Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

Psychology, Science, and Pseudoscience: Class #14 (Biology and Gender)

Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige

Hier ansehen

1 von 14 Anzeige

Psychology, Science, and Pseudoscience: Class #14 (Biology and Gender)

In short: We now move on to our second set of case-studies: namely, psychology-related pseudoscience from the mainstream (as opposed to from the fringes). The first case-study is 'Biological Reductionism and Gender'

In short: We now move on to our second set of case-studies: namely, psychology-related pseudoscience from the mainstream (as opposed to from the fringes). The first case-study is 'Biological Reductionism and Gender'

Anzeige
Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Diashows für Sie (20)

Ähnlich wie Psychology, Science, and Pseudoscience: Class #14 (Biology and Gender) (20)

Anzeige

Weitere von Brian Hughes (20)

Aktuellste (20)

Anzeige

Psychology, Science, and Pseudoscience: Class #14 (Biology and Gender)

  1. 1. PS409 Psychology, Science, & Pseudoscience Dr Brian Hughes School of Psychology brian.hughes@nuigalway.ie @b_m_hughes
  2. 2. Case Studies: Examples of Psychology-related Pseudoscience
  3. 3. Case Studies from Within Mainstream Psychology: 1. Biological reductionism and gender
  4. 4. Masculinist bias in psychology Use of prevailing social attitudes as scientific assumptions Bruno Bettelheim (1965) “We must start with the realization that, as much as women want to be good scientists or engineers, they want first and foremost to be womanly companions of men, and to be mothers.”
  5. 5. Masculinist bias in psychology Use of prevailing social attitudes as scientific assumptions “the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute)…” John Bowlby (1951)
  6. 6. Masculinist bias in psychology Use of prevailing social attitudes as scientific assumptions “…this complex rich and rewarding relationship with the mother in the early years, varied in countless ways by relations with the father and with siblings …underlie[s] the development of character and mental health” John Bowlby (1951)
  7. 7. Masculinist bias in psychology Accentuation of sex differences Tendency to notice sex differences and to under- emphasize ‘sex similarities’ File-drawer problem
  8. 8. Masculinist bias in psychology Arbitrary use of men as the ‘baseline’ (c.f., Tavris, 1993) Traditional formulation Alternative formulation Women have lower self-esteem than Men are more conceited than men women Women do not value their efforts as Men overvalue the work they do much as men Women are less self-confident than Men are not as realistic as women in men assessing their abilities Women are more likely to say Men are more likely to accuse or they’re hurt than admit they’re attack others when unhappy, angry instead of stating that they feel hurt or looking for sympathy Women have more difficulty Men have more difficulty in forming developing a ‘separate sense of self’ and maintaining relationships
  9. 9. Areas of potential bias in research Stage 1: Question formulation “Male standard”/Men as baseline Stage 2: Research methods Sample selection biased to question Over-use of male samples Over-interpretation of male samples Stage 3: Data analysis and reporting Under-reporting of ‘sex similarities’ Stage 4: Interpretation Extrapolation of ‘male’ findings to females Group vs. individual differences Person-situation controversy
  10. 10. Group vs. Individual Differences
  11. 11. Group vs. Individual Differences
  12. 12. Group vs. Individual Differences
  13. 13. Person-situation controversy Are gender differences biological or situation-based? “Parenting instincts” and gender (Risman, 1987) Single fathers more similar to single mothers than to married parents Activity/passivity of boys/girls (Maccoby, 1990) In play studies, gender of co-players, not of subject, determines activity/passivity
  14. 14. PS409 Psychology, Science, & Pseudoscience Dr Brian Hughes School of Psychology brian.hughes@nuigalway.ie @b_m_hughes

×