(1) Class (2) Genus (3) Family (4) Species
21. The three phases of taxonomy (a, b, w) were recognised by (Chandigarh CET 2006)
(1) Turril (2) Heywood (3) Julian Huxley (4) A.P. de Candolle
22. First national park developed in India is - (BHU 2008 mains)
(1) Jim Corbett (2) Gir (3) Kaziranga (4) None of these
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23. Natural system of classfication was given by (UPCPMT 2009)
(1) George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker (2) Hutchinson
(3) Carolus Linnaeus (4) Ernst Haeckel
24. A group of interconnected genera is called (AFMC 2009)
(1) Family (2) Order (3) Phylum (4) Class
25. Five kingdom classified was given by (UPCPMT 2010)
(1) Copeland (2) Haeckal (3) Whittaker (4) Takhtajan
26. Five phyllogenetic system of classification was proposed by (UPCPMT 2010)
(1) Hutchinson (2) Engler and Prantl (3) Takhtajan (4) Linnaeus
27. Which one of the following is not a correct statement? (NEET 2013)
(1) Botanical gardens have collection of living plants for reference.
(2) A museum has collection of photographs of plants and animals
(3) Key is taxonomic aid for identification of specimens.
(4) herbarium houses dried. pressed and preserved plant specimens.
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BOARD LEVEL EXERCISE : HINT & SOLUTIONS
1. The term systematics is introduced by Linnacus. According to Linnacus systematics is arrangement of
organisms into an appropriate system.
2. Rules of classification.
The most popular defination of Taxonomy is science of identification, Nomenclature and classification of
organisms is called Taxonomy.
3. Artificial, natural & phylogenetic.
4. Carolus linnaeus
5. A group of similar genetically related individuals is called taxon.
6. Identification is aimed at finding the correct name an teh proper position of a species in teh established
scheme of classification.
7. Carolus linnacus is regarded the fatehr of taxonomy, he devised a scheme of naming the organisms and
gave a plan of classification which is still used with a few additions.
8. (1) International code of Botanical Nomenclature.
(2) International code of zoological Nomenclature.
(3) International code of Bacteriological Nomenclature.
9. (1) To increase interest in world life
(2) To provide recroation and education
(3) and to conserve endangered species.
10. Refer page no. 7
11. Refer page no. 8
12. Systematics :
Term introduced by Linnaeus and is the alternative term of taxonomy or synonym of taxonomy.
New systematics : Given by J. Huxley
New systematic (Biosystematics) - Term introduced by Huxley using of all branches of biology to classify
animals and plants. It elaborated phylogenetic system of classification (cladistics)
13. (a) Phylum
14. See page no. 19-20
15. See page no. 16
16. (a) See page no. 11
(b) See page no. 13
(c) See page no. 14
17. See page no. 14-15