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Staircase - concrete and wooden

A short and descriptive research on stairs and their parts, types of stair cases - concrete and wooden. It also covers construction method of a concrete stair and its types.

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Staircase - concrete and wooden

  1. 1. STAIRS CONSTRUCTION Research 3 Al Ghurair University, Dubai academic City Done by: Sara Hashim Azra Maliha
  2. 2. Contents • Stair constructions and calculations • Concrete stairs  Construction steps  Types of concrete stairs  Concrete mix components • Wooden stairs  Types of wooden stairs  Modern and unique wooden stairs design • References
  3. 3. Stair construction and calculations For constructing any stair we need to be familiar with some terminologies (parts of stairs) and how to calculate them for construction. As stairs construction must be with strict dimensions, codes and safety controls, the calculation part is the most important. Some of the basic components and terminology of stairs are:  Threads  Risers  Stringers/Strings  Nosing  Landing  Flight  Winders  Handrail  Blusters  Newel , etc.  Thread: the top surface of each step where we step on  Riser: the vertical portion of steps to give it height, placed directly under the front lip of threads  String: the sloped boards
  4. 4. Stair construction and calculations
  6. 6. Construction steps 1. Calculating the whole construction and frameworks for constructions staircase with even step sizes and height. 2. Ground prepping and frame molding: this is basically preparing the foundation for the stairs in order to avoid uneven steps and accidents during pouring the concrete. The frame molds give the shape of the stairs. The frame planks should be cut wider and longer than the actual concrete steps, in order to avoid spilling out of the mold. 3. Assembling the frames: it is very important to make sure the frameworks are very strong and doesn’t have any gap or unwanted blockage by wood piece, etc. the sloped framework must end flat to the ground, no gap should be there in between the foundation and all the panels are attached sturdily.
  7. 7. Construction steps 4. Reinforcing staircase: this is a very important step, which is often ignored by amateurs, which is reinforcing the staircase foundation with steel bars. It is highly recommended to use steels rods to better support the weight of the stairs and increase the life span. 5. Bracing: means reinforcing the base of the structure to make sure the concrete doesn’t flow out or distort the shape during setting. As concrete is very heavy, reinforcing depends on each construction and design. 6. Pouring concrete: it is important to grease the inner framework with form/ diesel oil before pouring the cement. The cement mix should be highly viscous in order to better hold the shape and be compact.
  8. 8. Construction steps 7. Finishing surface: a compact shape is required for each step with smooth finishing. To achieve this, the surface is smoothened with trowel several times. Magnesium trowel is used over the steps, followed by edger to clean the edges. This process is repeated in intervals till the cement solidifies. 8. Curing: the frames should be slowing removed as the cement hardens, starting from the risers. Any imperfections can be covered up by some extra cement mix. All the frameworks are removed after 24hrs of hardening, followed by water sprays for better curing.
  9. 9. Types of concrete stairs  Pre-cast stairs- these are built in factories and delivered directly to the construction site. They are ready to be used and companies make them according to the client’s order.  Suspended stairs- the steps are not connected to the ground, and are difficult to construct. The step formworks must be well supported.  Poured-concrete stairs- the traditional custom made stairs which are constructed according to the building design, by using calculations.  Earth-supported stairs- the poured concrete reaches till the ground, creating vertical slab which holds the steps. These types should be braced strongly.
  10. 10. Concrete mix components  A concrete mix or cement mix for any construction have four basic components: Portland cement, sand, aggregate or rock and water. The ratio of these components is a very crucial factor.  The less water added, the more strong the mix will be. There is no definite ratio for the mix as a lot of factors like type and quality of cement, environment, etc. affect the situation.  Sample mix ratio for a stable and strong concrete mix:
  12. 12. Wooden stairs are not as simple as it might look. It is best if the far more experienced people build it. it needs specific dimensions and measurements and calculations. Steps for constructions are below:  Prep Work: You should check your building codes in your countries. They will be giving you specific dimensions and measurements that you should apply.  Decide your Final Calculations  Make stringers  Do your string alterations  Connect the stringers  Risers and threads
  13. 13. Types of wooden stairs
  14. 14. Modern and unique wooden stairs design
  15. 15. Modern and unique wooden stairs design
  16. 16. REFERENCES • piaresearch.weebly.com/uploads/3/8/5/5/38550975/stair-1.pdf • http://www.everything-about-concrete.com/building-concrete-steps.html • http://www.wikihow.com/Build-Concrete-Steps • http://www.idscontractors.com/articles/building-concrete-stairs/ • http://www.popularmechanics.com/home/how-to-plans/how-to/a2145/4224738/ • http://www.ehow.com/list_6546005_types-concrete-stairs.html • http://www.everything-about-concrete.com/concrete-mixing-ratios.html