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Ell training module

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NEA ELL Training Module Slides

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Ell training module

  1. 1. 2 3
  2. 2. Day One Introduction/Welcome <ul><li>Trainer’s Names </li></ul>
  3. 3. Logistics <ul><li>Training Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Parking Lot </li></ul><ul><li>Housekeeping </li></ul>
  4. 4. Community Agreements <ul><li>Everyone participates; no one dominates. </li></ul><ul><li>Start and end on time. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit side conversations. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak one at a time; be an active listener and listen respectfully as an ally. </li></ul><ul><li>Give freely of your experience (but remember one-minute rule…). </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones off—or on silent. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a sense of humor! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Overview of Three-Day Training Module <ul><li>Handout #1-A </li></ul><ul><li>Day 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics and Map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture and Equity Issues: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implications for Classroom/School Practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theories of Language Acquisition and the Relationship to ELL Student Achievement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Day 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of Language Acquisition and the Relationship to ELL Student Achievement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English Language Development: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Going from Theory to Practice to Close ELL Student Achievement Gaps; and Strategies for Classroom Conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Day 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English Language Development: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theory to Instructional Practice and Application for Lesson Planning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Day One Outcomes <ul><li>Explore culture and equity issues </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an understanding of how our beliefs, values, and behaviors related to culture, language, racial identity, and equity impact our practice with English language learners </li></ul><ul><li>Explore language acquisition theory/ </li></ul><ul><li>Language development </li></ul>Handout #1-B Participants will:
  7. 7. Day One Agenda <ul><li>• Please take out Handout #1-C. </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome/Trainer Introductions </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics: Why Are We Here? </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and Equity — Part I </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and Equity — Part II </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and Equity — Part III </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch </li></ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of Language Acquisition: Instructional Understandings in Closing ELL Achievement Gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why Are We Here? Demographic Shift in U.S. Student Population <ul><li>Individually read handout on “Demographics” </li></ul><ul><li>Examine map </li></ul><ul><li>Share your reactions and </li></ul><ul><li>insights with a table partner </li></ul>Handout #1-D, Handout #1-E
  9. 9. Demographics: Did You Know? <ul><li>In table groups, take turns reading the list of statements regarding English language learners on your handout #1-F. Discuss possible answers. </li></ul><ul><li>After you have completed the Did You Know? list, the trainer will go over the correct answers. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole group discussion. </li></ul>
  10. 10. What’s in My Name? <ul><li>Handout #1-G </li></ul><ul><li>Share with a partner the story of your name: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does it mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who were you named for and who named you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you could choose any name, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what would it be and why? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. T-Shirt Poem <ul><li>Handout #1-H </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher? George, please call me “Mrs. Roberts.” </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, teacher. George, please don’t call me “teacher.” </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, T – You see, George, it’s a sign of respect </li></ul><ul><li>I mean, Mrs. Roberts. to call me by my last name. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes….Mrs. Roberts. Besides, when you say it, it sounds like “t-shirt.”` </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t want to turn into a t-shirt! </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Roberts? Yes, George? </li></ul><ul><li>Please call me Jorge. </li></ul><ul><li> - Jane Medina </li></ul>
  12. 12. Two Very Different Views of the English Language Learner <ul><li>Deficit View: </li></ul><ul><li>• Culturally and </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistically Deprived </li></ul><ul><li>• Failing or Low </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving </li></ul><ul><li>• At-risk </li></ul><ul><li>• Unmotivated </li></ul><ul><li>Assets View: </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally and Linguistically </li></ul><ul><li>Enriched </li></ul><ul><li>Unrecognized or </li></ul><ul><li>Underdeveloped Abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Resilient </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged/Self-Motivated </li></ul>Culture, Abilities, Resilience, Effort (C.A.R.E.)
  13. 13. BREAK! Be back in 15 minutes
  14. 14. Culture and Equity <ul><li>Handout #1-I </li></ul><ul><li>“ How can we become teachers </li></ul><ul><li>who are committed to ensuring equity </li></ul><ul><li>for all English language learners?” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toward Equity: Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>McGinty, I. and Mendoza-Reis, 1998. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Handout #1-Ia </li></ul><ul><li>As educators we need to continuously confront the issue of equity. </li></ul><ul><li>We must recognize that power, wealth and status are unequally distributed among cultural groups in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>We must reflect on how those unequal power relations affect our teaching and our interactions with students. </li></ul>Implications of Culture and Equity for English Language Learners: Classroom and School Practice
  16. 16. Closing the English Language Learners Equity Gap <ul><li>Handout #1-Ib </li></ul><ul><li>Three Essential Factors of Our </li></ul><ul><li>Common Commitment to Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Raise achievement of all English language learner students. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow the gap between the lowest and highest performing English language learner students. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Eliminate negative preconceptions about English language learners . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Guiding Principle 1 <ul><li>Teachers who are committed to </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring equity for English language learners continually examine how their own life experiences, perspectives, and behaviors regarding culture, language, racial identity and equity impact their teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, it looks like: </li></ul><ul><li>EQUITABLE, INCLUSIVE TEACHING </li></ul><ul><li>WITH HIGH EXPECTATIONS </li></ul>
  18. 18. Guiding Principle 2 <ul><li>Implement a relevant and challenging curriculum that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Draws upon and affirms the cultural knowledge, life experiences, interests and competencies of each student; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Expands students’ knowledge of diverse cultural perspectives within their communities and society as a whole. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In practice, it looks like: </li></ul><ul><li>ACCESSING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE AND </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPING MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES </li></ul>
  19. 19. Guiding Principle 3 <ul><li>Design and implement equitable opportunities that maximize student learning through full participation, interaction and empowerment. </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, it looks like: </li></ul><ul><li>A STUDENT CENTERED FRAMEWORK FOR INSTRUCTION </li></ul>
  20. 20. Guiding Principle 4 <ul><li>Explicitly teach in a meaningful context </li></ul><ul><li>with academic and communication skills, strategies and conventions that are required for success in advanced learning and the larger society. </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, it looks like: </li></ul><ul><li>CLEAR STANDARDS FOR ACHIEVEMENT AND EXPLICIT SUPPORT FOR STUDENTS </li></ul>
  21. 21. Guiding Principle 5 <ul><li>Understand, value and build upon the dynamic cultures, knowledge, languages, experiences, and critical issues of families and other members of the school’s community . </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, it looks like: </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY-SCHOOL-COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS </li></ul>
  22. 22. Create a Visual Representation of Assigned Principle <ul><li>Handout #1-K </li></ul><ul><li>In your table group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Consider what the assigned principle would look like in practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Create a visual representation of your principle (picture, poster, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Decide how to explain your representation to the whole group through a single statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Write the statement at the bottom of your poster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Determine who will report your project to the other groups </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. “ What is Culture & Equity?” <ul><li>Take a moment to think about your own family and community. What were/are shared beliefs, values and behaviors that support you in living a meaningful and successful life? Share your insights with a table partner. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole group share. </li></ul><ul><li>What commonalities and differences do you notice? </li></ul>Handout #1-L Think - Pair - Share
  24. 24. “ What is Culture and Equity?” <ul><li>Team Word Web </li></ul><ul><li>Please refer to your Handout #1-M in your packet for instructions on developing a team word web addressing the following prompt : </li></ul><ul><li>“ What is Culture and Equity?” </li></ul>
  25. 25. Lunch!
  26. 26. Find Someone Who… <ul><li>Locate “Find Someone Who…” in Handout Packet (#1-N). </li></ul><ul><li>Put your initials in those boxes that have meaning to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Find others who know the answers to the boxes that remain. </li></ul><ul><li>Others may sign only one square on your sheet. </li></ul><ul><li>Stop at signal and/or when you have completed your grid! </li></ul>Directions :
  27. 27. Quick Write <ul><li>Handout #1-O </li></ul><ul><li>Take two minutes to write down your definition of </li></ul><ul><li>LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food for thought: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why do we need language? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are some reasons people need to learn a second language? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are some of the benefits of speaking more than one language? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share your definition with an elbow partner . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Language Acquisition Theory <ul><li>Foundational theories from Stephen Krashen and Jim Cummins — Are you ready? </li></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf
  29. 29. Monitor and Model Krashen’s Hypotheses <ul><ul><li>Acquisition Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective Filter </li></ul></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf
  30. 30. Krashen’s Input Hypothesis (i+1) <ul><li>Input must be comprehensible – learners must be able to make meaning from what they hear, or they are just hearing noise. </li></ul><ul><li>i = input + = plus 1 = one level slightly above ability level </li></ul><ul><li>Think – Comprehensible Input! </li></ul>
  31. 31. Krashen’s Affective Filter <ul><li>A learner’s feelings/emotions (stress, anxiety, boredom) may block language input into the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Think – Classroom Environment! </li></ul>
  32. 32. Language Learning Theory <ul><li>Research suggests that there are THREE different dimensions of language required or learned: </li></ul><ul><li>• BICS </li></ul><ul><li>• CALP </li></ul><ul><li>• CUP </li></ul><ul><li>Hmmm, let’s see? Gee, what do </li></ul><ul><li>these acronyms mean to me </li></ul><ul><li>as an educator of ELLs? </li></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf
  33. 33. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) <ul><li>Conversations with family, friends and neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Language used by children on a playground </li></ul><ul><li>Greetings that you exchange with others on the street or in the elevator </li></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf
  34. 34. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) <ul><li>CALP includes listening, speaking, reading, and writing about subject area content material. </li></ul><ul><li>CALP is more demanding. </li></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf
  35. 35. Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) <ul><li>In the course of learning one language, a child acquires a set of skills and implicit metalinguistic knowledge that can be used when working with another language. </li></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf
  36. 36. Language Acquisition Theory The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf Handout #1-R
  37. 37. Language Acquisition The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf
  38. 38. BREAK! Be Back in 15 Minutes
  39. 39. BICS and CALP Sampler <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>BICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Cognitively undemanding – Context embedded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Playing a familiar game </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Cognitively undemanding – Context reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– A friendly phone conversation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>CALP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Cognitively demanding – Context embedded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Locating geographic features on a map </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Cognitively demanding – Context reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– A lecture on language acquisition theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>You try it! </li></ul>
  40. 40. Table Sort <ul><li>At your table, sort the academic tasks into the appropriate quadrant based on Cummins’ criteria. (Handouts #1-S and #1-Sa) </li></ul><ul><li>We will compare the results to the table chart on the next slide when all participants are done. </li></ul><ul><li>How did you do? </li></ul><ul><li>How can an understanding of Cummins’ Quadrants help you improve instruction in your classroom? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Quadrants Sort <ul><li>Cognitively Undemanding </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitively Demanding </li></ul><ul><li>Walter, T. (1996). Amazing English. Addison-Wesley. p. 24. </li></ul>Context Embedded Context Reduced Handout #1-Sb • Understanding academic presentations without visuals or demonstrations: lectures • Making formal oral presentations • Solving math word problems without illustrations • Writing compositions, essays, and research reports in content areas • Taking standardized achievement tests • Participating in hands-on science and mathematics activities • Making maps, models, charts, and graphs • Solving math computational problems • Making brief oral presentations • Understanding academic presentations through the use of visuals, demonstrations, active participation, realia, etc. • Understanding written texts through discussion, illustrations and visuals • Writing academic reports with the aid of outlines, structures, etc. • Engaging in telephone conversations • Reading and writing for personal purposes: notes, lists, sketches, etc. • Developing survival vocabulary • Following demonstrated directions • Playing simple games • Engaging in face-to-face interactions • Participating in art, music, and physical education
  42. 42. Language Acquisition Theory <ul><li>Cummins, 1980 </li></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf Handout #1-T Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP)
  43. 43. Language Acquisition <ul><li>Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) </li></ul><ul><li>Think – Transfer! </li></ul>Cognitive-academic skills learned in the first language will transfer to the new language (English) and such skills are interdependent across languages.
  44. 44. Language Acquisition Theory <ul><li>Discuss how these elements of language transfer from one language to another: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intonation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syllabication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rhyme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blending </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognate Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Words that are similar in both languages (i.e., family – familia, study estudio, science - ciencias) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Language Acquisition Theory <ul><li>Cummins, 1980 </li></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP)
  46. 46. Training Outcomes – Day One <ul><li>Explore culture and equity issues and implications for classroom/school practice when teaching English language learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an understanding of how our beliefs, values, and behaviors related to culture, language, racial identity, and equity impact our practice with English language learners in the classroom and school. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss fundamental concepts from the field of language acquisition theory and their relationship to language development for English language learners. </li></ul>Did we meet our goals?
  47. 47. Day One Reflection <ul><li>What are the key concepts from today’s training? </li></ul><ul><li>What did I learn that I can apply to my own practice? </li></ul><ul><li>What is one idea from today’s training that I can use in my classroom tomorrow? </li></ul><ul><li>Please leave at your table the handout sheet with your thoughts when you depart. </li></ul>Handout #1-U So What? Now What?
  48. 48. Welcome to Day Two! <ul><li>Community Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Parking Lot </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Handout Packet </li></ul>
  49. 49. Community Agreements <ul><li>Everyone participates; no one dominates. </li></ul><ul><li>Start and end on time. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit side conversations. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak one at a time; be an active listener and listen respectfully as an ally. </li></ul><ul><li>Give freely of your experience (but remember one-minute rule…). </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones off—or on silent. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a sense of humor! </li></ul>Handout #2
  50. 50. Day Two Outcomes <ul><li>Application of language acquisition stages to language development </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom conditions for optimal language learning </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging theory to practice—classroom conditions </li></ul>Handout #2-A Participants will review Culture and equity and explore:
  51. 51. Day Two Agenda <ul><li>Welcome/Opening </li></ul><ul><li>Culture & Equity Review/Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition Theory: In Relationship to ELL Student Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Language Acquisition: Introduction Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Language Acquisition : Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch/After Lunch Energizer </li></ul><ul><li>English Language Development: Theory to Instructional Practice to Close ELL Achievement Gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul>Handout #2-B
  52. 52. Educator Check-In Culture & Equity <ul><li>Complete the Educator Check-In—Culture & Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss your responses with a table partner </li></ul>Handout #2-C
  53. 53. Match Game <ul><li>Review the list of indicators of Teaching for Equity. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the indicators to the Five Guiding Principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Match each indicator to one of the Five Guiding Principles, and write the number of the principle you have selected in the box provided. </li></ul>Handout #2-D and #2-E
  54. 54. Reading on Language Acquisition <ul><li>Please read the excerpt Overview of Second Language Acquisition Theory. (See Handout #2-G) </li></ul><ul><li>Tell your partner: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One thing from the reading that you found interesting; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One thing from the reading that you would like to know more about. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Language Acquisition Theory Poster <ul><li>In groups of four, create a poster or graphic organizer that illustrates/describes the key concepts of Language Acquisition Theory presented at this workshop. </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to explain your group’s poster to the rest of us. </li></ul>
  56. 56. BREAK! Be Back in 15 Minutes
  57. 57. Language Acquisition Stages Introduction <ul><li>• Please complete the Anticipation Guide in your packet. (Handout #2-H) </li></ul><ul><li>Share your responses with a partner. </li></ul>Anticipation Guide
  58. 58. Stages of Language Acquisition <ul><li>Predictable </li></ul><ul><li>May be compared to first language acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Individual progress through stages varies as students develop at their own pace </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of instructional strategies and techniques to use at each stage will encourage the continuous growth of language </li></ul>Handout #2-Ha
  59. 59. Four Stages of Language Acquisition <ul><li>Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell identified four stages of language acquisition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Pre-production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Early production or early speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Speech emergence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Intermediate fluency </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Language Acquisition Stages Suggested by Theorists <ul><li>1. Silent/Receptive or Pre-production </li></ul><ul><li>2. Early Production </li></ul><ul><li>3. Speech Emergence </li></ul><ul><li>4. Intermediate Language Proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>5. Advanced Language Proficiency </li></ul>Handout #2-I
  61. 61. The Silent/Receptive or Pre-production Stage <ul><li>This stage can last up to six months. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by a silent period during which the learner is unable to produce language but may respond with non-verbal gestures, (such as nodding, pointing, or responding with yes/no). </li></ul><ul><li>The learner is very receptive to language input as the learner may understand up to 500 words at this level. </li></ul>Handout #2-I
  62. 62. Stage 1: Pre-Production <ul><li>Handout #2-I </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Does not yet produce speech </li></ul><ul><li>Listens and begins responding by using non-verbal signals </li></ul><ul><li>Participates through physical actions </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on picture clues for clear understanding </li></ul>Teacher Strategies • Surrounds students with language • Avoids forcing students to speak prematurely • Creates an environment that supports risk-taking • Provides abundant opportunities for active listening using props, visuals and media Minimal Comprehension with No Verbal Production
  63. 63. Early Production/ Early Speech Stage <ul><li>This stage can last six months to a year. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by production of one to two words or short phrase responses with increased comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates an increased vocabulary development of about 1,000 words, both in the ability to comprehend input and produce speech. </li></ul>Handout #2-I
  64. 64. Stage 2: Early Production <ul><li>Handout #2-Ia and #2-Ib </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Responds with one or two words . </li></ul><ul><li>Repeats and recites memorable language. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies people, places and things. </li></ul><ul><li>Understands the main idea of the message but may not understand each word. </li></ul>Teacher Strategies • Uses questioning strategies eliciting one- or two-word responses. • Uses predictable and/or patterned text. • Asks yes/no, who, what and where questions. • Implements shared reading with props, and builds on student prior knowledge. Limited Comprehension with One or Two Responses
  65. 65. Round Robin Review The First Two Stages of Language Acquisition <ul><li>Directions for Round Robin Review: Handout #2-J </li></ul>
  66. 66. The Speech Emergence Stage <ul><li>This stage can last from one to two years. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by a considerable increase in verbal output with longer sentences, sprinkled with grammatical and syntactical errors that may interfere with communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Both receptive and productive vocabulary increase to about 3,000 words. </li></ul><ul><li>Please use Handout #2-I for note-taking. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Stage 3: Speech Emergence <ul><li>Handout #2-I and #2-Ic </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Begins speaking in phrases and short sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Shifts the emphasis from language reception to language production. </li></ul><ul><li>Errors in grammar and syntax are common. </li></ul><ul><li>Participates more fully in discussions, including those with academic content. </li></ul>Teacher Strategies • Asks questions requiring responses of phrases and short sentences. • Models, restates, expands, and enriches student language. • Continues to model standard language structures. • Focuses on communication of meaningful contexts in both oral and written forms. Has Good Comprehension and Makes Simple Sentences (with Errors)
  68. 68. The Intermediate Language Proficiency Stage <ul><li>This stage can last from one to two years. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by considerable increase in verbal and written output with more complex sentence structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulates receptive and productive vocabulary of about 6,000 words with some syntactical and structural errors. </li></ul>Handout #2-I
  69. 69. Stage 4: Intermediate Language Proficiency <ul><li>Handout #2-I and #2-Id </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Responds with a flow of related phrases and sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses more extensive vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Explores concepts in subject matter more extensively. </li></ul>Teacher Strategies • Explicitly teaches more complex grammatical forms. • Introduces colloquialisms and idiomatic expressions. • Guides students’ use of reference materials for research purposes. Good to Excellent Comprehension with Grammatical Errors
  70. 70. The Advanced Language Proficiency Stage <ul><li>To get to this stage, it takes about five to seven years of English language learning (not to be confused with chronological age). </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by near native proficiency in both verbal and written language application. </li></ul><ul><li>Successfully manipulates content area vocabulary and participates like a native speaker, but may need occasional support or clarification. </li></ul>Handout #2-I
  71. 71. Stage 5: Advanced Language Proficiency <ul><li>Handout #2-I and #2-Ie </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Near native speech fluency — uses grammar and fluency comparable to that of same-age native speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded vocabulary to succeed academically </li></ul><ul><li>Very good comprehension of information </li></ul>Teacher Strategies • Allows students to lead group discussions • Encourages independent use of reference materials and technology • Provides explicit grammar instruction • Provides opportunities for student-generated presentations • Provides a variety of realistic writing opportunities in a variety of genre Excellent Comprehension with Complex Speech Patterns, Few Grammatical Errors
  72. 72. Case Study Activity <ul><li>Please refer to the profiles in your Participants’ Packet. ( Handout #2-K, #2-Ka-d, #2-L, #2-M, #2-N). </li></ul><ul><li>You will first identify the level of language acquisition of each student. </li></ul><ul><li>Next, you will select which teacher would best support each student in his or her language development. </li></ul><ul><li>Write your answers in the space provided in your packet. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Lunch!
  74. 74. Stand and Deliver <ul><li>• In table groups or groups of 4 or 5, brainstorm and list quotations, phrases, songs, and movie titles about education and teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>• Please write this brainstorm list on Handout #2-O; assign a person to record on one chart paper for your group. </li></ul>
  75. 75. English Language Development Theory to Practice <ul><li>Just Let Them Sit </li></ul><ul><li>When I was a first year teacher, I received my first non-English speakers in May in the middle of state testing. When I asked what the best way to instruct them was, I was told by the ELL teacher that I should just let them sit. They will pick up English that way. </li></ul><ul><li>I asked my mentor teachers at the school what they did. They said they let them sit and watch. Even as a new teacher that was not good enough for me. I started teaching them like I would teach a beginning reader… or how I assumed a beginning reader would be taught. Thankfully, I had students who could translate. </li></ul><ul><li>Journal Excerpt </li></ul><ul><li>Aricka – Graduate Student in Educational Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Noni Mendoza-Reis (2003) </li></ul>Handout #2-P
  76. 76. Classroom Conditions: The Overview <ul><li>Referring back to the Five Guiding Principles of Culture, Guiding Principle Three stresses that it is important to understand that how we organize instruction influences who learns what in our classrooms. (Handout #1-J) </li></ul><ul><li>Educators need to pay attention to both the social organization of a classroom (grouping practices) and the physical organization of a classroom (rows or table groups). </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to the five charts on the wall describing the elements of Affective Filter. </li></ul><ul><li>(McGinty, I. and Mendoza-Reis, 1998) </li></ul>
  77. 77. Classroom Conditions: Things To Do <ul><li>Create a supportive climate where it is safe to take risks. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize opportunities to use language in meaningful, non-threatening ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Affirm students’ language and culture and equal/equitable access to learning. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Classroom Conditions: Things To Do <ul><li>Maintain high expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate instruction for student’s level of language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop opportunities for families to participate in the educational process in an equitable manner. </li></ul>
  79. 79. Carousel Activity <ul><li>1. Write a descriptor for the term positive classroom conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Begin a list of strategies and ideas that teachers and schools can use to create positive classroom conditions for English language learners. </li></ul><ul><li>3. When you hear the signal to switch, bring your pen and move to the next poster. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Add your ideas and comments to the new poster. </li></ul>Handout #2-Pa
  80. 80. BREAK! Be Back in 15 Minutes
  81. 81. Classroom Conditions Review <ul><li>• Supportive climate </li></ul><ul><li>• Opportunities to use language </li></ul><ul><li>• Affirm language and culture </li></ul><ul><li>• High expectations </li></ul><ul><li>• Differentiate instruction for students’ levels of language proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>• Opportunities for family involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Consider what you are already doing and how you might refine your current practice to enhance the language learning environment in your classroom. </li></ul>Handout #2-Pa I already do this!!!
  82. 82. Your Class Profile <ul><li>Think about the students you work with every day. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a Class Profile of your class. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to list students’ names, and make notes for yourself about their strengths and learning needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Base your profile on a variety of evidence: assessments, language proficiency measures, observations, class work, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>You will need this information tomorrow as you develop a lesson plan for your students. </li></ul>Handout #2-R
  83. 83. Training Outcomes – Day Two <ul><li>Did we meet our goals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review culture and equity issues in the education of English language learners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the application of language acquisition stages to language development for English language learners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine the importance of Classroom Conditions for optimal language learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridging theory to practice as it relates to the critical attributes of classroom conditions. </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Day Two Reflection <ul><li>What are the key concepts from today’s training? </li></ul><ul><li>What did I learn that I can apply to my own practice? </li></ul><ul><li>What is one idea from today’s training that I can use in my classroom tomorrow? </li></ul>Handout #2-S So What? Now What?
  85. 85. Welcome to Day Three! <ul><li>Community Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Parking Lot </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Handout Packet </li></ul>
  86. 86. Community Agreements <ul><li>Everyone participates; no one dominates. </li></ul><ul><li>Start and end on time. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit side conversations. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak one at a time; be an active listener and listen respectfully as an ally. </li></ul><ul><li>Give freely of your experience (but remember one-minute rule…). </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones off—or on silent. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a sense of humor! </li></ul>Handout #3
  87. 87. Day Three Outcomes <ul><li>Examine critical elements of instructional design to promote English language development. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply theories of second language acquisition to classroom practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Review and develop lesson plans for ELLs reflecting Culture, Equity and Language Acquisition. </li></ul>Handout #3-A Participants will:
  88. 88. Day Three Agenda <ul><li>Welcome/Opening </li></ul><ul><li>English Language Development: ELL Student Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>English Language Development: Concepts in Closing ELL Achievement Gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch </li></ul><ul><li>After Lunch Energizer </li></ul><ul><li>Theory To Instructional Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul>Handout #3-B
  89. 89. The Third Language: Academic English <ul><li>For English language learners, academic English is a third language — their second language being social English of the hallways, community and media. </li></ul><ul><li>This third language is full of new words, figurative expressions, grammatical structures, verb tenses, and concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Many English learners, and many native speakers, even those with well-developed social language, struggle to master the complex language of school. </li></ul>
  90. 90. Theory to Practice Handout #3-C Individual Remembering Defending an opinion: (I think it is a non-living thing because _________.) Synthesize Science journal – Depending on stage of language acquisition: 1) label; 2) cloze exercise; 3)respond to prompt Pairs Triads Monitoring Evaluating Classify Sorting activity – photo cards with pictures of living & non-living things Small group Monitoring Evaluating Compare Contrast Venn diagram – characteristics of living and non- living things Whole group Accessing prior knowledge Personal dictionary or Science Word Wall: grow move reproduce Prefix non Third person s: grow-grows, move-moves, reproduce- reproduces Describe Demonstration – list of characteristics of living and non-living things with examples – visuals to include posters, video, and realia K-2 Science: living vs. non- living things Grouping Strategies Metacognitive Strategies Vocabulary Development Language Structures Language Functions Procedures (Comprehensible Input) Topic
  91. 91. Theory to Practice <ul><li>Look at the Procedures for Comprehensible Input column of the lesson planning template. (Handout #3-D) </li></ul><ul><li>List strategies that you think will make the content comprehensible for language learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Work with a partner to complete the analysis of the sample lesson template. </li></ul>
  92. 92. Comprehensible Input <ul><li>Handout #1-P for review </li></ul><ul><li> Concept 1 </li></ul><ul><li> Comprehensible input must be provided to support optimal language development. </li></ul>
  93. 93. Strategies for Comprehensible Input – I <ul><li>Adjust rate of speech, level of vocabulary, and complexity of sentence structure to student’s level of language proficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor and explain use of idiomatic speech and figurative language. </li></ul>
  94. 94. Strategies for Comprehensible Input – II <ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visuals, graphics and realia </li></ul></ul>Use the following techniques to present concepts:
  95. 95. Scaffolded Instruction <ul><li>Concept 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffolded instruction supports language development. </li></ul></ul>
  96. 96. Strategies for Scaffolded Instruction <ul><ul><li>Graphic organizer/mind map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeled writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloze sentences/passages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent writing </li></ul></ul>This sequence is an example of activities that scaffold the writing process for language learners:
  97. 97. Scaffolded Instruction <ul><li>Writing Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The activity in your handout packet follows the Scaffolded Writing sequence we just discussed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using this sequence as a model, develop a Scaffolded Writing activity you could use with English language learners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share your activity with a table partner. </li></ul></ul>
  98. 98. BREAK! Be Back in 15 Minutes
  99. 99. Language Structures and Functions <ul><li>Concept 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Language structures and functions must be taught explicitly to support optimal language development. </li></ul>
  100. 100. Activity <ul><li>Working in pairs or triads, choose five of the following language functions, and write a corresponding language structure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Seeking information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Informing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Analyzing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Comparing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Classifying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Predicting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justifying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solving problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul></ul>Example: Seeking information Structures: What time is it? It’s _____ o’clock.
  101. 101. English Language Development: Kindergarten Lesson Analysis <ul><li>Discuss what is similar/different in this lesson from the way you usually plan for math lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>Table group share. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how this might be adapted for different grade levels. </li></ul>In table groups, review lesson in Handout #3-F and check out the next slide.
  102. 102. English Language Development Kindergarten Lesson - Sorting <ul><li>Handout #3-F </li></ul><ul><li>Planning for English language development in content lessons </li></ul>Herrell, A. & Jordan, M., (2004). Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners (2nd edition). Pearson . Large Small Medium Smaller Larger Bigger Littler These (shapes) are all the same size. This one is (smaller, larger). Classifying Describing Comparing Contrasting Sorting attribute blocks by size Size Triangle Circle Square Rectangle They are all (shapes). Classifying Describing Sorting attributes by shape Shape Vocabulary Language Structure Language Functions Activities Topic
  103. 103. Vocabulary Instruction Supports Language Development <ul><ul><li>Concept 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Academic Vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional Vocabulary </li></ul></ul>Handout #3-F
  104. 104. Strategies for Vocabulary Instruction <ul><li>Here are two strategies for vocabulary development. </li></ul><ul><li>• Thematic Instruction • Word Analysis </li></ul><ul><li> and Content Integration </li></ul>
  105. 105. Vocabulary Development Strategies <ul><li>Thematic instruction and </li></ul><ul><li>content integration: </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary must be taught in the context of students’ own speaking, reading and writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Word analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Language learners need specific strategies for word analysis in order to move toward independence in their vocabulary development. </li></ul>
  106. 106. Give One, Get One <ul><li>Handout #3-G </li></ul><ul><li>Think about three vocabulary development activities that you do in your classroom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• List them separately in a box on your grid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• At presenter’s signal, move around the room exchanging one of your ideas for someone else’s ideas (Give One, Get One). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Repeat process until presenter signals to stop or you have filled in your boxes! </li></ul></ul>
  107. 107. Metacognitive Strategies <ul><li>Concept 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive strategies support language development. </li></ul>
  108. 108. Metacognitive Strategies <ul><li>Metacognitive strategies must be explicitly taught and modeled: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Accessing prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Remembering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Evaluating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Imagining </li></ul></ul>
  109. 109. English Language Development Strategies Activity: Tree Diagram <ul><li>Tree Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>I will assign one of the following concepts of effective English language development to each table. At your table, discuss how this concept might be translated into a tree diagram. Draw your tree diagram on chart paper. Select a reporter to share out with the whole group. </li></ul><ul><li>Be creative!! </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensible Input </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffolded Instruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language Structure and Functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognitive Strategies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  110. 110. Contributors to Academic English Language Development English Language Development Comprehensible Input Scaffolded Instruction Language Structures And Functions Vocabulary Development Metacognitive Strategies
  111. 111. Lunch!
  112. 112. After Lunch Energizer- Traits of a Teacher/Educator <ul><li>Each pair or small group of three needs one piece of chart paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a “model” teacher/educator whom you would admire for his or her care and skill in working with English language learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate, list, or describe in a story or scenario the traits, characteristics, and/or behaviors of this teacher/educator. </li></ul>
  113. 113. English Language Development Lesson Planning <ul><li>Collect the following materials that you have worked on to assist you in planning your lesson: </li></ul>Handouts: #3-H, #3-I, 3-Ia-e, #3-J, #3-Ja, #3-K, #3-Ka-i, #3-L, #3-La-m Scaffolded Writing Activity Language Structure and Functions Class Profile Lesson Template Analysis Vocabulary Development Strategies ELL Lesson Planning Resources
  114. 114. English Language Development Lesson Sharing <ul><li>Plan a lesson or series of lessons for English language development, using information and tools provided in this workshop. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the needs of your students — look at the Class Profile you developed. </li></ul>
  115. 115. Day Three Outcomes <ul><li>Did we meet our goals? </li></ul><ul><li>Participants will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Examine critical elements of instructional design to promote English language development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Apply theories of second language acquisition to classroom practice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Review and develop lesson plans for ELLs reflecting Culture, Equity, and Language Acquisition. </li></ul></ul>
  116. 116. Day Three Reflection <ul><li>Handout #3-M </li></ul><ul><li>So What? Now What? </li></ul><ul><li>3 – 2 – 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Write 3 things you learned in this training! </li></ul><ul><li>Write 2 things that you will use! </li></ul><ul><li>Write 1 thing you still have a question about! </li></ul>

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