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NEW MATERIALS AND SMART MATERIALS
DONE BY AZRA MALIHA
1. Laminated resin
Resins are natural or synthetic chemical compounds which are insoluble in water and are highly viscous. They
harden with treatment. The synthetic ones are used as plastics, coatings, varnishes and other uses.
Laminated resins are a new material which can be used for cabinet doors or for lamp shades, both in small
and large scale.
They are ideal for building implementations which require a glass exterior but at the same time require to
minimize sound transmission and block clear vision, such as in restaurants, café, etc.
Security glass is usually laminated with this kind of resins as they provides a safer alternative. The are also
used as transparent panels in places where they require it.
Laminating resins are also free from micro-breaking, fatigue and penetration, so they can protect a building
from bad weather and natural disasters also long lasting, easily manageable.
Along with being functional, they are also decorative if designed on the panels, can give the interior a
2. 3D gypsum board
Also called drywall, which is made by gypsum plaster when they are compressed. There are a wide variety of
fiberglass-reinforced gypsum board panels which come in tiles and are screwed to a substrate.
The seams of the gypsum board are mudded and sanded by a dry Waller to create a continuous effect. They are also
called wallboard, or plasterboard.
They are used vastly for ceilings and walls and are also beautiful for décor.
Advantages of Gypsum Board Construction:
• Easy to install and clean.
• Sound control : they are designed for sound barrier, minimize noise and create quiet zones for house interiors and
• Resistance to fire : they are non-combustible and delay the spread of fire up to four hours hence are very effectively
• They can act as thermal insulator when added with insulation materials, which can be used for exterior walls.
• Durable, economical and versatile. They brings humidity and heat to equilibrium.
3. Wool bricks
This type of bricks were invented by Scottish and Spanish researchers for the aim to find a composite
material which is durable and more non toxic and damaging to the environment and to improve the
strength of bricks.
Wool bricks are made from wool and a natural polymer found in seaweed added to the clay of bricks.
This makes them 37% stronger and suitable for wet and cold climates.
The fibers of wool give the bricks that extra strength. They reduce brick drying time and increase
resistance to flexion.
4. Flexible Stone
This kind of material consists of thin stone veneers in triangular shapes
applied to a cotton backing. The individual pieces flexing upon each
other to create three-dimensional topographies.
This material can be used as ‘Stone Rug’, which acts as a conventional
stone floor when it’s flat. It has a flexible structure and durable finish.
Also can be used as furnitures.
Smart materials and structures are those objects that sense environmental events,
process that sensory information, and then act on the environment. Smart materials
and systems are divided into two classes:
1. Materials that transforms energy from one form to another
2. Materials that undergo changes in one or more of their properties (chemical,
electrical, magnetic, mechanical, or thermal) in direct response to a change in
external stimuli in the surrounding environment
1. Facade systems - smart windows
They control solar radiation transmition through the building envelope by using spectral absorptive/transmission
of envelope materials.
They control conductive heat transfer through the building envelope by using relative position of envelope
materials in louver or panel systems.
They control of interior heat generation by phase-change materials.
2. Shape memory alloys (Nitinol)
Shape memory alloy, also called SMA or memory metals is an alloy that remembers it’s original shape, and
returns to its original form after being deformed by heat.
SMAs are used in safety devices which will save lives in the future. Anti-scalding devices and fire-sprinklers
utilizing SMAs are already on the market.
The anti-scalding valves can be used in water faucets and shower heads as after a certain temperature, it
automatically shuts off the water flow.
The main advantage of Nitinol-based fire sprinklers is the decrease in response time.
3. Adhesion-changing materials
Adhesion-changing smart materials are products that are able to change reversibly the
attraction forces of adsorption or absorption of an atom or molecule of a solid, liquid or
gaseous, when exposed to light or electrical field.
These materials are available in different types depending on the type of stimulus:
Photo adhesive smart materials : in response to light stimulus.
Thermo adhesive smart materials: in response to temperature.
Hydro adhesive smart materials: in response to liquid components (water).
Electro adhesive smart materials: in response to electric field.
Photo and hydro adhesive smart materials are currently more relevant in the field of
architecture. For example, hydro adhesive technology can be used to make garden chapel
which will be self cleaning by not getting the surface get soaked or wet during rain.
4. Light-emitting materials
These materials can convert an input energy to an output of radiation energy in the visible
spectrum, e.g. the effects of light or an electrical field, to emit light. He phenomenon is called
There are different types, photoluminescence: the input here is radiation energy from the
ultraviolet spectrum, chemo luminescence: due to any chemical reaction, etc.
They can be implemented as paints with fluorescent pigments, such as daylight luminous
organic pigments and UV-luminous inorganic pigments.
These paints can be applied directly on walls using brush, spray or roller on wood, plastic,
textiles etc. and are highly flexible and good adhesive.
It is an input of elastic energy - strain produces an electrical current.
Most piezoelectrics are bidirectional in that the inputs can be switched and an applied
electrical current will produce a deformation –strain.
Based on the energy they are several categories:
Thermo-electrics: input of electrical current creates a temperature differential on
opposite sides of the material.
Photovoltaics: radiation energy from the visible spectrum produces an electrical current
Electrostrictives: the application of a current produces elastic energy - strain which
deforms the shape of the material.
Magnetostrictives: application of a magnetic field produces elastic energy – strain