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Fire Alarm &
Resistance System
Al Ghurair University, Dubai
Done by
Azra Maliha
Sara Hashim
CONTENTS
2
▪Introduction
▪Principle of operation
▪Fire alarm systems –
*smoke detectors
*heat detectors
*alarm bell/ voice...
“
3
Introduction
A fire alarm system consists of a number of
devices networked and operated together in order
to warn peop...
4
Principle of operation
5
• Also known as Fire Indicator Panel (FIP) is the main area controlling the fire detection and
al...
6
• Circuit: there are collection of wires which are directly connected to the main
electricity circuit and the FIP in or ...
7
8
FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS
heat
detectors
smoke
detectors
alarm
bell/
voice
alert
manual
pull/break
glass
stations
Smoke detectors
9
• Smoke detectors are devices that detect
smoke caused by fire and enables fire alert
and other fire pro...
10
Heat detectors
• These work similar to the smoke detectors, which are
designed in order to detect thermal change due to
fi...
12
Alarm bell/ Voice alert
• The fire alarm bell is very common and
conventional way of alerting people about a
potential ...
13
Manual pull/Break glass stations
• This is operated manually but triggers the alarm bell/ voice alert when used.
• This...
14
Fire fighting systems
Hose reelSprinklers
Fire
extinguishers
15
• The sprinkler system comes into action when there is a fire
emergency triggered by the fire alarm system to stop furt...
16
17
18
Hose reel cabinet
• One of the first invention system that is used to fight a fire
when it occurs is the fire reel cabi...
19
20
Hose reel plumbing connection
Hose reel
cabinet
Fire extinguishers
There must be four elements so that a fire could
occur. These elements are heat, oxygen, fuel and a
che...
22
Fire doors
• A fire door is known as a door
with fire resistant.
• It contributes as a protection
system and decrease the
...
“
References
24
• http://www.naffco.com/uae/en/products/fire-doors
• http://www.naffco.com/uae/en/products/fire-protection...
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Fire alarm system Research

Detailed explaination of how fire alarm system works in a building, its networking systems and what are the minimum requirements needed for a fire protection system in a building.

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Fire alarm system Research

  1. 1. Fire Alarm & Resistance System Al Ghurair University, Dubai Done by Azra Maliha Sara Hashim
  2. 2. CONTENTS 2 ▪Introduction ▪Principle of operation ▪Fire alarm systems – *smoke detectors *heat detectors *alarm bell/ voice alert *manual pull/break glass stations ▪Fire fighting systems- *sprinklers *hose reel cabinets *fire extinguishers : Water, Foam, Co2, Dry powder, Wet chemical ▪Fire doors ▪References
  3. 3. “ 3 Introduction A fire alarm system consists of a number of devices networked and operated together in order to warn people of a building during any sort of emergencies, by both audio and voice alert. The system also includes a number of fire protection, fire fighting and fire resistance systems.
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. Principle of operation 5 • Also known as Fire Indicator Panel (FIP) is the main area controlling the fire detection and alarm system. • FIP consists of various components like: • It monitors each circuit, zone or point on any condition and work accordingly to fix or act on the faced problems, as per the system is designed. For example, fire cause by a short circuit somewhere in the building will be detected, fire alarm is operated and fire brigade is notified.
  6. 6. 6 • Circuit: there are collection of wires which are directly connected to the main electricity circuit and the FIP in or to scan and monitor every connection of a building. The wiring will be connected to the detectors in the panel. • Zone: it is a group of detectors based on a common location. A zone can be directly connected to single collective circuit or can be connected through a software which can detect the circuit location using computing.
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8 FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS heat detectors smoke detectors alarm bell/ voice alert manual pull/break glass stations
  9. 9. Smoke detectors 9 • Smoke detectors are devices that detect smoke caused by fire and enables fire alert and other fire protection systems (sprinklers) in the building. • The installation and placement of smoke detectors depend upon the building type and standard codes of that particular country or location. They should also have battery backup. • The wiring of these should be connected to all the fire alarm devices, meeting to the FIP at the end. This is because all the alarm system, protection system devices are inter-connected to each other, either floor wise, or zone wise.
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. Heat detectors • These work similar to the smoke detectors, which are designed in order to detect thermal change due to fire in a building • There are two main types of heat detectors:  Rate-of-rise: these operates when there is a rapid rise of heat of 12-15 degrees F per minute  Fixed temperature: this is the most common type, in which a heat sensitive allow is present, which at a fixed temperature melts down and activates signal • Like smoke detectors, heat detectors also must be connected to the FIP networking
  12. 12. 12 Alarm bell/ Voice alert • The fire alarm bell is very common and conventional way of alerting people about a potential hazard or emergency in the building. The bell is directly connected to the FIP so it gets the signal to operate as soon as something happens. • Now days instead of a bell, an automated voice alert system is also used in modern buildings.
  13. 13. 13 Manual pull/Break glass stations • This is operated manually but triggers the alarm bell/ voice alert when used. • This is for a purpose of faster action, which can be done by any person witnessing any fire starting or any other emergency which is not been detected by the smoke/heat detectors yet.
  14. 14. 14 Fire fighting systems Hose reelSprinklers Fire extinguishers
  15. 15. 15 • The sprinkler system comes into action when there is a fire emergency triggered by the fire alarm system to stop further more spread of the fire. • In the sprinkler a heat sensitive socket is made so that it could open automatically as soon as heat is within the sprinkler. Which is made when a fire breaks out. • Materials used:  In some fire sprinklers the plug is made from an alloy called wood’s metal which is basically a combination of bismuth, tin, cadmium and led which melts at a really low temperature. There are also sprinklers that it’s plug is made from a small glass bulb filled with glycerin based liquid made to explode and shatter when a fire breaks in. both sprinklers have the same results. It is meant to break and open it’s sprinklers as soon as a fire occurs Sprinklers
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18 Hose reel cabinet • One of the first invention system that is used to fight a fire when it occurs is the fire reel cabinet, it is also called a fire hose cabinet. • Those fire cabinets are available and equipped in all buildings in case of a fire “such as a public assembly, logistics or an industrial buildings, it is also usually put where it’s a hazardous place to start a fire such as a restaurant’s kitchen • The fire hose cabinet includes:  A rating plate and operating instructions on how to use it in case of an emergency  A spreader tip  A water supply stop next to the hose reel and a basic length hose and it’s length is a 30m maximum
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. 20 Hose reel plumbing connection Hose reel cabinet
  21. 21. Fire extinguishers There must be four elements so that a fire could occur. These elements are heat, oxygen, fuel and a chemical reaction between those three elements. And the concept of a fire extinguisher is that it is based upon keeping all of these elements separate. There’s a lot of different types of fire extinguishers, these are CO₂, Dry Powder, Water, Foam, Clean Agent and Wet Chemical. Dry powder is usually a mix of monoammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfate
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. Fire doors • A fire door is known as a door with fire resistant. • It contributes as a protection system and decrease the spreading of smoke and fire between different floors or compartments. • It also enables safe way out from a building
  24. 24. “ References 24 • http://www.naffco.com/uae/en/products/fire-doors • http://www.naffco.com/uae/en/products/fire-protection-system • http://www.naffco.com/uae/en/products/fire-extinguishers • http://www.universalfirefighting.com/products.php • http://firewize.com/page/training/fire-alarm-systems-principal-operation • http://firefighting.com.my/hose-reel-system/hosereelsys

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