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♠ The plan, elevation, section and total form is derived from a circle
♠ The Stupas were large halls with a dome and bore symbols of the
♠ The famous stupa emerged under the architectural patronage of
♠ First made with brick, but when Ashoka realized that they wouldn‟t
stand the vigours of time and weather, he switched to stone.
♠ Buddhist stupas during the Mauryan period were simple mounds
♠ World famous stupais atSanchi.
♠ A small square balcony at the top is known as „Harmika‟
♠ Around the base of the dome a terrace (medhi) was added from the
ground, thus adding aseparate and upper ambulatory passage
(pradakshina path)1.8 m wide.
♠ The 4 gateways are known as Toranas.
♠ Toranas consist of 2 square upright columns.
♠ The Panels on toranas consists of figures.
♠ Western- group of dwarfs
♠ Southern- lions
♠ Northern and eastern- elephants
♠ The ambulatory or pradikshna path is fenced by railing known as
♠ It was erected by Ashoka.
♠ It has an important place in Buddhist architecture.
♠ The pillar at Sarnath is more than 15m high.
♠ It has a group of four lions on it.
♠ These lions originally supported a massive metal wheel with 24 spokes
called “wheel of law”.
♠ It‟s capital more than 2 m high.
♠ It resembles the shape of an inverted bell.
♠ It has a circular abacus.
♠ Contains 4 figures of animals( elephant, bull, lion & horse)
♠ Animals symbolize guardians of four quarters of universe
♠ Elephant- east
♠ Bull – south
♠ Horse – west
♠ Lion- north
♠ A chaitya is a Buddhist or Jain shrine including a stupa.
♠ Chaitya is often used to denote assembly or prayer hall that houses a
♠ It has a small rectangular door-way which opens to a vaulted hall.
♠ It is divided longitudinally by 2 collonades.
♠ The roof is usually semi-circular
♠ They are the residential places of Buddhist priests.
♠ There are 25 rock cut viharas at Ajanta and 11 at Ellora.
♠ They consist of a main hall, assembly hall and dining chambers.
♠ Cells are provided for meditation.
♠ The shrines contain beautiful figures of Buddha.
♠ The walls depict the stories based on Buddha's life.
♠ They were usually built of stone or brick.
♠ These caves altogether 30 in number are located in the shape of a
horse-shoe and contain all the characteristics of Buddhist architecture.
♠ They were intended to be monastery and contain “Chaitya” (prayer-
hall) and “Viharas” (residential facilities for monks).
♠ Total 12 Buddhist cave.
♠ There is only one chaitya and the remaining are viharas.
♠ At Ellora, there are in total 34 famous temples carved out of stone.
♠ The cave temples of Ellora can be divided into three groups, mostly
belonging to three periods: Buddhist, Hindu and Jain.
♠ Out of 34 cave temples only 12 of the temples belong to the Buddhist
♠ Infact even these temples also include the Hindu and Jain theme. This
represents the slow decline of Buddhism.
♠ Vaulted hall.
♠ 2 rows of colonnades forming a broad nave in the centre.
♠ Stupa has a cylindrical base supporting a huge dome with statue of
Buddha seated in front with his feet down.
♠ Columns are rectangular.
♠ They carry heavy entablature which is elaborately sculptured.
FRESCOES OF AJANTA
♠ The Ajanta caves are famous for their Frescoes.
♠ The Ajanta paintings contain beautiful paintings and illustrations in
♠ Ranked among world‟s finest mural paintings.
♠ Plaster used for walls is about 1 cm thick.
♠ Plaster comprises of hay, cow dung and rice husk.
♠ The surface was made evenly smooth.
♠ The surface was then coated with lime.
♠ Outlines were drawn and finally color was applied to produce beautiful
The art and architecture under
mauryan and gupta empires
♠ Sculptures and wall paintings of Ajanta Caves
♠ The themes dominate the influence of Buddha
♠ These art pieces of this place depict the daily life of the then
India whilst showcasing the intricacies of the sculpture during the
♠ Buddhist art flourished during this period, which has often been
described as a golden age.
♠ A famous rock-cut monastery at Ajanta consists of several
chaitya halls and numerous residential viharas.
♠ Both facades and interiors contain elegant relief sculpture, while
interiors are covered with painted murals that feature superb