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Modernism Design Period

This research gives an overall idea about the late 18th century's Modernism period in the architecture and interior design field. It also talks about some of the famous design pioneers of that time.

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Modernism Design Period

  1. 1. M O D E R N I S M History II Research Azra Maliha 201420058
  2. 2. What is modernism? Timeline-Different sub periods Flashback before modernism Determinants of the period design Some famous modernism architecture- Plans/Sections Common materials used Famous designers • Louis Sullivan • Frank Lloyd Wright • Charles and Ray Eames Comparisons Modern application References
  3. 3. What is modernism? Modernism is a concept which embraces philosophy of design and resultant stylistic features. It was a philosophical movement which rose and spread along with cultural trends and renovations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, right after the World War I. There are numerous modernism movements: Expressionism, Aesthetic movement, Art deco, Art nouveau, Arts and crafts movement, Bauhaus, Constructivism, Contemporary realism, Cubism, Dada, De stijl, Expressionism and many more
  4. 4. Timeline-Different sub periods There is no clear-cut year or time of when the Modernism movement evolution took place. With the growth of industrialization in 19th century, Victorian style and furniture slowly faded. Heavy machineries were made which made mass production of furnitures possible. From 1900s onwards, modern arts and furniture styles started emerging.
  5. 5. before modernism • According to one critic, modernism started developing when people got fed up of Romanticism period, the period of religious, political and dominant social order views. Their revolting nature flourished very progressively during 1900 to 1930. • The dominant nature of Victorian England were opposed from 1850s. Victorian style era started fading when people began to feel rebellious, wanted something new and which everyone can have, not just the upper-class people • Nihilism, the rejection of all religious and moral principles, was one of the characteristics of the beginning of Modernism.
  6. 6. • Industrial Revolution continued with the inventions of various machines like steam-powered industrialization, developed railways, industries, etc. • In late 1800s, where people’s interest began on manufacturing furnitures through machinery rather than hand crafted. • Behind every change in Design History, there will be direct relation with that period’s economy, politics, art history and technology. In modernism movement, the consumers(public) play a huge part. • After the Second World War there was an expansion of cities and suburbanization in the U.S. • Along with that emerged a demand for modern furnishings for the new, quickly built modern homes Determinants of the period design
  7. 7. Famous Architecture examples: Interior Rooms/Plans Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye • Late 1920s Le Corbusier was one among the internationally known architects. • The Villa Savoye is probably his best-known building from the 1930s, and had great influence on international modernism. • It was designed addressing "Five Points", the basic tenets in his new architectural aesthetic: 1. Support of ground-level pilotis, elevating the building from the earth 2. Purposeful roof, serving as a garden and terrace 3. Free floor plan allowing walls to be placed freely and only where aesthetically needed 4. Long horizontal windows, providing light and ventilation 5. Freely-designed facades
  8. 8. Mies Van Der Rohe's Farnsworth House This house was designed in 1945 and constructed in 1951. It is a vital part of American iconography, which represents both the International Style of architecture and the modernism movement’s desire to express the smooth, streamline design of Modern structure with the organic environment of the surrounding nature.
  9. 9. used in architecture Glass 1 Steel 2 Concrete 3 “Mud” or Terra cotta 4
  10. 10. Pioneers of Modernism
  11. 11. Louis Sullivan 1856-1924 He is known as the America’s first modern architect. He created original forms and modern details instead of copying the historical styles. Sullivan created aesthetic unity in tall buildings whose concepts are mentioned in his most famous essay The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered.
  12. 12. He was the mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright along with Adler. In the late 80s, the mass production of steel influenced the construction of tall buildings, hence came all the architectural theories and systems about load bearing. Sullivan believed that the exterior of the tall buildings should reflect its interior function, or in his words “forms follow function”. Some of his design practices: • The work of Louis Sullivan is often associated with the Art Nouveau movement. • He believed that ornaments should derive from nature rather than classical architectures. • He used to use terracotta in his architectural ornaments than stone or masonry as they are lighter and malleable. • Massive semi-circular arch was one of his signature design elements
  13. 13. Famous works: Auditorium Building: • Built in 1889, Chicago- Louis Sullivan and Adler. • A very well designed with load-bearing concept. • One of the most innovative features- the massive raft foundation. It was made because beneath the Auditorium there is soft blue clay to a depth of over 100 feet, which made conventional foundations impossible. • The resulting raft distributed the weight of the massive outer walls over a large area.
  14. 14. Famous works: Prudential (Guaranty) Building: • Was opened in 1896, one of his outstanding creations • Terra cotta ornamentation covering two full sides of façade of the building makes it so unique and bold • Ornamentations were inspired by flowers, seedpods, and the spreading branches of a tree
  15. 15. Frank Lloyd Wright 1867-1959 He is regarded as one of the most significant architects of America and pioneers of modernism. Wright was influenced by English Arts and Crafts, native Mayan and Amerindian architecture. He also fancied Japanese architecture inspired by nature.
  16. 16. Wright often designed and dictated the Organic architecture theme. Along with infrastructure, he also paid attention to smaller details like metalwork, furnitures, stained-glass windows, murals and light fixtures. Visually, his furnitures looked arts and crafts. His admiration towards Japanese arts was very strong. His ability to bring the outside surroundings inside became his trademark. Some of Japanese (organic)architecture features: • Strong connection with nature and landscape, design followed horizontality, symbolizing domination over nature • Low ceilings, integration of natural light and view through thoughtful window placements • Brick, wood, stone, tile, metal were the materials used
  17. 17. Famous works: Winslow House and Prairie house • This house was for his first client, built it 1893, River Forest. He applied is “organic architecture” theme extensively in this. • He reflected the need of his client, nature and materials available of that site • Similarly he also made Prairie house which later became one of his trademark works • Some features of the house: • Low pitched roofs, long rows of casement windows • Use of native materials, stained wood (not painted)
  18. 18. Famous works: Falling Water • Falling water, Pennsylvania, constructed in 1937. Possibly the most famous work of modern architecture • He designed this picnic home for the Kaufmann family. He said, “I thought I would place the home near the waterfall, not over it. I want you to live with the waterfall, not just look at it, and for it to become an integral part of your lives.” • The entire house including the interiors are made from the local and natural materials. • Perpendicular stacked shelves of concrete terraces hang over the waterfall. • Rusticated masonry forms the chimney and the walls, looking like natural shelves.
  19. 19. Famous works: The Robie House Interiors • Frank Lloyd contracted with architect Herman von Holst and interior architect George Mann Niedecken to manage the project. He not only designed the house, but all of the interiors, the windows, lighting, rugs, furniture and textiles.
  20. 20. Furnitures :
  21. 21. Charles Eames 1907–1978 Ray Eames 1912–1988 Charles Ormond Eames was an American designer, architect and film maker. His wife Ray Kaiser Eames, and he, are responsible for groundbreaking contributions in the field of architecture, furniture design, industrial design, manufacturing and the photographic arts.
  22. 22. After their marriage, they formed a design partnership which became a significant source of modern design between 1941 to 1978. the couple played a major role in some of the most famous furnitures of Herman Miller company. Some of their famous works: • Developed plywood splints for the USA navy in 1941-1942 • Experimented with plywood chairs, children’s furnitures in 1945 • Herman Miller got the exclusive rights for market and exhibit Eames plywood furniture between 1946-1948
  23. 23. Famous Furnitures for Herman Miller: Lounge chair & Ottoman- 1956
  24. 24. Famous Furnitures for Herman Miller: LCM dining chair- 1946 Molded plywood chair DAR shell chair- 1950-1953 Wire mesh chair-1951-1953
  25. 25. Famous Furnitures for Herman Miller: Storage units- 1950
  28. 28. REFERENCES • https://www.timetoast.com/timelines/modernism--3 • http://www.theartstory.org/section_movements.htm • https://www.thespruce.com/things-you-should-know-about-mid-century-1391827 • https://en.wikipedia.org/ • https://www.pinterest.com/katcolor/vintage-color-palettes/?lp=true • http://farnsworthhouse.org/ • https://www.thoughtco.com/louis-sullivan-americas-first-modern-architect-177875 • https://www.slideshare.net/parseltonguerucha/louis-sullivan • https://www.mdc.edu/wolfson/academic/artsletters/art_philosophy/humanities/history_of_modernism.htm • http://www.hodgsonruss.com/Louis-Sullivans-Guaranty-Building.html • https://books.google.ae/books?id=J_NcHIW- zt8C&pg=PA269&lpg=PA269&dq=determinants+modernism+design&source=bl&ots=heXCC Nw3ZE&sig=T- yVdKAGJoJfRF2VLQfvgGArqLo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjx4Jqv9NTWAhULtBoKHd 0wA4sQ6AEIOzAG#v=onepage&q=determinants%20modernism%20design&f=false • http://inar323.cankaya.edu.tr/uploads/files/frank%20lloyd%20wright.pdf • Furniture in history- 3000 B.C.-2000 A.D. by Leslie Pina