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Religion and society revision

  1. 1. Religion and Society! Rights and responsibilities Environmental and medical issues Peace and Conflict Crime and Punishment
  2. 2. Rights and responsibilities
  3. 3. All Christians agree that the Bible is the best way to find out what God wants them to do in their lives. Some: Absolute word of God: The only and final authority for Different Christians beliefs Some: Interpreted today for about the Christians by Church. authority of the Others: Only a guide written by Bible. humans - allowed to be interpreted to fit with today’s society.
  4. 4. CHRUCH: The community of Christians (small c = place of worship). Church of England: Roman Catholic Church: Elect an assembly to Have leaders that make decide on moral issues. moral decisions. (Pope and Bishops) Most: How Jesus, Son of God, works in the world, so it has authority of Jesus. Why the Most: Believe that God speaks Church to the world today through the has authority. church. Guided by God so able to make decisions. Sure they are doing the right thing.
  5. 5. All humans have a conscience which makes them feel guilty if they do things which they regard as wrong, e.g.. If you do something your parents disapprove of, you may feel guilty afterwards. This feelings of guilt is your conscience.
  6. 6. WHEN. Christians follow their conscience? WHY. Christians believe the Catholic Church teach: voice of conscience Final part of moral seems to be the same as decision making. the voice of God so it They should go with their conscience even if it goes should be followed. against the church. The Church says that Christians should follow their conscience.
  7. 7. Why do some Christians think they shouldn’t always follow their conscience? People have been mistaken about the voice of God, e.g. The Yorkshire Ripper claimed that God had told him to kill prostitutes. If Christians follow the teachings of the Bible and the Church they know they are doing the Christian thing, so don’t need to rely on conscience.
  8. 8. Situation Ethics Many Christians who believe that conscience is more important than the Bible or Church probably follow situation ethics. This is a Christian idea from Joseph Fletcher. Accepting the Bible or Church means things are either right or wrong whatever the situation. Fletcher felt this was wrong and that Christians should base their moral decisions on Jesus‟ commandment to love your neighbour as yourself and on the situation. IF WE USED IT? Should a Christian attend a homosexual wedding?
  9. 9. Why some Christians follow situation ethics: Jesus seemed to follow situation ethics because He over-ruled what the Old Testament said when he thought it was unloving; e.g. He healed on the Sabbath Why some Christians They think you should only do what won’t follow situation will produce good results. ethics: They believe that Jesus‟ statement that the only laws are to love God and your They think God wouldn‟t have given laws neighbour means that Christians should in the Bible if they were not to be followed. always do what will have the most loving results. They think the Church knows best what Christians should do. They claim you never know all the facts about a situation, so the most loving thing might not be if you knew more facts or all the consequences of your actions.
  10. 10. UN HUMAN RIGHTS ACT 1948! Rights and freedoms that every human is entitled to! RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN GOVERNMENT THROUGH VOTING!
  12. 12. “From one human being He created all races on earth and made them live throughout the whole earth”. (Acts 17:26)
  13. 13. THE GOOD SAMARITAN! Luke 10:25-37 FAIR TREATMENT!  Healing a Leper  Helping/Teaching prostitutes and Tax collectors  Helping the Roman Soldiers
  14. 14. CHRISTIAN “Christian worship can never let us be indifferent to the needs of others…To speak of God, you must speak to your neighbour…He does not tolerate a relationship with himself that excludes your neighbour”.
  16. 16. UNITE against racism!
  17. 17. Democratic Processes: The ways in which all citizens can take part in government! Electoral Processes: The ways in which voting is organised! No matter who gets into power we end of with the same policies. ONE VOTE WILL NOT MAKE A DIFFERENCE!
  19. 19. “Rich people who see a brother and sister in need, yet close their hearts against them, cannot claim that they love God” 1 John 3:11-18
  20. 20. Whenever you helped “one of the least important members of my family, you did it for me” Matthew 24:31-46 Someone who is sick, in prison, poor, homeless, upset etc
  21. 21. GENETIC ENGINEERING: Removal of DNA from a plant or animal, altering it and putting it back again. CLONING: A form of genetic engineering that produces a duplicate of the parent
  22. 22. ONLY GOD IS PERFECT! PROTESTANTS ROMAN CATHOLIC MAY AGREE WITH ALL IF IT IS IN THE LONG SEEDS, PLANTS and TERM INTEREST OF ANIMALS for the HUMANITY! greater good of humanity. Medical Research HUMANS CELLS???? Jesus healed people. GE is just a must be trying to NO WAY!!! modern version of this! improve the Science comes from God, ergo, WE quality of a HUMANS ARE MADE IN GODS ARE MEANT TO USE IT! persons life for it IMAGE = SPECIAL!!!! to be acceptable! Could be used for GOOD?
  23. 23. RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES You must answer one question from this section. EITHER 1. (a) What is Situation Ethics? (2) (b) Do you think pressure groups should be made illegal? Give two reasons for your point of view. (4) (c) Explain how the Bible is used by Christians in moral decision making. (8) (d) ‘No good can come from genetic engineering.’ In your answer you should refer to Christianity. (i) Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion. (3) (ii) Give reasons why some people may disagree with you. (3) Total for Question 1 = 20 marks OR 2. (a) What are democratic processes? (2) (b) Do you think Christians should accept cloning? Give two reasons for your point of view. (4) (c) Explain why human rights matter to Christians. (8) (d) ‘Conscience is the best guide a Christian has when making a moral decision.’ In your answer you should refer to Christianity. (i) Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion. (3) (ii) Give reasons why some people may disagree with you. (3) Total for Question 2 = 20 marks
  24. 24. Environmental and medical issues Global Warming, Pollution and the problem this causes. Infertility Treatment and religious attitudes towards it. Transplant Surgery and religious attitudes towards it.
  25. 25. Global Warming
  26. 26. Sea levels are Extreme weather is Glaciers melt! Sea ice rising, seasons becoming more is disappearing. changing. EXTREME! CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT? More flooding More diseases More famine More droughts More wars! More refugees Destruction of ecosystems
  28. 28. “The good news is that we know exactly what needs to be done to stop climate change” SOLUTIONS? CUT CARBON Low-carbon cars EMISSIONS Reducing use of fossil fuels New Use energy-saving technology light bulbs etc
  29. 29. Pollution LAND 25 million tonnes of rubbish a year are dumped on streets and along the side of the road. Every person in the UK throws away four times their body weight in rubbish a year. AIR Cars are the biggest cause of air pollution. They emit a variety of pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. SEA Raw sewage and radioactive waste have been discharged into the sea.
  30. 30. Natural Resources: Naturally occurring materials – oil and fertile land! 2000 trees, Coal, Oil, Not able to recover, UN, Exploitation , 78%, 60 years
  32. 32. Christians, Islam and the Environment Stewardship: Looking after KHALIFAH: Responsibility that Allah something so it can be passed on to the has given Muslims to care for the world; the next generation. person who acts as Allah‟s steward on earth. “God looked at everything he had “But waste not by excess: for made , and was very pleased”. God loves not the wasters”. (Genesis 1.31) (6:141) OLD TESTAMENT RULES! QUR’AN: Allah created the world and Working animals must rest one day a everything in it for a purpose; it is part of week. Allah‟s plan. Everything in existence is Fruit trees must not be destroyed when interlinked, we are all part of ‟one‟. Damage attacking a city. upsets a link in the chain and that harms the Land must be rested on the seventh year. planet. Jesus taught through the Sermon on the Mount that it is every Christians duty to share the worlds resources fairly and with care!
  33. 33. IVF In-vitro Egg and sperm are taken from a couple, fertilized fertilization in a laboratory and then placed in the womb. This helps women with medical problems, such as known as IVF blocked fallopian tubes, to conceive. Artificial insemination Sperm is taken from the husband and placed in by husband known as the woman‟s uterus. This can help couples who AIH have difficulty conceiving for no obvious reason. Artificial Sperm insemination by Sperm donated to a clinic is placed in the Donor donor known as woman‟s uterus. This can help couples where the AID male is infertile – unable to have children. Egg A fertilized egg is created in the laboratory using an egg donated by another woman but using donation the partner‟s sperm. This is of help when a woman does not ovulate.
  34. 34. Christianity and IVF For or Attitude Against? It is an act of great kindness to help a women to conceive a longed for child and to remove her suffering. The IVF process involves the creation of several fertilized eggs. Not all eggs will be implanted in the women the rest will be destroyed. They believe it is wrong to destroy life. Medical research must refrain from operations on live embryos. This is considered a grave sin. The emotional needs of couples who are eager to have children have forced us to re-examine traditional beliefs. Understand that a child is God‟s gift to a couple conceived as a result of a loving sexual relationship anything else is unnatural and not what God intended. If God gives us the ability to help infertile couples we should use it. The Bible contains a story of God bringing happiness to a infertile woman by giving her a child.
  35. 35. Islam and IVF Decision‟s about fertility treatment in Islam consider whether adultery is involved. Sperm Donor AID: Not acceptable – Like IVF: Acceptable as long as the adultery as man is not married to the woman. The AIH egg and sperm belong to the husband. Extra embryos can Qur’an teaches that everyone be destroyed but only has the right to Lineage. ACCEPTABLE! BEFORE 120 DAYS! Surrogacy and Egg Donation = SAME CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO IDENTITY! Adoption!!!
  36. 36. Transplant Surgery It would be fantastic if something amazing came out of my death. Knowing that my death is going to help others live a good life makes me happy! I think giving life is far better than wasting organs that would otherwise be buried or cremated. Operations like transplant surgery cost a fortune. The money should be spent on curing the disease or changing the way people live. Lots more people would benefit from this! I want to be buried with all my own body parts. I don‟t think it is right for people to take parts of me when I am dead.
  37. 37. Transplant Surgery: Organ Donation DEAD! Lungs, Heart, Liver, Eyes, Skin etc One dead donor saves 9 lives and helps many others. dono r ALIVE! Kidney, Blood, Bone Marrow etc. This often has little impact on the donor and is often donated to sick family members.
  38. 38. Christianity and Transplant Surgery The Bible states that humans are created by God in his images. People have NO RIGHT to interfere with God’s creation. Some Christians believe that God will resurrect people into their bodies at the end of the world and DO NOT agree with transplanting organs. Some Christians say: When we have two organs, giving one is okay because it is following Jesus' teachings of loving your neighbour. Most Christians believe that the gift of life is precious and it is right to make every effort to preserve life. The Golden Rule teaches Christians to treat others as they would like to be treated themselves. For some, this teaching makes organ donations acceptable.
  39. 39. Islam and Transplant Surgery The Qur’an teaches that on the Last Day, Allah will resurrect everybody bodily. It is understood that nothing should be removed from a person’s body after death. Allah is the creator of life and he has a plan for everyone. Humans have no right to alter Allah’s plan about life and death. Islam teaches that it is every Muslim’s duty to alleviate suffering and save life. Organ donation and transplant can do this. In Islam, Organ donation on a living donor may be permitted, so long as it does not risk the donor’s life. In fact it is considered an act of charity. Some (very few) Muslims believe that all forms of transplant surgery is acceptable because Shariah Laws it can save lives and is a God given technology.
  40. 40. Peace and Conflict The United Nations Religion and world peace Just War Religious attitude towards war. Religious attitude towards bullying. Conflict in the family. Religious teachings on forgiveness and reconciliation.
  41. 41. UN basic aims: 1: To maintain international peace and security 2: To develop friendly relations between countries. 3: To help countries develop economically and socially. Peace = RESPECT for life, human dignity, human rights and the rejection of violence along with a commitment to freedom, justice and friendship. UNICEF: Children‟s Fun UNESCO: Educational, Scientific, Cultural Organisation
  42. 42. World Peace THE QUAKERS PACIFISM AND NON-VIOLENCE Work with the UN to reconcile warring states. Campaign against nuclear weapons Work to tackle the causes of conflict – poverty etc Try to influence foreign policy
  43. 43. Just War “War may be necessary. Refusing to fight would allow evil to win!” A Just War is one which has to be fought but is conducted according to certain conditions. These were developed by Thomas Aquinas (c1225-74) and Francisco de Vitoria (c1483-1546) and are still referred to by Christians today.
  44. 44. The theory is not intended to justify all wars but to prevent them by showing that going to war - except in certain limited circumstances - is wrong. The intention was to motivate states to find other ways of resolving conflicts, prevent war and to limit its effects. Some conditions of a Just War are: it must be fought by a legal recognised authority, eg, a government the war must be fought with the intention to establish good or correct evil the war must be the last resort (after all diplomatic negotiations have been tried and failed) civilians must not be involved or targeted
  45. 45. Christianity and war Most Christians believe that war and fighting Jesus is often described as a pacifist. He are wrong except in the most severe cases and taught: they base their views on Jesus‟ teaching about “Blessed are the peacemakers for they love: will be called the children of God”. “A new command I give you: love one Matthew 5.9 another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another”. John 13:34 Necessary Evil Most Christian believe we had a duty Jesus taught about non-violence but stop the atrocities being committed by never condemned Roman Soldiers. Nazi Regime during WWII. POPE BENEDICT XVI – Duty bound to defend Christian values – even if that means using proportional violence.
  46. 46. ISLAM AND WAR: Lesser Jihad
  47. 47. Harb al-Muqadis (Holy War) Muslims may fight in self-defence but are forbidden to begin a fight. The aim of fighting is to create a situation where Muslims are free to worship Allah and live in peace. One aim of Holy War may be to create a democracy where people are free to live their lives without beliefs and politics being imposed on them. There must be no hatred or vengeance in the fighting. As soon as peace is offered, fighting must stop. Once peace has been restored the differences between people must be resolved. “Hate your enemy mildly; he may become your friend one day”. Hadith
  48. 48. Christianity and Bullying “Love your neighbour as you love yourself.” If you love someone, you will never do them wrong: to love, the, is to obey the whole law. (Romans 13:9-10) Made in the image of God! WE ARE ALL EQUAL! Set up by Christians to help children who lived on the streets during Victorian times. Now it helps children facing discrimination or disadvantage in their daily lives. Aniti- bullying is one area they work on.
  49. 49. Islam and bullying UMMAH= The brotherhood of all Muslims, whether male of female. It would be wrong to bully a fellow Muslim. QUR’AN Allah created every human being SHOW COMPASSION TO and everyone is equal in the eyes THE WEAK AND FIGHT of Allah. Show respect to ALL of AGAINST INJUSTICE! Allah‟s creation. THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT “Allah will not show mercy to the one who does not show mercy to others”. (Hadith) Beatbullying: CyberMentors who help people who are victims of cyber bullying.
  50. 50. Religious conflict and the family
  51. 51. PARABLES! The Lost Son Christianity and forgiveness Truth and Reconciliation Commission Desmond Tutu promoted forgiveness in South Africa – Good Example
  52. 52. Islam and forgiveness “Show forgiveness, speak Teachings of the Qur’an of justice, and avoid the ignorant”. (Qur;an 7:199) “Control your anger, then Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) forgive your brother. Do you not wish to be forgiven?”. (Prophet Muhammad PBUH) If a Muslim wrongs someone DAY OF JUDGEMENT they are taught to: Ask forgiveness from Allah Ask forgiveness from the person themselves.
  53. 53. Crime and Punishment Law and Justice The point of Punishment Religious teachings about justice Capital Punishment Religious attitudes towards capital punishment Drugs and alcohol Drugs and alcohol – The problem for society Religious attitudes towards drugs and alcohol
  54. 54. and Laws tell people how they should and should not behave. Ensures that people are treated fairly. Laws set out certain punishments Punishment has to be appropriate for to be enforced if the law is broken. the crime committed. Without rules normal society would break down and there will be Law must be based on justice for ANARCHY. society to believe they are fair and follow them. Laws create a civilised society. If laws are unjust people may decide to act without the law or „take the law into their own hands‟.
  55. 55. Punishment Protection Placing an offender in prison, or taking their life in order to protect society from the criminal. Having a harsh punishment that discourages others Deterrent from breaking the law, or discourage a criminal from re-offending. Punishing a person to make them pay for what they Retribution have done. Punishment that makes the criminal pay for their Reparation crime by doing something to help society of the victim. A punishment that aims to stop a criminal from re- Reform offending, through a programme or re-education and training in prison.
  56. 56. Justice and Christianity BIBLE: Treating people unjustly is a sin, and those who do it can expect to pay the price on the Day of Judgement. Vendettas and long-running disputes were unjust.
  57. 57. Jesus’ teachings about justice were revolutionary for the time that he lived. Jesus linked justice with non-violence and forgiveness. RETRIBUTION IS NOT THE BEST WAY! Use , and forgive people who hurt you. He said that this was better than exacting punishment. Modern Christians believe there is an unjust division “Do not judge others, so that God of wealth in the world. will not judge you, for God will Many Christians campaign judge you the same way as you against poverty and make a deliberate effort to buy judge others, and he will apply to Fairtrade goods. you the same rules you apply to others”. (Matthew 7:1-2)
  58. 58. Justice and Islam One of them Shari’ah Law is that Allah is Just!! Life of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
  59. 59. Capital Punishment The Death Penalty in Britain  In 1908 the death penalty was abolished for people under 16.  In 1931 the death penalty was abolished for pregnant women.  The last hangings were in 1964.  The death penalty was abolished for all crimes in the UK in 1998. Innocent people get convicted by It is an excellent deterrent. mistake. Removes dangerous people. Life is sacred – even that of a criminal Cheaper than keeping a person in Prison is a good deterrent – Many try prison for a very long time. to commit suicide Life for a life – fair retribution. It barbaric
  60. 60. HERESY A belief that is not acceptable to the Church. “If anyone takes human life, he will be punished...Human beings were made like God, so whoever murders one of them will be killed by someone else”. (Genesis 9:5-6) The NEW TESTAMENT teaches that a Christian should follow a countries legal code. Christians must obey state authorities and if Capital Punishment is okay then it is acceptable. Jesus taught about love and forgiveness for sinners. Only God can give and take life. Sixth Commandment “Do not kill” means as a punishment as well.
  61. 61. Islam and Capital Punishment “You shall not kill – for that is forbidden by God – except for a just cause” DELIBERATE MURDER Shari’ah Law THREATENING TO UNDERMINE THE AUTHORITY
  62. 62. Alcohol and Drugs Illegal to drink alcohol 16-17 under the age of 18 CHANGES? Under Ban on 5 advertisement. Increase the tax Stop happy hour No drink drive limit for under 21s.
  63. 63. Alcohol and Drugs CLASS A = Morphine, Heroine CLASS B = Speed, Cannabis CLASS C = Ketamine, Some prescribed drugs
  64. 64. Causes health problems: Liver damage, lung cancer, high blood pressure etc Relationships fail – Addicts often lie to them. Work/Education suffers: Addicts are often to worried about their next fix. Crime occurs: People under the influence commit crime – 50% street crime related to drinks. Costs a fortune: Person spends large amount of money on their addiction. This often leads to debt.
  65. 65. Christians and Drugs/alcohol “Don’t you know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit, who lives in you and who was given to you by God?” (1 Corinthians 6:19) RESPONSIBLE! HELP THE ADDICT!
  66. 66. Islam and drugs/alcohol “Satan stirs up hatred among you by means of wine and gambling...Will you not abstain from them?” (Qur‟an 4:43) Destroys a peaceful society

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • 3 minute min map/bullet point activityWhat is the impact of Global warming on the world? Pupils to discuss and record points made. After 1minute give 30 second warning if needed. As a class – pupils feedback – merit for good understanding etcDisplay specialist/exam grade responses on the board. Explain how all causes or ‘impacts’ link! Exam warning expand answers as done on slide!
  • Teacher to question about actions of Greenpeace! Pupils to complete a causes Mind Map/Bullet point task:Feedback – Promote good answers. Give three main FACTORSVehiclesin the UK pump out lots of greenhouse gases. Aviation – fastest growing cause of climate change. 2/3rd of energy generated in the UK power stations is lost as waste through chimneys and cooling towers.
  • 3 minute min map/bullet point activityWhat are the solutions to global warming? 1 minute as pairsWhole class feedbackPraise good responses Give main solutionCut Carbon Emissions by;Inventing new technology and ways to generate power. Develop low carbon cars and use less fossil fuels.Use items that are energy efficient. e.g. Light bulbs.
  • Pupils to complete a causes Mind Map/Bullet point task:Feedback – Promote good answers. Three solutions: RecycleBuy Fairtrade products that promotes small companies and independent farmers and causes less damage to the environment. Think before you buy. Avoid packaging.